Early Start (New Zealand) Meets HHS Criteria

Last updated: July 2014

Effects Shown in Research & Outcome Measure Details

Child Development and School Readiness

Outcomes Rated Moderate

Early Start (New Zealand)
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type Notes
Duration of attendance (months)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months Christchurch sample 388 children Unadjusted mean = 16.40 Unadjusted mean = 13.60 Mean difference = 2.80 Study reported = 0.22 Statistically significant, p < 0.05 Secondary
Percent ever attended early childhood education
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months Christchurch sample 388 children % = 90.80 % = 84.50 = 6.30 Study reported = 0.19 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Performance IQ
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months Christchurch sample 367 children Unadjusted mean = 98.10 Unadjusted mean = 96.80 Mean difference = 1.30 Study reported = 0.08 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
Total IQ
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months Christchurch sample 367 children Unadjusted mean = 97.70 Unadjusted mean = 96.50 Mean difference = 1.20 Study reported = 0.07 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
Total behavior score
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months Christchurch sample 391 children Unadjusted mean = 9.87 Unadjusted mean = 10.11 Mean difference = -0.24 Study reported = 0.24 Statistically significant, p < 0.05 Primary

footnote150

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

High score equals unfavorable.

Total externalizing score
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months Christchurch sample 391 children Unadjusted mean = 9.90 Unadjusted mean = 10.09 Mean difference = -0.19 Study reported = 0.19 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary

footnote150

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

High score equals unfavorable.

Total internalizing score
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months Christchurch sample 391 children Unadjusted mean = 9.86 Unadjusted mean = 10.12 Mean difference = -0.26 Study reported = 0.26 Statistically significant, p < 0.05 Primary

footnote150

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

High score equals unfavorable.

Verbal IQ
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months Christchurch sample 367 children Unadjusted mean = 97.70 Unadjusted mean = 97.00 Mean difference = 0.70 Study reported = 0.04 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Duration of attendance (months)

Duration of attendance in early childhood education (in months)

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Percent ever attended early childhood education

Percentage of children who ever attended early childhood education Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Performance IQ

The Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) was used to assess intelligence at age three. The authors obtained a verbal IQ score, a performance IQ score , and full score IQ Child assessment

Cronbach's α = 0.86 for the performance subscale, 0.93 for the verbal subscale, and .0.94 for the total scale.

Primary

Total IQ

The Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) was used to assess intelligence at age three. The authors obtained a verbal IQ score, a performance IQ score , and full score IQ . Child assessment

Cronbach's α = 0.86 for the performance subscale, 0.93 for the verbal subscale, and .0.94 for the total scale.

Primary

Total internalizing/Total externalizing score

Child social-emotional /behavioral problems were assessed using 50 items from the Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (ITSEA). The following dimensions of behavior combine to form the Externalizing score: activity, aggression/defiance, peer aggression, and emotional negativity. The dimensions of inhibition/separation problems and depression/withdrawal comprise the Internalizing score. Items are rated on a 3-point scale from not true (1), rarely to very true (2), and often (3).

Parent/caregiver report

Cronbach’s α ranged from 0.47 to 0.85, with a median of 0.75.

Primary

Verbal IQ

The Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) was used to assess intelligence at age three. The authors obtained a verbal IQ score, a performance IQ score , and full score IQ. Child assessment

Cronbach's α = 0.86 for the performance subscale, 0.93 for the verbal subscale, and .0.94 for the total scale.

Primary
Early Start (New Zealand) – Māori subgroup
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type Notes
Duration of attendance (months)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months Tribal/Māori sample 151 families Unadjusted mean = 15.80 Unadjusted mean = 12.20 Mean difference = 3.60 HomeVEE calculated = 0.28 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Total behavior score
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months Tribal/Māori sample 151 families Unadjusted mean = 9.93 Unadjusted mean = 10.36 Mean difference = -0.43 HomeVEE calculated = -0.40 Statistically significant,
p = 0.01
Primary

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Total externalizing score
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months Tribal/Māori sample 151 families Unadjusted mean = 9.98 Unadjusted mean = 10.28 Mean difference = -0.30 HomeVEE calculated = -0.28 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Total internalizing score
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months Tribal/Māori sample 151 families Unadjusted mean = 9.84 Unadjusted mean = 10.41 Mean difference = -0.57 HomeVEE calculated = -0.57 Statistically significant,
p = 0.00
Primary

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Duration of attendance (months)

Duration of attendance in early childhood education (in months)

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Total internalizing/Total externalizing score

Child social-emotional /behavioral problems were assessed using 50 items from the Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (ITSEA). The following dimensions of behavior combine to form the Externalizing score: activity, aggression/defiance, peer aggression, and emotional negativity. The dimensions of inhibition/separation problems and depression/withdrawal comprise the Internalizing score. Items are rated on a 3-point scale from not true (1), rarely to very true (2), and often (3).

Parent/caregiver report

Cronbach’s α ranged from 0.47 to 0.85, with a median of 0.75.

Primary
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