Healthy Families America (HFA)® Meets HHS Criteria

Last updated: September 2018

Effects Shown in Research & Outcome Measure Details

Family Economic Self-Sufficiency

Outcomes Rated High

Healthy Families America (HFA)®
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type
Mother earned HS degree or in school
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 1 Full sample, Hawaii trial 564 mothers % = 81.00 % = 80.00 = 1.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.04 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Mother earned HS degree or in school
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 2 Full sample, Hawaii trial 567 mothers % = 82.00 % = 81.00 = 1.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.04 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Someone in household worked
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 1 Full sample, Hawaii trial 564 mothers % = 68.00 % = 70.00 = -2.00 HomeVEE calculated = -0.06 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Someone in household worked
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 2 Full sample, Hawaii trial 567 mothers % = 77.00 % = 75.00 = 2.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.07 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Mother earned high school degree or in school

Percentage of mothers who had earned a high school degree or who were currently enrolled in school Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Someone in household worked

Percentage of families in which a household member was employed Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Healthy Families America (HFA)®
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type Notes
Number of days on TANF, intent-to-treat analysis, unadjusted
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 years Oregon, 2010-2012 2707 mothers Unadjusted mean = 176.10 Unadjusted mean = 169.60 Mean difference = 6.50 HomeVEE calculated = 0.03 Not statistically significant, p = 0.51 Primary

footnote318

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance is based on <abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr> calculations.

Number of days on SNAP, intent-to-treat analysis, unadjusted
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 years Oregon, 2010-2012 2707 mothers Unadjusted mean = 475.10 Unadjusted mean = 461.20 Mean difference = 13.90 HomeVEE calculated = 0.05 Not statistically significant, p = 0.20 Primary

footnote318

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance is based on <abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr> calculations.

Number of days with child care subsidy, intent-to-treat analysis, unadjusted
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 years Oregon, 2010-2012 2707 mothers Unadjusted mean = 19.50 Unadjusted mean = 19.80 Mean difference = -0.30 HomeVEE calculated = 0.00 Not statistically significant, p = 0.92 Primary

footnote318

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance is based on <abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr> calculations.

Percentage ever received TANF, intent-to-treat analysis, unadjusted
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 years Oregon, 2010-2012 2707 mothers Unadjusted proportion = 0.42 Unadjusted proportion = 0.41 Mean difference = 0.01 HomeVEE calculated = 0.02 Not statistically significant, p = 0.56 Primary

footnote318

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance is based on <abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr> calculations.

Percentage ever received child care subsidy, intent-to-treat analysis, unadjusted
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 years Oregon, 2010-2012 2707 mothers Unadjusted proportion = 0.11 Unadjusted proportion = 0.11 Mean difference = -0.01 HomeVEE calculated = -0.04 Not statistically significant, p = 0.33 Primary

footnote318

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance is based on <abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr> calculations.

Percentage ever received SNAP, intent-to-treat analysis, unadjusted
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 years Oregon, 2010-2012 2707 mothers Unadjusted proportion = 0.85 Unadjusted proportion = 0.82 Mean difference = 0.02 HomeVEE calculated = 0.10 Statistically significant, p = 0.01 Primary

footnote318

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance is based on <abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr> calculations.

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Number of days on TANF, intent-to-treat analysis, unadjusted

Total number of days receiving Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (for the full sample, including those not receiving) from enrollment to two years after enrollment. Administrative records

Not applicable

Primary

Number of days on SNAP, intent-to-treat analysis, unadjusted

Total number of days receiving Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (for the full sample, including those not receiving) from enrollment to two years after enrollment. Administrative records

Not applicable

Primary

Number of days with child care subsidy, intent-to-treat analysis, unadjusted

Total number of days receiving child care subsidies or benefits (for the full sample, including those not receiving) from enrollment to two years after enrollment. Administrative records

Not applicable

Primary

Percentage ever received TANF, intent-to-treat analysis, unadjusted

Percentage of mothers who were enrolled in Temporary Assistance for Needy Families at any time from enrollment to two years after enrollment. Administrative records

Not applicable

Primary

Percentage ever received child care subsidy, intent-to-treat analysis, unadjusted

Percentage of mothers who received a child care subsidy or benefit at any time from enrollment to two years after enrollment. Administrative records

Not applicable

Primary

Percentage ever received SNAP, intent-to-treat analysis, unadjusted

Percentage of mothers who were enrolled in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program at any time from enrollment to two years after enrollment. Administrative records

