Early Start (New Zealand) Meets HHS Criteria

Last updated: 2011

Effects shown in research & outcome measure details

Positive parenting practices

Findings rated moderate

Early Start (New Zealand)
Show findings details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up timing Sample Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance
Non-punitive attitudes (CRPR)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months Christchurch sample 391 children Unadjusted mean = 10.12 Unadjusted mean = 9.90 Mean difference = 0.22 Study reported = 0.22 Statistically significant, p < 0.05
Percent smoke-free home/smoke-free area
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months Christchurch sample 388 children % = 80.80 % = 81.60 = -0.80 Study reported = -0.02 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Positive parenting attitude (Child Rearing Practices Report [ CRPR])
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months Christchurch sample 391 children Unadjusted mean = 10.14 Unadjusted mean = 9.88 Mean difference = 0.26 Study reported = 0.26 Statistically significant, p < 0.05
Total parenting score (CRPR)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months Christchurch sample 391 children Unadjusted mean = 10.14 Unadjusted mean = 9.87 Mean difference = 0.27 Study reported = 0.27 Statistically significant, p < 0.05
Show outcome measure summary
Outcome measure Outcome measure description Collection method Properties Operations links

Non-punitive attitudes (CRPR)

Positive and punitive parenting practices were assessed using a 49-item measure that combined items from the Child Rearing Practices Report (CRPR), the Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory (AAPI) and study developed items.

Parent/caregiver report

Cronbach's α ranged from 0.73 to 0.89.

Positive parenting attitude (Child Rearing Practices Report [ CRPR])

Positive and punitive parenting practices were assessed using a 49-item measure that combined items from the Child Rearing Practices Report (CRPR), the Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory (AAPI) and study developed items.

Parent/caregiver report

Cronbach’s α ranged from 0.73 to 0.89.

Total parenting score (CRPR)

Positive and punitive parenting practices were assessed using a 49-item measure that combined items from the Child Rearing Practices Report (CRPR), the Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory (AAPI) and study developed items.

Parent/caregiver report

Cronbach's α ranged from 0.73 to 0.89.

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