Early Start (New Zealand) Meets HHS Criteria

Last updated: July 2014

Effects Shown in Research & Outcome Measure Details

Summary of Findings

Please read Describing Effects for more information on these categories. Only results from studies that meet the standards for the high or moderate ratings are included above.

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Maternal Health

Outcomes Rated Moderate

Early Start (New Zealand)
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type Notes
Percent any family/social relationship problem
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months Christchurch sample 388 families % = 81.30 % = 82.90 = -1.60 Study reported = 0.04 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary

footnote150

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

High score equals unfavorable.

Percent ever pregnant to 36 months
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months Christchurch sample 388 mothers % = 42.90 % = 47.60 = -4.70 Study reported = 0.09 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary

footnote150

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

High score equals unfavorable.

Percent major depression
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months Christchurch sample 388 mothers % = 36.00 % = 37.10 = -1.10 Study reported = 0.02 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary

footnote150

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

High score equals unfavorable.

Percent mother smoked cigarettes
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months Christchurch sample 388 mothers % = 73.10 % = 68.90 = 4.20 Study reported = -0.09 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary

footnote150

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

High score equals unfavorable.

Percent substance use problems
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months Christchurch sample 388 mothers % = 38.50 % = 33.00 = 5.50 Study reported = -0.11 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary

footnote150

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

High score equals unfavorable.

Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Percent any family/social relationship problem

The percentage of families who experienced any family or social relationship problems within the past 36 months Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Percent ever pregnant to 36 months

The percentage of mothers who had become pregnant within the past 36 months Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Percent major depression

The authors used items from the Composite International DiagnosticInterview (CIDI) to assess whether parents ever met the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for major depression within the past 36 months. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author.

Primary

Percent mother assaulted by any partner

The ConflictTactics Scale (CTS2) was used to assess partner violence. The percentage of parents who reported any incident of psychological or physical assault by any partner within the past 36 months. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author.

Primary

Percent mother smoked cigarettes

Percentage of mothers who smoked cigarettes within the past 36 months Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Percent substance use problems

Items from the CompositeInternational DiagnosticInterview (CIDI) was used to assess alcohol and drug abuse and dependence. The percentage of parents with substance use problems within the past 36 months. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author.

Primary
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Family Economic Self-Sufficiency

Outcomes Rated Moderate

Early Start (New Zealand)
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type Notes
Mean amount of debt
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months Christchurch sample 388 families Unadjusted mean $3,582 = 3582.00 Unadjusted mean = 3380.00 Mean difference = 202.00 Study reported = -0.04 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary

footnote150

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

High score equals unfavorable.

Mean family income per week
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months Christchurch sample 388 families Unadjusted mean = 454.00 Unadjusted mean = 443.00 Mean difference = 11.00 Study reported = 0.08 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Percent income inadequate/very inadequate
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months Christchurch sample 388 families % = 41.80 % = 37.40 = 4.40 Study reported = -0.09 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary

footnote150

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

High score equals unfavorable.

Percent welfare dependent
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months Christchurch sample 388 families % = 89.60 % = 86.40 = 3.20 Study reported = -0.10 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary

footnote150

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

High score equals unfavorable.

Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Mean amount of debt

The average amount of debt families owed over the past 36 months Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Mean family income per week

The average of families' income per week over the past 36 months Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Percent income inadequate/very inadequate

The percentage of families who reported that the adequacy of their income to meet their basic family needs was inadequate/very inadequate within the past 36 months. Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Percent welfare dependent

The percentage of families that were ever dependent on welfare within the past six months Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
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Child Health

Outcomes Rated Moderate

Early Start (New Zealand)
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type Notes
Number of home safety features
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months Christchurch sample 388 children Unadjusted mean = 5.20 Unadjusted mean = 4.90 Mean difference = 0.30 Study reported = 0.17 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Number of visits made to family doctor in past 36 months
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months Christchurch sample 388 children Unadjusted mean = 23.50 Unadjusted mean = 20.70 = 2.80 Study reported = 0.24 Statistically significant, p < 0.05 Primary
Percent attended hospital for any other reason
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months Christchurch sample 382 children % = 68.40 % = 74.20 = -9.80 Study reported = 0.13 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary

footnote150

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

High score equals unfavorable.