Not applicable

Primary
Healthy Families America (HFA)®
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type Notes
WIC receipt
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 1 Full sample, San Diego trial 435 families % = 91.00 % = 91.00 = 0.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.00 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
WIC receipt
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 3 Full sample, San Diego trial 412 families % = 68.00 % = 71.00 = -3.00 HomeVEE calculated = -0.09 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Adult education
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 1 Full sample, San Diego trial 435 families % = 23.00 % = 21.00 = 2.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.07 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Adult education
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 3 Full sample, San Diego trial 412 families % = 22.00 % = 21.00 = 1.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.04 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Child support enforcement
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 1 Full sample, San Diego trial 435 families % = 10.00 % = 16.00 = -6.00 HomeVEE calculated = -0.33 Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
Secondary
Child support enforcement
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 3 Full sample, San Diego trial 412 families % = 14.00 % = 12.00 = 2.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.11 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Emergency food
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 1 Full sample, San Diego trial 435 families % = 13.00 % = 9.00 = 4.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.25 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary

footnote61

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

In contrast to the study-reported results, <abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr> calculations showed this difference to be statistically significant (<em>p</em> &le; 0.05). The <abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr> tests of statistical significance are based on the <abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr> calculated effect sizes, whereas authors may have used other techniques to determine statistical significance, such as regression models or analyses of variance (ANOVA).

Emergency food
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 3 Full sample, San Diego trial 412 families % = 11.00 % = 8.00 = 3.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.21 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Food stamps
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 1 Full sample, San Diego trial 435 families % = 59.00 % = 58.00 = 1.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Food stamps
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 3 Full sample, San Diego trial 412 families % = 43.00 % = 44.00 = -1.00 HomeVEE calculated = -0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Homeless shelter
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 1 Full sample, San Diego trial 435 families % = 2.00 % = 1.00 = 1.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.43 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Homeless shelter
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 3 Full sample, San Diego trial 412 families % = 1.00 % = 1.00 = 0.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.00 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Legal aid
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 1 Full sample, San Diego trial 435 families % = 7.00 % = 6.00 = 1.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.10 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Legal aid
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 3 Full sample, San Diego trial 412 families % = 7.00 % = 4.00 = 3.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.36 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Mother earned HS degree or currently enrolled
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 1 Full sample, San Diego trial 435 families % = 64.00 % = 61.00 = 3.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.08 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Mother earned HS degree or currently enrolled
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 3 Full sample, San Diego trial 412 families % = 58.00 % = 59.00 = -1.00 HomeVEE calculated = -0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Mother attended school
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 1 Full sample, San Diego trial 435 families % = 43.00 % = 40.00 = 3.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.07 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Mother attended school
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 3 Full sample, San Diego trial 412 families &#; = 37.00 % = 28.00 = 9.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.25 Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
Secondary
Mother worked
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 1 Full sample, San Diego trial 435 families % = 49.00 % = 49.00 = 0.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.00 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Mother worked
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 3 Full sample, San Diego trial 412 families % = 69.00 % = 70.00 = -1.00 HomeVEE calculated = -0.03 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Section 8 housing
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 1 Full sample, San Diego trial 435 families % = 8.00 % = 11.00 = -3.00 HomeVEE calculated = -0.21 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary

footnote61

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

In contrast to the study-reported results, <abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr> calculations showed this difference to be statistically significant (<em>p</em> &le; 0.05). The <abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr> tests of statistical significance are based on the <abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr> calculated effect sizes, whereas authors may have used other techniques to determine statistical significance, such as regression models or analyses of variance (ANOVA).

Section 8 housing
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 3 Full sample, San Diego trial 412 families % = 10.00 % = 7.00 = 3.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.24 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Someone in household worked
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 1 Full sample, San Diego trial 435 families % = 74.00 % = 71.00 = 3.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.09 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Someone in household worked
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 3 Full sample, San Diego trial 412 families % = 84.00 % = 83.00 = 1.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.04 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Use of respite care
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 1 Full sample, San Diego trial 435 families % = 3.00 % = 1.00 = 2.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.68 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Use of respite care
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 3 Full sample, San Diego trial 412 families % = 2.00 % = 1.00 = 1.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.43 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Welfare receipt
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 1 Full sample, San Diego trial 435 families % = 62.00 % = 63.00 = -1.00 HomeVEE calculated = -0.03 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Welfare receipt
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 3 Full sample, San Diego trial 412 families % = 43.00 % = 46.00 = -3.00 HomeVEE calculated = -0.07 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

WIC receipt

Percentage of families who received WIC Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Adult education

Percentage of parents who received adult education or job training Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Child support enforcement

Percentage of families who received child support enforcement assistance Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Emergency food

Percentage of families who received emergency food assistance Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Food stamps

Percentage of families who received food stamps Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Homeless shelter

Percentage of families who received homeless shelter services Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Legal aid

Percentage of families who received legal aid Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Mother earned high school degree or currently enrolled

Percentage of mothers who had earned a high school degree or who were currently enrolled in school Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Mother attended school

Percentage of mothers who were attending school Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Mother worked

Percentage of mothers who were employed Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Section 8 housing

Percentage of families who received Section 8 housing assistance Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Someone in household worked

Percentage of families in which a household member was employed Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Use of respite care

Percentage of families who used respite care Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Welfare receipt

