Family Spirit® Meets HHS Criteria Meets HHS criteria for an evidenced based model in tribal populations

Last updated: May 2016

Effects Shown in Research & Outcome Measure Details

Maternal Health

Outcomes Rated High

Family Spirit®
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type Notes
ASEBA - Externalizing
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Family Spirit RCT, 2006-2008 sample 322 mothers Adjusted mean = 38.20 Adjusted mean = 40.70 Mean difference = -2.50 Study reported = -0.20 Statistically significant,
p = 0.04
Primary

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

ASEBA - Externalizing
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months Family Spirit RCT, 2006-2008 sample 322 mothers Adjusted mean = 40.09 Adjusted mean = 41.46 Mean difference = -1.37 Study reported = -0.13 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

ASEBA - Internalizing
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Family Spirit RCT, 2006-2008 sample 322 mothers Adjusted mean = 41.48 Adjusted mean = 43.99 Mean difference = -2.51 Study reported = -0.19 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

ASEBA - Internalizing
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months Family Spirit RCT, 2006-2008 sample 322 mothers Adjusted mean = 43.80 Adjusted mean = 45.12 Mean difference = -1.32 Study reported = -0.12 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

ASEBA - Total Problems
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Family Spirit RCT, 2006-2008 sample 322 mothers Adjusted mean = 38.01 Adjusted mean = 40.37 Mean difference = -2.36 Study reported = -0.18 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

ASEBA - Total Problems
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months Family Spirit RCT, 2006-2008 sample 322 mothers Adjusted mean = 40.27 Adjusted mean = 41.65 Mean difference = -1.38 Study reported = -0.13 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

CES-D
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Family Spirit RCT, 2006-2008 sample 322 mothers Adjusted mean = 11.54 Adjusted mean = 13.41 Mean difference = -1.89 Study reported = -0.20 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

CES-D
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 months Family Spirit RCT, 2006-2008 sample 322 mothers Adjusted mean = 13.06 Adjusted mean = 13.40 Mean difference = -0.34 Study reported = -0.07 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

CES-D
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months Family Spirit RCT, 2006-2008 sample 322 mothers Adjusted mean = 12.46 Adjusted mean = 13.41 Mean difference = -0.95 Study reported = -0.16 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

POSIT Mental Health
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Family Spirit RCT, 2006-2008 sample 322 mothers Adjusted mean = 2.77 Adjusted mean = 2.91 Mean difference = -0.14 Study reported = -0.04 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

POSIT Mental Health
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 months Family Spirit RCT, 2006-2008 sample 322 mothers Adjusted mean = 3.23 Adjusted mean = 3.56 Mean difference = -0.33 Study reported = -0.13 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

POSIT Mental Health
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months Family Spirit RCT, 2006-2008 sample 322 mothers Adjusted mean = 3.05 Adjusted mean = 3.30 Mean difference = -0.25 Study reported = -0.09 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

POSIT Substance Abuse
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Family Spirit RCT, 2006-2008 sample 322 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.13 Adjusted mean = 0.45 Mean difference = -0.32 Study reported = -0.13 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

POSIT Substance Abuse
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 months Family Spirit RCT, 2006-2008 sample 322 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.56 Adjusted mean = 0.61 Mean difference = -0.05 Study reported = -0.03 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

