Early Intervention Program for Adolescent Mothers Meets HHS Criteria

Implementation support is not currently available for the model as reviewed.

Last updated: July 2011

Effects Shown in Research & Outcome Measure Details

Maternal Health

Outcomes Rated High

Early Intervention Program for Adolescent Mothers
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type Notes
External social competence
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
6 weeks postpartum San Bernardino sample 121 mothers Mean = 80.18 Mean = 77.11 Mean difference = 3.07 HomeVEE calculated = 0.40 Statistically significant, p =0.03 Secondary

footnote106

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Information on outcomes was received through communication with the authors.

,

footnote107

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Although the treatment group has a higher mean, the authors report that the comparison group showed a significantly greater gain on this measure.

Internal social competence
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
6 weeks postpartum San Bernardino sample 121 mothers Mean = 70.68 Mean = 66.97 Mean difference = 3.71 HomeVEE calculated = 0.28 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary

footnote102

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Authors report whether the groups are significantly different or not, but do not report actual p-values.

,

footnote106

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Information on outcomes was received through communication with the authors.

Number of prenatal health problems
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
6 weeks postpartum San Bernardino sample 121 mothers Mean = 0.64 Mean = 0.72 Mean difference = -0.08 HomeVEE calculated = -0.03 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary

footnote102

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Authors report whether the groups are significantly different or not, but do not report actual p-values.

Substance use
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
6 weeks postpartum San Bernardino sample 121 mothers Not available Not available Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary

footnote102

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Authors report whether the groups are significantly different or not, but do not report actual p-values.

Total number of prenatal visits
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
6 weeks postpartum San Bernardion sample 121 mothers Mean = 9.69 Mean = 9.34 Mean difference = 0.35 HomeVEE calculated = 0.03 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary

footnote102

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Authors report whether the groups are significantly different or not, but do not report actual p-values.

Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

External social competence

Socialcompetence measureswerecomposites derivedfrom (1)the Rosenberg Self–Esteem Inventory,(2)Pearlin’sSenseofMastery Scale, (3)the Centerfor EpidemiologicalStudies DepressionScale,(4) thePerceived StressScale;(5)the Community Life SkillsScale(CLSS), and (6)the SocialSkills Inventory (SSI). Factor analysis was used to develop two conceptual factors representing Internal and external social competence. Composite measures were formed by first standardizing each measure to a 0–100 scale with higher numbers representing higher skills, then averaging the relevant translated scores. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Secondary

Internal social competence

Socialcompetence measureswerecomposites derivedfrom (1)the Rosenberg Self–Esteem Inventory;(2)Pearlin’sSenseofMastery Scale, (3)the Centerfor EpidemiologicalStudies DepressionScale,(4) thePerceived StressScale,(5)the Community Life SkillsScale(CLSS), and (6)the SocialSkills Inventory (SSI). Factor analysis was used to develop two conceptual factors representing Internal and external social competence. Composite measures were formed by first standardizing each measure to a 0–100 scale with higher numbers representing higher skills, then averaging the relevant translated scores. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Secondary

Number of prenatal health problems

Count of the number of prenatal health problems experienced by mothers Review of medical records

Not applicable

Primary

Substance use

This measure of parents’ substance use include frequency–of–use categories(e.g., 0, 1 or 2, 3 to 9, 10 to 19, or 20+ times) during the past 30 days, 12 months, and lifetime for tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, hallucinogens, and heroin. Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Total number of prenatal visits

Count of the number of prenatal visits completed by EIP and TPHN home visitors Review of medical records

Not applicable

Primary

Outcomes Rated Moderate

Early Intervention Program for Adolescent Mothers
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type Notes
CES-D (depression)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
One year postpartum San Bernardino sample 102 mothers Mean = 14.53 Mean = 15.33 Mean difference = -0.80 HomeVEE calculated = -0.09 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary

footnote102

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Authors report whether the groups are significantly different or not, but do not report actual p-values.

PSS (perceived stress)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
One year postpartum San Bernardino sample 102 mothers Mean = 24.40 Mean = 23.55 Mean difference = 0.85 HomeVEE calculated = 0.13 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary

footnote102

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Authors report whether the groups are significantly different or not, but do not report actual p-values.