Percent breastfed for six months or more
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months Christchurch sample 388 children % = 31.30 % = 34.10 = -2.80 Study reported = -0.05 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Percent of children up to date with immunizations
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months Christchurch sample 388 children % = 92.50 % = 91.90 = 0.60 Study reported = 0.24 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
Percent of children up to date with well-child checks
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months Christchurch sample 388 children % = 41.90 % = 30.10 = 11.80 Study reported = 0.24 Statistically significant, p < 0.05 Primary
Percent with dental service
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months Christchurch sample 391 children % = 72.30 % = 62.80 = 9.50 Study reported = 0.20 Statistically significant, p < 0.05 Secondary
Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Number of home safety features

The number of safety features present in the home including working smoke alarms; plug protectors on electric sockets; childproof latches on cupboards; locked medicine cabinet/safe storage of medicines; safe storage for poisons; hot water temperature set at 60°C or lower; fireguards for open fires, log burners, or heaters; and an escape route planned in case of fire. Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Percent attended hospital for any other reason

The percentage of children who attended the hospital for reasons other than accident/injury in the past 36 months Review of medical records

Not applicable

Primary

Percent breastfed for six months or more

The percentage of children who were breastfed for six months or more. Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Percent of children up to date with immunizations

The percentage of children who were up to date with immunizations. Review of medical records

Not applicable

Primary

Percent of children up to date with well-child checks

The percentage of children who were up to date with well-child checks

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Primary

Percent smoke-free home/smoke-free area

The percentage of homes that were always smoke-free within the past 36 months Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Percent with dental service

The percentage of children enrolled to receive free dental service

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Early Start (New Zealand) – Māori subgroup
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type
Number of visits made to family doctor in past 36 months
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months Tribal/Māori sample 151 families Unadjusted mean = 22.00 Unadjusted mean = 23.20 Mean difference = -1.20 HomeVEE calculated = -0.10 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Percent of children up to date with well-child checks
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months Tribal/Māori sample 151 families = 0.38 = 0.32 Mean difference = 6.20 HomeVEE calculated = 0.16 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Percent with dental service
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months Tribal/Māori sample 151 families = 0.68 = 0.60 Mean difference = 8.40 HomeVEE calculated = 0.22 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Percent of children up to date with well-child checks

The percentage of children who were up to date with well-child checks

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Primary

Percent with dental service

The percentage of children enrolled to receive free dental service

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
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Reductions in Juvenile Delinquency, Family Violence, and Crime

Outcomes Rated Moderate

Early Start (New Zealand)
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type Notes
Percent mother assaulted by any partner
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months Christchurch sample 388 families % = 26.40 % = 22.30 = -4.10 Study reported = -0.10 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary

footnote150

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

High score equals unfavorable.

Show Outcome Measure Summary
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Child Development and School Readiness

Outcomes Rated Moderate

Early Start (New Zealand)
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type Notes
Duration of attendance (months)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months Christchurch sample 388 children Unadjusted mean = 16.40 Unadjusted mean = 13.60 Mean difference = 2.80 Study reported = 0.22 Statistically significant, p < 0.05 Secondary
Percent ever attended early childhood education
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months Christchurch sample 388 children % = 90.80 % = 84.50 = 6.30 Study reported = 0.19 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Performance IQ
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months Christchurch sample 367 children Unadjusted mean = 98.10 Unadjusted mean = 96.80 Mean difference = 1.30 Study reported = 0.08 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
Total IQ
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months Christchurch sample 367 children Unadjusted mean = 97.70 Unadjusted mean = 96.50 Mean difference = 1.20 Study reported = 0.07 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
Total behavior score
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months Christchurch sample 391 children Unadjusted mean = 9.87 Unadjusted mean = 10.11 Mean difference = -0.24 Study reported = 0.24 Statistically significant, p < 0.05 Primary

footnote150

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

High score equals unfavorable.

Total externalizing score
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months Christchurch sample 391 children Unadjusted mean = 9.90 Unadjusted mean = 10.09 Mean difference = -0.19 Study reported = 0.19 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary

footnote150

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

High score equals unfavorable.

Total internalizing score
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months Christchurch sample 391 children Unadjusted mean = 9.86 Unadjusted mean = 10.12 Mean difference = -0.26 Study reported = 0.26 Statistically significant, p < 0.05 Primary

footnote150

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

High score equals unfavorable.