POSIT Substance Abuse
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months Family Spirit RCT, 2006-2008 sample 322 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.39 Adjusted mean = 0.55 Mean difference = -0.16 Study reported = -0.08 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Alcohol - past 30 days, use of
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Family Spirit RCT, 2006-2008 sample 322 mothers Adjusted &#37 = 25.77 Adjusted mean % = 21.55 OR = 1.14 HomeVEE calculated = 0.14 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Alcohol - past 30 days, use of
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 months Family Spirit RCT, 2006-2008 sample 322 mothers Adjusted &#37 = 17.92 Adjusted mean % = 17.81 OR = 0.80 HomeVEE calculated = 0.00 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Alcohol - past 30 days, use of
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months Family Spirit RCT, 2006-2008 sample 322 mothers Adjusted &#37 = 16.88 Adjusted mean % = 20.02 OR = 0.71 HomeVEE calculated = -0.13 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Any alcohol or illegal drug - past 30 days, use of
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Family Spirit RCT, 2006-2008 sample 322 mothers Adjusted &#37 = 38.93 Adjusted mean % = 34.64 OR = 1.07 HomeVEE calculated = 0.11 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Any alcohol or illegal drug - past 30 days, use of
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 months Family Spirit RCT, 2006-2008 sample 322 mothers Adjusted &#37 = 32.91 Adjusted mean % = 29.11 OR = 1.04 HomeVEE calculated = 0.11 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Any alcohol or illegal drug - past 30 days, use of
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months Family Spirit RCT, 2006-2008 sample 322 mothers Adjusted &#37 = 27.74 Adjusted mean % = 30.78 OR = 0.76 HomeVEE calculated = -0.09 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Any illegal drug - past 30 days, use of
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Family Spirit RCT, 2006-2008 sample 322 mothers Adjusted &#37 = 21.34 Adjusted mean % = 21.90 OR = 0.83 HomeVEE calculated = -0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Any illegal drug - past 30 days, use of
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 months Family Spirit RCT, 2006-2008 sample 322 mothers Adjusted &#37 = 22.89 Adjusted mean % = 21.92 OR = 0.93 HomeVEE calculated = 0.03 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Marijuana - past 30 days, use of
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Family Spirit RCT, 2006-2008 sample 322 mothers Adjusted &#37 = 18.91 Adjusted mean % = 19.65 OR = 0.83 HomeVEE calculated = -0.03 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Marijuana - past 30 days, use of
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 months Family Spirit RCT, 2006-2008 sample 322 mothers Adjusted &#37 = 20.63 Adjusted mean % = 21.02 OR = 0.87 HomeVEE calculated = -0.01 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Marijuana - past 30 days, use of
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months Family Spirit RCT, 2006-2008 sample 322 mothers Adjusted &#37 = 12.39 Adjusted mean % = 18.83 OR = 0.57 HomeVEE calculated = -0.30 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

ASEBA - Externalizing

Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment is a 112 item assessment of externalizing, internalizing, and total problems that produces results in relation to multicultural norms Maternal self-report

α range = 0.69-0.79 across scales

Primary

ASEBA - Internalizing

Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment is a 112 item assessment of externalizing, internalizing, and total problems that produces results in relation to multicultural norms Maternal self-report

α range = 0.69-0.79 across scales

Primary

ASEBA - Total Problems

Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment is a 112 item assessment of externalizing, internalizing, and total problems that produces results in relation to multicultural norms Maternal self-report

α range = 0.69-0.79 across scales

Primary

POSIT Mental Health

Problem Oriented Screening Instrument for Teens is a 139 item assessment containing 6 subscales, which include mental health and substance abuse. Maternal self-report

α range = 0.60-0.83 across scales

Secondary

POSIT Substance Abuse

Problem Oriented Screening Instrument for Teens is a 139 item assessment containing 6 subscales, which include mental health and substance abuse. Maternal self-report

α range = 0.60-0.83 across scales

Secondary

Alcohol - past 30 days, use of

Substance use, according to the Voices of Indian Teens survey Maternal self report

Not applicable

Secondary

Any alcohol or illegal drug - past 30 days, use of

Substance use, according to the Voices of Indian Teens survey Maternal self report

Not applicable

Secondary

Any illegal drug - past 30 days, use of

Substance use, according to the Voices of Indian Teens survey Maternal self report

Not applicable

Secondary

CES-D

Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression is a 20-item assessment of depressive symptoms Maternal self-report

