Healthy Beginnings Meets HHS Criteria

Last updated: June 2015

Effects Shown in Research & Outcome Measure Details

Summary of Findings

Please read Describing Effects for more information on these categories. Only results from studies that meet the standards for the high or moderate ratings are included above.

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Child Health

Outcomes Rated Moderate

Healthy Beginnings
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type Notes
Bottle at bedtime
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
12 months Sydney, Australia Healthy Beginnings Trial 527 mothers Unadjusted mean = 0.35 Unadjusted mean = 0.44 Mean difference = -0.09 HomeVEE calculated = -0.23 Statistically significant,
p = 0.04
Secondary

footnote209

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Authors indicated that negative effect favors the treatment group.

Breastfeeding (yes/no)-Chi-square 12 months
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
12 months Sydney, Australia Healthy Beginnings Trial 527 mothers Unadjusted mean = 0.21 Unadjusted mean = 0.15 Mean difference = 0.06 HomeVEE calculated = 0.25 Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
Secondary
Breastfeeding (yes/no)-Chi-square 6 months
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
6 months Sydney, Australia Healthy Beginnings Trial 561 mothers Unadjusted mean = 0.42 Unadjusted mean = 0.32 Mean difference = 0.10 HomeVEE calculated = 0.26 Not statistically significant,
p = <0.05
Secondary
Breastfeeding duration (weeks)-12 months
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
12 months Sydney, Australia Healthy Beginnings Trial 527 mothers Unadjusted mean = 0.17 Unadjusted mean = 0.13 Mean difference = 0.04 Not available Statistically significant,
p = 0.03
Secondary
Breastfeeding exclusive (yes/no)-6 months
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
6 months Sydney, Australia Healthy Beginnings Trial 561 mothers Unadjusted mean = 0.04 Unadjusted mean = 0.02 Mean difference = 0.02 HomeVEE calculated = 0.45 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.14
Secondary
Food used as reward
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
12 months Sydney, Australia Healthy Beginnings Trial 527 mothers Unadjusted mean = 0.18 Unadjusted mean = 0.25 Mean difference = -0.07 HomeVEE calculated = -0.27 Statistically significant,
p = 0.04
Secondary

footnote209

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Authors indicated that negative effect favors the treatment group.

Introduction of solids (4 months or younger)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
6 months Sydney, Australia Healthy Beginnings Trial 561 mothers Unadjusted mean = 0.18 Unadjusted mean = 0.26 Mean difference = -0.08 HomeVEE calculated = -0.30 Statistically significant,
p = 0.00
Secondary

footnote209

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Authors indicated that negative effect favors the treatment group.

Introduction of solids (5 months)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
6 months Sydney, Australia Healthy Beginnings Trial 561 mothers Unadjusted mean = 0.44 Unadjusted mean = 0.48 Mean difference = -0.04 HomeVEE calculated = -0.10 Statistically significant,
p = 0.00
Secondary

footnote209

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Authors indicated that negative effect favors the treatment group.

Introduction of solids (6 months)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
6 months Sydney, Australia Healthy Beginnings Trial 561 mothers Unadjusted mean = 0.39 Unadjusted mean = 0.26 Mean difference = 0.13 HomeVEE calculated = 0.35 Statistically significant,
p = 0.00
Secondary
Introduction of solids (before 6 months)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
6 months Sydney, Australia Healthy Beginnings Trial 561 mothers Unadjusted mean = 0.62 Unadjusted mean = 0.74 Mean difference = -0.12 HomeVEE calculated = -0.34 Statistically significant,
p = 0.00
Secondary

footnote209

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Authors indicated that negative effect favors the treatment group.

Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Bottle at bedtime

Percentage of mothers who put the child to bed with a bottle at 12 months

Mother report

Not applicable

Secondary

Breastfeeding (yes/no)-Chi-square 12 months

Percentage of mothers who were breastfeeding 12 months after the child's birth Mother report

Not applicable

Secondary

Breastfeeding (yes/no)-Chi-square 6 months

Percentage of mothers who were breastfeeding 6 months after the child's birth Mother report

Not applicable

Secondary

Breastfeeding duration (weeks)-12 months

The number of weeks the mother breastfed her child Mother report

Not applicable

Secondary

Breastfeeding exclusive (yes/no)-6 months

Whether the mother was exclusively breastfeeding (no other liquids or solid foods) at 6 months Mother report