Percentage of families who received AFDC Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Healthy Families America (HFA)®
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type
School or training for mother
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Arizona sample 171 mothers Mean % = 35.20 Mean % = 6.80 Mean difference = 0.28 HomeVEE calculated = 1.19 Statistically significant, p = 0.01 Secondary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

School or training for mother

A measure of whether the participant had enrolled and was attending training or school for advancement Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Outcomes Rated Moderate

Healthy Families America (HFA)®
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type Notes
Increased education by year or more since baseline
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
24 months Program group families not affected by substance abuse,
NY Best Beginnings trial
512 families % = 18.40 % = 7.40 OR = 2.50 HomeVEE calculated = 0.63 Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
Secondary
Receipt of public assistance
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
24 months Program group families not affected by substance abuse,
NY Best Beginnings trial
512 families Not available Not available Beta = 0.02 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary

footnote62

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Study reports results using a standardized partial regression coefficient.

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Receipt of public assistance

Percentage of households receiving public assistance Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Healthy Families America (HFA)®
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type
Mother designated biological father as her partner
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Years 1-3 All families 600 families Not available Not available OR = 1.13 HomeVEE calculated = 0.07 Not statistically significant, p = 0.13 Secondary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Mother designated biological father as her partner

A measure based on mother report of biologic father’s status as partner. Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Healthy Families America (HFA)®
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type Notes
Number of days with employment services, intent-to-treat analysis, unadjusted
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 years Oregon, 2010-2012 2707 mothers Unadjusted mean = 98.90 Unadjusted mean = 94.40 Mean difference = 4.50 HomeVEE calculated = 0.02 Not statistically significant, p = 0.53 Primary

footnote318

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance is based on <abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr> calculations.

Percentage ever received employment services, intent-to-treat analysis, unadjusted
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 years Oregon, 2010-2012 2707 mothers Unadjusted proportion = 0.31 Unadjusted proportion = 0.30 Mean difference = 0.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.01 Not statistically significant, p = 0.77 Primary

footnote318

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance is based on <abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr> calculations.

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Number of days with employment services, intent-to-treat analysis, unadjusted

Total number of days receiving employment services provided through the Oregon Department of Human Services (primarily related to TANF program), at any time from enrollment to two years after enrollment. Administrative records

Not applicable

Primary

Percentage ever received employment services, intent-to-treat analysis, unadjusted

Percentage of mothers who received employment services provided through the Oregon Department of Human Services (primarily related to TANF program), at any time from enrollment to two years after enrollment. Administrative records

Not applicable

Primary
Healthy Families America (HFA)®
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type
Completed at least 1 year of college - 2 years
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 years post enrollment MA sample 604 mothers Not reported Not reported OR = 1.92 HomeVEE calculated = 0.39 Statistically significant, p < 0.01 Secondary
High school diploma or equivalent - 2 years
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 years post enrollment MA sample 604 mothers Not reported Not reported OR = 0.87 HomeVEE calculated = -0.08 Not statistically significant, p = 0.52 Secondary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Completed at least 1 year of college - 2 years

Percentage of mothers whose highest level of education at the 2-year follow-up was completion of at least 1 year of college Mother self-report

Not reported

Secondary

High school diploma or equivalent - 2 years

Percentage of mothers whose highest level of education at the 2-year follow-up was completion of high school or equivalent Mother self-report

Not reported

Secondary
Healthy Families America (HFA)®
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type
Household income above poverty level
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 2 Biological mothers with custody of index child at interview, Alaska trial 249 mothers % = 55.00 % = 56.00 OR = 0.97 HomeVEE calculated = -0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Household member employed
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 2 Biological mothers with custody of index child at interview, Alaska trial 249 mothers % = 86.00 % = 87.00 OR = 0.90 HomeVEE calculated = -0.05 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Household income above poverty level

Percentage of households with incomes below the poverty level Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Household member employed

Percentage of households where at least one household member was employed Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Healthy Families America (HFA)®
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type
Education appropriate for age
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 1 Full sample, NY trial 1061 families % = 57.50 % = 60.30 = -2.80 HomeVEE calculated = -0.07 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Family received TANF
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 1 Full sample, NY trial 1061 families % = 35.00 % = 30.40 = 4.60 HomeVEE calculated = 0.13 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Family received WIC
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 1 Full sample, NY trial 1061 families % = 74.80 % = 72.20 = 2.60 HomeVEE calculated = 0.08 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Family received 50% income from work
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 1 Full sample, NY trial 1061 families % = 51.20 % = 56.60 = -5.40 HomeVEE calculated = -0.13 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Mother employed
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Year 1 Full sample, NY trial 1061 families % = 40.80 % = 47.60 = 6.80 HomeVEE calculated = -0.17 Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
Secondary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Family received WIC

Percentage of families who received WIC Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Family received TANF

Percentage of households that received TANF Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Family received 50% income from work

Percentage of households in which 50% of the household’s income came from work Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Mother employed

Percentage of mothers who were employed Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
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