α = 0.88

Secondary

Marijuana - past 30 days, use of

Substance use, according to the Voices of Indian Teens survey Maternal self report

Not applicable

Secondary
Family Spirit®
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type Notes
ASEBA Externalizing (T-score)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2006-2008 sample, 3 years postpartum Full 322 mothers Adjusted mean = 41.35 Adjusted mean = 42.58 Mean difference = -1.23 Study reported = 0.14 Statistically significant, p = 0.05 Primary

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

ASEBA Internalizing (T-score)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2006-2008 sample, 3 years postpartum Full 322 mothers Adjusted mean = 42.89 Adjusted mean = 43.72 Mean difference = -0.83 Study reported = 0.09 Not statistically significant, p = 0.22 Primary

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

ASEBA Total Problems (T-score)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2006-2008 sample, 3 years postpartum Full 322 mothers Adjusted mean = 40.51 Adjusted mean = 41.36 Mean difference = -0.86 Study reported = 0.10 Not statistically significant, p = 0.18 Primary

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

CES-D score (0-60)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2006-2008 sample, 3 years postpartum Full 322 mothers Adjusted mean = 12.48 Adjusted mean = 13.65 Mean difference = -1.17 Study reported = 0.16 Statistically significant, p = 0.01 Secondary

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Alcohol use in past 30 days (proportion)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2006-2008 sample, 3 years postpartum Full 322 mothers Unadjusted mean = 0.17 Unadjusted mean = 0.16 Mean difference = 0.01 HomeVEE calculated = 0.04 Not statistically significant, p = 0.67 Secondary

footnote183

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Lower values favor the intervention

Any illegal drug use in past 30 days (proportion)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2006-2008 sample, 3 years postpartum Full 322 mothers Unadjusted mean = 0.12 Unadjusted mean = 0.17 Mean difference = -0.05 HomeVEE calculated = -0.24 Statistically significant, p = 0.01 Secondary

footnote183

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Lower values favor the intervention

Marijuana use in past 30 days (proportion)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2006-2008 sample, 3 years postpartum Full 322 mothers Unadjusted mean = 0.11 Unadjusted mean = 0.16 Mean difference = -0.05 HomeVEE calculated = -0.26 Statistically significant, p = 0.01 Secondary

footnote183

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Lower values favor the intervention

Parenting stress index (range 0-180)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2006-2008 sample, 3 years postpartum Full 322 mothers Adjusted mean = 75.53 Adjusted mean = 79.10 Mean difference = -3.57 Study reported = 0.18 Not statistically significant, p = 0.10 Primary

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

ASEBA Externalizing (T-score)

Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment is a 112 item assessment of externalizing, internalizing, and total problems that produces results in relation to multicultural norms Maternal self-report

a = 0.90 for overall scale

Primary

ASEBA Internalizing (T-score)

Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment is a 112 item assessment of externalizing, internalizing, and total problems that produces results in relation to multicultural norms Maternal self-report

a = 0.90 for overall scale

Primary

ASEBA Total Problems (T-score)

Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment is a 112 item assessment of externalizing, internalizing, and total problems that produces results in relation to multicultural norms Maternal self-report

a = 0.90 for overall scale

Primary

CES-D score (0-60)

Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression is a 20-item assessment of depressive symptoms Maternal self-report

a = 0.84

Secondary

Alcohol use in past 30 days (proportion)

Proportion with use as measured by Voices for Indian Teens, a culturally specific assessment that measures quantity and frequency of substance use Maternal self-report

a = 0.73 for overall scale

Secondary

Any Illegal Drug use in past 30 days (proportion)

Proportion with use as measured by Voices for Indian Teens, a culturally specific assessment that measures quantity and frequency of substance use Maternal self-report

a = 0.73 for overall scale

Secondary

Marijuana use in past 30 days (proportion)