Not applicable

Secondary

Food used as reward

Percentage of mothers reporting they used food as a reward with child

Mother report

Not applicable

Secondary

Introduction of solids (4 months or younger)

The percentage of mothers who introduced solid foods when the child was 4 months or younger Mother report

Not applicable

Secondary

Introduction of solids (5 months)

The percentage of mothers who introduced solid foods when the child was 5 months old Mother report

Not applicable

Secondary

Introduction of solids (6 months)

The percentage of mothers who introduced solid foods when the child was 6 months old Mother report

Not applicable

Secondary

Introduction of solids (before 6 months)

The percentage of mothers who introduced solid foods prior to child turning 6 months of age Mother report

Not applicable

Secondary
Healthy Beginnings
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type Notes
BMI-Complete Case Analysis
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months Sydney, Australia Healthy Beginnings Trial 483 children Unadjusted mean = 16.49 Unadjusted mean = 16.87 Mean difference = -0.38 HomeVEE calculated = -0.22 Statistically significant,
p = 0.01
Primary

footnote209

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Authors indicated that negative effect favors the treatment group.

Child drink soft drink-Complete Case Analysis
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months Sydney, Australia Healthy Beginnings Trial 495 children Unadjusted mean = 0.24 Unadjusted mean = 0.26 Mean difference = -0.03 HomeVEE calculated = -0.09 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.48
Secondary
Child eat dinner in front of TV-Complete Case Analysis
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months Sydney, Australia Healthy Beginnings Trial 494 children Unadjusted mean = 0.56 Unadjusted mean = 0.68 Mean difference = -0.12 HomeVEE calculated = -0.31 Statistically significant,
p = 0.01
Secondary

footnote209

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Authors indicated that negative effect favors the treatment group.

Child eat french fries-Complete Case Analysis
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months Sydney, Australia Healthy Beginnings Trial 496 children Unadjusted mean = 0.86 Unadjusted mean = 0.88 Mean difference = -0.02 HomeVEE calculated = -0.09 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.65
Secondary
Child eat salty snack-Complete Case Analysis
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months Sydney, Australia Healthy Beginnings Trial 496 children Unadjusted mean = 0.65 Unadjusted mean = 0.70 Mean difference = -0.04 HomeVEE calculated = -0.12 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.29
Secondary
Child eat sweet snack everyday-Complete Case Analysis
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months Sydney, Australia Healthy Beginnings Trial 497 children Unadjusted mean = 0.73 Unadjusted mean = 0.77 Mean difference = -0.04 HomeVEE calculated = -0.13 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.31
Secondary
Child fruit >= 1 serving/day-Complete Case Analysis
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months Sydney, Australia Healthy Beginnings Trial 497 children Unadjusted mean = 0.90 Unadjusted mean = 0.93 Mean difference = -0.02 HomeVEE calculated = -0.18 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.43
Secondary
Child outdoor play >=120 minutes/day-Complete Case Analysis
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months Sydney, Australia Healthy Beginnings Trial 484 children Unadjusted mean = 0.62 Unadjusted mean = 0.61 Mean difference = 0.01 HomeVEE calculated = 0.01 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.90
Secondary
Child vegetable >= 1 serving/day-Complete Case Analysis
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months Sydney, Australia Healthy Beginnings Trial 497 children Unadjusted mean = 0.89 Unadjusted mean = 0.83 Mean difference = 0.07 HomeVEE calculated = 0.35 Statistically significant,
p = 0.03
Secondary
Child water >3 cups/day-Complete Case Analysis
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months Sydney, Australia Healthy Beginnings Trial 496 children Unadjusted mean = 0.24 Unadjusted mean = 0.19 Mean difference = 0.06 HomeVEE calculated = 0.21 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.12
Secondary
Food used as a reward-Complete Case Analysis
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months Sydney, Australia Healthy Beginnings Trial 493 children Unadjusted mean = 0.62 Unadjusted mean = 0.72 Mean difference = -0.09 HomeVEE calculated = -0.25 Statistically significant,
p = 0.03
Secondary

footnote209

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Authors indicated that negative effect favors the treatment group.

Length-Complete Case Analysis
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months Sydney, Australia Healthy Beginnings Trial 483 children Unadjusted mean = 88.73 Unadjusted mean = 88.42 Mean difference = 0.31 Not available Not statistically significant,
p = 0.35
Primary
TV on during meal-Complete Case Analysis
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months Sydney, Australia Healthy Beginnings Trial 496 children Unadjusted mean = 0.66 Unadjusted mean = 0.76 Mean difference = -0.10 HomeVEE calculated = -0.29 Statistically significant,
p = 0.02
Secondary

footnote209

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Authors indicated that negative effect favors the treatment group.