Verbal IQ
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months Christchurch sample 367 children Unadjusted mean = 97.70 Unadjusted mean = 97.00 Mean difference = 0.70 Study reported = 0.04 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Duration of attendance (months)

Duration of attendance in early childhood education (in months)

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Percent ever attended early childhood education

Percentage of children who ever attended early childhood education Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Performance IQ

The Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) was used to assess intelligence at age three. The authors obtained a verbal IQ score, a performance IQ score , and full score IQ Child assessment

Cronbach's α = 0.86 for the performance subscale, 0.93 for the verbal subscale, and .0.94 for the total scale.

Primary

Total IQ

The Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) was used to assess intelligence at age three. The authors obtained a verbal IQ score, a performance IQ score , and full score IQ . Child assessment

Cronbach's α = 0.86 for the performance subscale, 0.93 for the verbal subscale, and .0.94 for the total scale.

Primary

Total internalizing/Total externalizing score

Child social-emotional /behavioral problems were assessed using 50 items from the Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (ITSEA). The following dimensions of behavior combine to form the Externalizing score: activity, aggression/defiance, peer aggression, and emotional negativity. The dimensions of inhibition/separation problems and depression/withdrawal comprise the Internalizing score. Items are rated on a 3-point scale from not true (1), rarely to very true (2), and often (3).

Parent/caregiver report

Cronbach’s α ranged from 0.47 to 0.85, with a median of 0.75.

Primary

Verbal IQ

The Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) was used to assess intelligence at age three. The authors obtained a verbal IQ score, a performance IQ score , and full score IQ. Child assessment

Cronbach's α = 0.86 for the performance subscale, 0.93 for the verbal subscale, and .0.94 for the total scale.

Primary
Early Start (New Zealand) – Māori subgroup
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type Notes
Duration of attendance (months)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months Tribal/Māori sample 151 families Unadjusted mean = 15.80 Unadjusted mean = 12.20 Mean difference = 3.60 HomeVEE calculated = 0.28 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Total behavior score
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months Tribal/Māori sample 151 families Unadjusted mean = 9.93 Unadjusted mean = 10.36 Mean difference = -0.43 HomeVEE calculated = -0.40 Statistically significant,
p = 0.01
Primary

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Total externalizing score
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months Tribal/Māori sample 151 families Unadjusted mean = 9.98 Unadjusted mean = 10.28 Mean difference = -0.30 HomeVEE calculated = -0.28 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Total internalizing score
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months Tribal/Māori sample 151 families Unadjusted mean = 9.84 Unadjusted mean = 10.41 Mean difference = -0.57 HomeVEE calculated = -0.57 Statistically significant,
p = 0.00
Primary

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Duration of attendance (months)

Duration of attendance in early childhood education (in months)

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Total internalizing/Total externalizing score

Child social-emotional /behavioral problems were assessed using 50 items from the Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (ITSEA). The following dimensions of behavior combine to form the Externalizing score: activity, aggression/defiance, peer aggression, and emotional negativity. The dimensions of inhibition/separation problems and depression/withdrawal comprise the Internalizing score. Items are rated on a 3-point scale from not true (1), rarely to very true (2), and often (3).

Parent/caregiver report

Cronbach’s α ranged from 0.47 to 0.85, with a median of 0.75.

Primary
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Reductions in Child Maltreatment

Outcomes Rated Moderate

Early Start (New Zealand)
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type Notes
Percent attended hospital for accident/injury or accidental poisoning
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months Christchurch sample 382 children % = 17.50 % = 26.30 = -8.80 Study reported = 0.22 Statistically significant, p < 0.05 Primary

footnote150

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

High score equals unfavorable.

Percent severe/very severe physical assault by any parent (Conflict Tactics Scale)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months Christchurch sample 388 families % = 4.40 % = 11.70 = -7.30 Study reported = 0.26 Statistically significant, p < 0.05 Secondary

footnote150

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

High score equals unfavorable.

Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Percent attended hospital for accident/injury or accidental poisoning

The percentage of children who attended the hospital for accidents/injuries or accidental poisonings within the past 36 months

Review of medical records

Not applicable

Primary

Percent attended hospital for accident/injury or accidental poisoning

The percentage of children who attended the hospital for accident/injury or accidental poisoning Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Primary

Percent severe/very severe physical assault by any parent (Conflict Tactics Scale)

The Severe/Very Severe assault subscales of the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale was used to assess child abuse/neglect.

Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author.