Proportion with use as measured by Voices for Indian Teens, a culturally specific assessment that measures quantity and frequency of substance use Maternal self-report

a = 0.73 for overall scale

Secondary

Parenting stress index (range 0-180)

36-item assessment of parenting-related stress, for which scoring norms are available by child age Maternal self-report

a = 0.94

Primary

Outcomes Rated Moderate

Family Spirit®
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type
Alcohol in last month - 12 months
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months postpartum Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 82 mothers &#37 (Adjusted) = 19.00 Adjusted mean % = 13.00 OR = 1.54 HomeVEE calculated = 0.25 Not statistically significant,
p = >=.10
Secondary
Alcohol in last month - 2 months
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 months postpartum Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 125 mothers &#37 (Adjusted) = 11.00 Adjusted mean % = 7.00 OR = 1.52 HomeVEE calculated = 0.30 Not statistically significant,
p = >=.10
Secondary
Alcohol in last month - 6 months
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months postpartum Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 115 mothers &#37 (Adjusted) = 12.00 Adjusted mean % = 6.00 OR = 2.19 HomeVEE calculated = 0.39 Not statistically significant,
p = >=.10
Secondary
Change in depressive symptoms (CES-D) - 2 months
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 months postpartum Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 125 mothers Adjusted mean = -2.00 Adjusted mean = -3.30 coeff = 0.05 HomeVEE calculated = 0.12 Not statistically significant,
p = >=.10
Secondary
Change in depressive symptoms (CES-D) - 6 months
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months postpartum Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 115 mothers Adjusted mean = -4.00 Adjusted mean = -4.00 coeff = -0.58 HomeVEE calculated = 0.00 Not statistically significant,
p = >=.10
Secondary
Change in depressive symptoms (CES-D)- 12 months
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months postpartum Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 82 mothers Adjusted mean = -3.10 Adjusted mean = -2.00 coeff = -1.69 HomeVEE calculated = -0.10 Not statistically significant,
p = >=.10
Secondary
Change in social support - 12 months
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months postpartum Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 82 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.50 Adjusted mean = -2.20 coeff = 1.98 HomeVEE calculated = 0.13 Not statistically significant,
p = >=.10
Secondary
Change in social support - 2 months
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 months postpartum Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 125 mothers Adjusted mean = -0.40 Adjusted mean = -1.70 coeff = -0.21 HomeVEE calculated = 0.07 Not statistically significant,
p = >=.10
Secondary
Change in social support - 6 months
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months postpartum Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 115 mothers Adjusted mean = -3.70 Adjusted mean = -2.50 coeff = -0.98 HomeVEE calculated = -0.06 Not statistically significant,
p = >=.10
Secondary
Cigarette in last month - 12 months
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months postpartum Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 82 mothers &#37 (Adjusted) = 19.00 Adjusted mean % = 15.00 OR = 1.27 HomeVEE calculated = 0.14 Not statistically significant,
p = >=.10
Secondary
Cigarette in last month - 2 months
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 months postpartum Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 125 mothers &#37 (Adjusted) = 13.00 Adjusted mean % = 17.00 OR = 0.74 HomeVEE calculated = -0.19 Not statistically significant,
p = >=.10
Secondary
Cigarette in last month - 6 months
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months postpartum Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 115 mothers &#37 (Adjusted) = 22.00 Adjusted mean % = 13.00 OR = 2.06 HomeVEE calculated = 0.35 Not statistically significant,
p = >=.10
Secondary
Illegal substance in last month - 12 months
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months postpartum Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 82 mothers &#37 (Adjusted) = 16.00 Adjusted mean % = 9.00 OR = 2.37 HomeVEE calculated = 0.41 Not statistically significant,
p = >=.10
Secondary
Illegal substance in last month - 2 months
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 months postpartum Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 125 mothers &#37 (Adjusted) = 13.00 Adjusted mean % = 7.00 OR = 2.02 HomeVEE calculated = 0.41 Not statistically significant,
p = >=.10
Secondary
Illegal substance in last month - 6 months
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months postpartum Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 115 mothers &#3 (Adjusted) = 7.00 Adjusted mean % = 3.00 OR = 2.57 HomeVEE calculated = 0.49 Not statistically significant,
p = >=.10
Secondary
Parenting stress index - 12 months
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months postpartum Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 82 mothers Adjusted mean = 62.60 Adjusted mean = 60.40 coeff = 3.91 HomeVEE calculated = 0.14 Not statistically significant,
p = >=.10
Primary
Parenting stress index - 2 months
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 months postpartum Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 125 mothers Adjusted mean = 62.30 Adjusted mean = 66.80 coeff = -3.31 HomeVEE calculated = -0.26 Not statistically significant,
p = >=.10
Primary
Parenting stress index - 6 months
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months postpartum Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 115 mothers Adjusted mean = 63.30 Adjusted mean = 64.10 coeff = 1.01 HomeVEE calculated = -0.05 Not statistically significant,
p = >=.10
Primary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Alcohol in last month - 12 months