Weight-Complete Case Analysis
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months Sydney, Australia Healthy Beginnings Trial 483 children Unadjusted mean = 12.98 Unadjusted mean = 13.15 Mean difference = -0.17 Not available Not statistically significant,
p = 0.24
Primary
Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

BMI-Complete Case Analysis

Body Mass Index based on direct measures of height and weight Direct Measurement

Not applicable

Primary

Child drink soft drink-Complete Case Analysis

Percentage of children who drink soft drinks Mother report

Not applicable

Secondary

Child eat dinner in front of TV-Complete Case Analysis

Percentage of children who eat dinner in front of the TV

Mother report

Not applicable

Secondary

Child eat french fries-Complete Case Analysis

Percentage of children who ate french fries Mother report

Not applicable

Secondary

Child eat salty snack-Complete Case Analysis

Percentage of children who eat salty snacks Mother report

Not applicable

Secondary

Child eat sweet snack everyday-Complete Case Analysis

Percentage of children who eat sweet snacks Mother report

Not applicable

Secondary

Child fruit >= 1 serving/day-Complete Case Analysis

Percentage of children consuming one or more servings of fruit a day Mother report

Not applicable

Secondary

Child outdoor play >=120 minutes/day-Complete Case Analysis

Percentage of children who played outside for 120 minutes or more per day Mother report

Not applicable

Secondary

Child vegetable >= 1 serving/day-Complete Case Analysis

Percentage of children consuming one or more servings of vegetable a day Mother report

Not applicable

Secondary

Child water >3 cups/day-Complete Case Analysis

Percentage of children drinking more than 3 cups of water per day Mother report

Not applicable

Secondary

Food used as a reward-Complete Case Analysis

Percentage of mothers reporting they used food as a reward with child

Mother report

Not applicable

Secondary

Length-Complete Case Analysis

Child length (cm) Direct Measurement

Not applicable

Primary

TV on during meal-Complete Case Analysis

Percentage of mothers reporting the TV is on during meals

Mother report

Not applicable

Secondary

Weight-Complete Case Analysis

Child weight (kg) Direct Measurement

Not applicable

Primary
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Child Development and School Readiness

Outcomes Rated Moderate

Healthy Beginnings
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type
Child use of cup
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
12 months Sydney, Australia Healthy Beginnings Trial 527 mothers Unadjusted mean = 0.92 Unadjusted mean = 0.85 Mean difference = 0.07 HomeVEE calculated = 0.43 Statistically significant,
p = 0.01
Secondary
Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Child use of cup

Percentage of mothers reporting the child used a cup Mother report

Not applicable

Secondary
View Revisions

Positive Parenting Practices

Outcomes Rated Moderate

Healthy Beginnings
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type Notes
Tummy time-age started (4 to 8 weeks)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
6 months Sydney, Australia Healthy Beginnings Trial 561 mothers Unadjusted mean = 0.22 Unadjusted mean = 0.26 Mean difference = -0.04 HomeVEE calculated = -0.12 Statistically significant,
p = 0.03
Secondary

footnote209

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Authors indicated that negative effect favors the treatment group.

Tummy time-age started (later than 8 weeks)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
6 months Sydney, Australia Healthy Beginnings Trial 561 mothers Unadjusted mean = 0.19 Unadjusted mean = 0.25 Mean difference = -0.06 HomeVEE calculated = -0.20 Statistically significant,
p = 0.03
Secondary

footnote209

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Authors indicated that negative effect favors the treatment group.

Tummy time-age started (less than 4 weeks)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
6 months Sydney, Australia Healthy Beginnings Trial 561 mothers Unadjusted mean = 0.58 Unadjusted mean = 0.49 Mean difference = 0.09 HomeVEE calculated = 0.22 Statistically significant,
p = 0.03
Secondary
Tummy time-if daily
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
6 months Sydney, Australia Healthy Beginnings Trial 561 mothers Unadjusted mean = 0.83 Unadjusted mean = 0.76 Mean difference = 0.07 HomeVEE calculated = 0.25 Statistically significant,
p = 0.05
Secondary
Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Tummy time-age started (4 to 8 weeks)

Percentage of mothers who had the child spend time on his/her tummy when child was between 4 and 8 weeks old Mother report