Primary
Early Start (New Zealand) – Māori subgroup
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type Notes
Percent attended hospital for accident/injury or accidental poisoning
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months Tribal/Māori sample 151 families = 0.25 = 0.27 Mean difference = -1.70 HomeVEE calculated = -0.05 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Percent severe/very severe physical assault by any parent (Conflict Tactics Scale)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months Tribal/Māori sample 151 families = 0.03 = 0.12 Mean difference = -9.40 HomeVEE calculated = -0.98 Statistically significant,
p = 0.00
Secondary

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Percent attended hospital for accident/injury or accidental poisoning

The percentage of children who attended the hospital for accidents/injuries or accidental poisonings within the past 36 months

Review of medical records

Not applicable

Primary

Percent severe/very severe physical assault by any parent (Conflict Tactics Scale)

The Severe/Very Severe assault subscales of the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale was used to assess child abuse/neglect.

Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author.

Primary
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Positive Parenting Practices

Outcomes Rated Moderate

Early Start (New Zealand)
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type
Non-punitive attitudes (CRPR)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months Christchurch sample 391 children Unadjusted mean = 10.12 Unadjusted mean = 9.90 Mean difference = 0.22 Study reported = 0.22 Statistically significant, p < 0.05 Primary
Percent smoke-free home/smoke-free area
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months Christchurch sample 388 children % = 80.80 % = 81.60 = -0.80 Study reported = -0.02 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Positive parenting attitude (Child Rearing Practices Report [ CRPR])
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months Christchurch sample 391 children Unadjusted mean = 10.14 Unadjusted mean = 9.88 Mean difference = 0.26 Study reported = 0.26 Statistically significant, p < 0.05 Primary
Total parenting score (CRPR)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months Christchurch sample 391 children Unadjusted mean = 10.14 Unadjusted mean = 9.87 Mean difference = 0.27 Study reported = 0.27 Statistically significant, p < 0.05 Primary
Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Non-punitive attitudes (CRPR)

Positive and punitive parenting practices were assessed using a 49-item measure that combined items from the Child Rearing Practices Report (CRPR), the Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory (AAPI) and study developed items.

Parent/caregiver report

Cronbach's α ranged from 0.73 to 0.89.

Primary

Positive parenting attitude (Child Rearing Practices Report [ CRPR])

Positive and punitive parenting practices were assessed using a 49-item measure that combined items from the Child Rearing Practices Report (CRPR), the Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory (AAPI) and study developed items.

Parent/caregiver report

Cronbach’s α ranged from 0.73 to 0.89.

Primary

Total parenting score (CRPR)

Positive and punitive parenting practices were assessed using a 49-item measure that combined items from the Child Rearing Practices Report (CRPR), the Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory (AAPI) and study developed items.

Parent/caregiver report

Cronbach's α ranged from 0.73 to 0.89.

Primary
Early Start (New Zealand) – Māori subgroup
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type
Non-punitiveattitudes (CRPR)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months Tribal/Māori sample 151 families Unadjusted mean = 10.08 Unadjusted mean = 9.76 Mean difference = 0.32 HomeVEE calculated = 0.30 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Positive parenting attitude (Child Rearing Practices Report [ CRPR])
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months Tribal/Māori sample 151 families Unadjusted mean = 10.04 Unadjusted mean = 9.63 Mean difference = 0.41 HomeVEE calculated = 0.37 Statistically significant,
p = 0.02
Primary
Total parenting score (CRPR)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months Tribal/Māori sample 151 families Unadjusted mean = 10.07 Unadjusted mean = 9.65 Mean difference = 0.42 HomeVEE calculated = 0.38 Statistically significant,
p = 0.02
Primary
Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Non-punitive attitudes (CRPR)

Positive and punitive parenting practices were assessed using a 49-item measure that combined items from the Child Rearing Practices Report (CRPR), the Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory (AAPI) and study developed items.

Parent/caregiver report

Cronbach's α ranged from 0.73 to 0.89.

Primary

Positive parenting attitude (Child Rearing Practices Report [ CRPR])

Positive and punitive parenting practices were assessed using a 49-item measure that combined items from the Child Rearing Practices Report (CRPR), the Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory (AAPI) and study developed items.

Parent/caregiver report

Cronbach’s α ranged from 0.73 to 0.89.

Primary

Total parenting score (CRPR)

Positive and punitive parenting practices were assessed using a 49-item measure that combined items from the Child Rearing Practices Report (CRPR), the Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory (AAPI) and study developed items.

Parent/caregiver report

Cronbach's α ranged from 0.73 to 0.89.

Primary
View Revisions