Self-report item developed by Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration regarding participants’ substance use in the previous month Maternal self-report

Not applicable

Secondary

Alcohol in last month - 2 months

Self-report item developed by Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration regarding participants’ substance use in the previous month Maternal self-report

Not applicable

Secondary

Alcohol in last month - 6 months

Self-report item developed by Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration regarding participants’ substance use in the previous month Maternal self-report

Not applicable

Secondary

Change in depressive symptoms (CES-D) - 2 months

Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression is a 20-item assessment of depressive symptoms scored on a 4-point scale Maternal self-report

α = 0.88

Secondary

Change in depressive symptoms (CES-D) - 6 months

Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression is a 20-item assessment of depressive symptoms scored on a 4-point scale Maternal self-report

α = 0.88

Secondary

Change in depressive symptoms (CES-D)- 12 months

Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression is a 20-item assessment of depressive symptoms scored on a 4-point scale Maternal self-report

α = 0.88

Secondary

Change in social support - 12 months

A 20-item assessment scored on a 5-point scale designed to measure participants’ perceived support form family, friends, and community Maternal self report

α = 0.93

Secondary

Change in social support - 2 months

A 20-item assessment scored on a 5-point scale designed to measure participants’ perceived support form family, friends, and community Maternal self report

α = 0.93

Secondary

Change in social support - 6 months

A 20-item assessment scored on a 5-point scale designed to measure participants’ perceived support form family, friends, and community Maternal self report

α = 0.93

Secondary

Cigarette in last month - 12 months

Self-report item developed by Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration regarding participants’ substance use in the previous month Maternal self-report

Not applicable

Secondary

Cigarette in last month - 2 months

Self-report item developed by Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration regarding participants’ substance use in the previous month Maternal self-report

Not applicable

Secondary

Cigarette in last month - 6 months

Self-report item developed by Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration regarding participants’ substance use in the previous month Maternal self-report

Not applicable

Secondary

Illegal substance in last month - 12 months

Self-report item developed by Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration regarding participants’ substance use in the previous month Maternal self-report

Not applicable

Secondary

Illegal substance in last month - 2 months

Self-report item developed by Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration regarding participants’ substance use in the previous month Maternal self-report

Not applicable

Secondary

Illegal substance in last month - 6 months

Self-report item developed by Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration regarding participants’ substance use in the previous month Maternal self-report

Not applicable

Secondary

Parenting stress index - 12 months

30-item assessment of parenting-related stress, for which scoring norms are available by child age Maternal self-report

α = 0.80

Secondary

Parenting stress index - 2 months

30-item assessment of parenting-related stress, for which scoring norms are available by child age Maternal self-report

α = 0.80

Secondary

Parenting stress index - 6 months

30-item assessment of parenting-related stress, for which scoring norms are available by child age Maternal self-report

α = 0.80

Secondary
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