Not applicable

Secondary

Tummy time-age started (later than 8 weeks)

Percentage of mothers who had the child spend time on his/her tummy when child was older than 8 weeks old Mother report

Not applicable

Secondary

Tummy time-age started (less than 4 weeks)

Percentage of mothers who had the child spend time on his/her tummy when child was less than 4 weeks old Mother report

Not applicable

Secondary

Tummy time-if daily

Percentage of mothers who had the child spend time daily on his/her tummy Mother report

Not applicable

Secondary
Healthy Beginnings
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type Notes
Child watch TV >60 minutes/day-Complete Case Analysis
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months Sydney, Australia Healthy Beginnings Trial 434 children Unadjusted mean = 0.14 Unadjusted mean = 0.22 Mean difference = -0.08 HomeVEE calculated = -0.35 Statistically significant,
p = 0.02
Secondary

footnote209

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Authors indicated that negative effect favors the treatment group.

Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Child watch TV >60 minutes/day-Complete Case Analysis

Percentage of children watching TV for more than 60 minutes per day Mother report

Not applicable

Secondary
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Maternal Health

Outcomes Rated Moderate

Healthy Beginnings
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type Notes
Mother activity time >=150 minutes/week-Complete Case Analysis
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months Sydney, Australia Healthy Beginnings Trial 458 children Unadjusted mean = 0.48 Unadjusted mean = 0.38 Mean difference = 0.10 HomeVEE calculated = 0.24 Statistically significant,
p = 0.04
Secondary
Mother drink soft drink-Complete Case Analysis
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months Sydney, Australia Healthy Beginnings Trial 497 mothers Unadjusted mean = 0.44 Unadjusted mean = 0.52 Mean difference = -0.08 HomeVEE calculated = -0.19 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.08
Secondary
Mother eat fast food-Complete Case Analysis
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months Sydney, Australia Healthy Beginnings Trial 497 mothers Unadjusted mean = 0.83 Unadjusted mean = 0.86 Mean difference = -0.03 HomeVEE calculated = -0.15 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.33
Secondary
Mother eat french fries-Complete Case Analysis
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months Sydney, Australia Healthy Beginnings Trial 497 mothers Unadjusted mean = 0.81 Unadjusted mean = 0.86 Mean difference = -0.06 HomeVEE calculated = -0.25 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.09
Secondary
Mother eat processed meat-Complete Case Analysis
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months Sydney, Australia Healthy Beginnings Trial 495 mothers Unadjusted mean = 0.20 Unadjusted mean = 0.28 Mean difference = -0.08 HomeVEE calculated = -0.28 Statistically significant,
p = 0.03
Secondary

footnote209

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Authors indicated that negative effect favors the treatment group.

Mother fruit >2 serving/day-Complete Case Analysis
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months Sydney, Australia Healthy Beginnings Trial 497 mothers Unadjusted mean = 0.22 Unadjusted mean = 0.18 Mean difference = 0.04 HomeVEE calculated = 0.16 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.25
Secondary
Mother vegetable >2 servings/day-Complete Case Analysis
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months Sydney, Australia Healthy Beginnings Trial 496 mothers Unadjusted mean = 0.52 Unadjusted mean = 0.36 Mean difference = 0.16 HomeVEE calculated = 0.41 Statistically significant,
p = 0.00
Secondary
Mother watch TV >=120 minutes/day-Complete Case Analysis
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months Sydney, Australia Healthy Beginnings Trial 496 children Unadjusted mean = 0.65 Unadjusted mean = 0.64 Mean difference = 0.01 HomeVEE calculated = 0.02 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.84
Secondary
Mother water >=8 cups/day-Complete Case Analysis
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months Sydney, Australia Healthy Beginnings Trial 497 mothers Unadjusted mean = 0.16 Unadjusted mean = 0.17 Mean difference = 0.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.00 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.99
Secondary
Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Mother activity time >=150 minutes/week-Complete Case Analysis

Percentage of mothers who engage in 150 minutes or more of activity in a week Mother report

Not applicable

Secondary

Mother drink soft drink-Complete Case Analysis

Percentage of mothers who drink soft drinks Mother report

Not applicable

Secondary

Mother eat fast food-Complete Case Analysis

Percentage of mothers who eat fast food Mother report

Not applicable

Secondary

Mother eat french fries-Complete Case Analysis

Percentage of mothers who eat french fries Mother report

Not applicable

Secondary

Mother eat processed meat-Complete Case Analysis

Percentage of mothers who eat processed meat Mother report

Not applicable

Secondary

Mother fruit >2 serving/day-Complete Case Analysis

Percentage of mothers consuming more than 2 servings per day of fruit Mother report

Not applicable

Secondary

Mother vegetable >2 servings/day-Complete Case Analysis

Percentage of mothers consuming more than 2 servings per day of vegetables Mother report

Not applicable

Secondary

Mother watch TV >=120 minutes/day-Complete Case Analysis

Percentage of mothers who watch 120 minutes or more of TV a day Mother report

Not applicable

Secondary

Mother water >=8 cups/day-Complete Case Analysis

Percentage of mothers drinking 8 or more cups of water per day Mother report

Not applicable

Secondary
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Model Overview

Theoretical Model

Healthy Beginnings was designed to prevent children from becoming overweight and obese. The program drew on research demonstrating the link between being overweight and obese during childhood and immediate and long-term adverse health and social-emotional effects. Recognizing that a child’s environment influences nutrition and physical activity, the program used a family-focused approach to address risk factors associated with childhood obesity.

The model emphasized the following messages:

  • “Breast is best’
  • “No solids for me until 6 months’
  • “I eat a variety of fruit and vegetables everyday’
  • “Only water in my cup’
  • “I am part of an active family’
  • “TV away let’s go play’
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Model Components

In Healthy Beginnings, nurses provided home visits to first-time mothers with newborns. Nurse home visitors addressed the following topics during each visit: infant nutrition and physical activity, family nutrition and physical activity, and family social support. Using questions tailored to the child’s age, the nurses initiated discussions and provided information on topics listed in a visit checklist. The home visitors offered referrals if the family had questions or concerns unrelated to the discussion topics. Telephone support was available between visits.

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Target Population

Healthy Beginnings targeted first-time mothers of infants from socially and economically disadvantaged areas of South Western Sydney.

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Where to Find Out More

Li Ming Wen, M.D., M.Med., Ph.D.
Associate Professor, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney
Research and Evaluation Manager, Sydney Local Health District Health Promotion Service
Phone: (612) 9505 9055
Email: liming.wen@sydney.edu.au, lmwen@email.cs.nsw.gov.au, or Health.Promotion@sswahs.nsw.gov.au
Website: http://www.sswahs.nsw.gov.au/populationhealth/healthy_beginnings.html, or http://www.healthybeginnings.net.au/

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In Brief

Evidence of Model Effectiveness

This model meets the criteria established by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) for an “evidence-based early childhood home visiting service delivery model’ for the general population, but does not meet the criteria for tribal populations.

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Model Description

Healthy Beginnings was a demonstration project in Sydney, Australia, implemented from 2007 to 2010. Healthy Beginnings targeted first-time mothers of infants from socially and economically disadvantaged areas. The model aimed to prevent childhood obesity by improving children’s and families’ eating patterns, reducing sedentary activities such as television viewing, and increasing physical activity. In Healthy Beginnings, nurse home visitors addressed the following topics during each visit: infant nutrition and physical activity, family nutrition and physical activity, and family social support. The home visitors offered referrals if the family had questions or concerns unrelated to the discussion topics. Telephone support was available between visits. Families received eight home visits from the prenatal period through age 24 months. Each visit ranged in length from 45 to 90 minutes. For more information, please read the Model Overview.

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Extent of Evidence

Results of Research and Review
Number of studies
Eligible for review
3
Rated high
0
Rated moderate
2
Rated low
1
Additional source1

For more information, see the study database. For more information on the criteria used to determine the study ratings, please read Producing Study Ratings.

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Summary of Findings

Please read Describing Effects for more information on these categories. Only results from studies that meet the standards for the high or moderate ratings are included above.

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Criteria Established by the Department of Health and Human Services

Information Based on Comprehensive Review of All High- and Moderate-Impact Studies for this Model
High- or moderate-quality impact study?
Yes
Across high- or moderate-quality studies, favorable impacts in at least two outcome domains within one sample OR the same domain for at least two non-overlapping samples?
Yes
Favorable impacts on full sample?
Yes
Any favorable impacts on outcome measures sustained at least 12 months after model enrollment?1
Yes
One or more favorable, statistically significant impact reported in a peer-reviewed journal?1
Yes

Please read the HHS Criteria for Evidence-Based Models for more information.

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