RSEI (self-esteem)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
One year postpartum San Bernardino sample 102 mothers Mean = 32.73 Mean = 31.07 Mean difference = 1.66 HomeVEE calculated = 0.37 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary

footnote102

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Authors report whether the groups are significantly different or not, but do not report actual p-values.

Repeat pregnancy rate
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
One year postpartum San Bernardino sample 102 mothers Not available Not available Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary

footnote102

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Authors report whether the groups are significantly different or not, but do not report actual p-values.

Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

CES-D (depression)

The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES–D) is a 20–item assessment designed to measure depressive symptoms. The scale contains items related to feelings and conditions such as powerlessness, guilt, helplessness, sadness, anorexia, and sleep disturbances. Parent/caregiver report

Cronbach’s α = 0.84 at intake and 0.83 at 12 months postpartum

Secondary

PSS (perceived stress)

The Perceived Stress Scale (PSSmeasures global perceived stress during the past month through 14 items on a 5–point Likert scale (0 to 4). Scores on the PSS may range from 0 to 56. Parent/caregiver report

Cronbach’s α = 0.65 at intake and 0.69 at 12 months postpartum

Primary

RSEI (self-esteem)

Rosenberg Self–Esteem Inventory (RSEI) is a10–item instrument whose total score reflects the degree of positive self–esteem. Possible scores range from 10 to 40, with higher scores indicating higher self–esteem. Parent/caregiver report

Cronbach’s α = 0.84 at intake and 0.85 at 12 months postpartum

Secondary

Repeat pregnancy rate

Percentage of mothers that experienced a repeat pregnancy Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Early Intervention Program for Adolescent Mothers
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type Notes
Anemia
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Ante- and intrapartum San Bernardino sample 121 mothers Percentage = 0.15 Mean % = 0.17 Mean difference = -0.02 HomeVEE calculated = -0.09 Statistical significance not reported Primary
Cystitis
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Ante- and intrapartum San Bernardino sample 121 mothers Percentage = 0.23 Mean % = 0.19 Mean difference = 0.04 HomeVEE calculated = 0.15 Statistical significance not reported Primary
Pregnancy-induced hypertension
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Ante- and intrapartum San Bernardino sample 121 mothers Percentage = 0.06 Mean % = 0.03 Mean difference = 0.03 Study reported = 0.44 Statistical significance not reported Primary
Preterm labor
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Ante- and intrapartum San Bernardino sample 121 mothers Percentage = 0.11 Mean % = 0.16 Mean difference = -0.05 Study reported = -0.26 Statistical significance not reported Primary
Pyelonephritis
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Ante- and intrapartum San Bernardino sample 121 mothers Percentage = 0.05 Mean % = 0.05 Mean difference = 0.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.00 Statistical significance not reported Primary
Sexually transmitted disease
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Ante- and intrapartum San Bernardino sample 121 mothers Percentage = 0.03 Mean % = 0.08 Mean difference = -0.05 Study reported = -0.63 Statistical significance not reported Primary
Substance use
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
6 weeks postpartum San Bernardino sample 121 mothers Not available Not available Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary

footnote102

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Authors report whether the groups are significantly different or not, but do not report actual p-values.

Urinary tract infection
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Ante- and intrapartum San Bernardino sample 121 mothers Percentage = 0.28 Mean % = 0.24 Mean difference = 0.04 HomeVEE calculated = 0.13 Statistical significance not reported Primary
Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Anemia

Percentage of mothers experiencing anemia during the antepartum and intrapartum periods Review of medical records

Not applicable

Primary

Cystitis

Percentage of mothers experiencing Cystitis during the prenatal period. Review of medical records

Not applicable

Primary

Pregnancy-induced hypertension

Percentage of mothers experiencing pregnancy–induced hypertension Review of medical records

Not applicable

Primary

Preterm labor

Percentage of mothers experiencing preterm labor Review of medical records

Not applicable

Primary

Pyelonephritis

Percentage of mothers experiencing Pyelonephritis during the prenatal period Review of medical records

Not applicable

Primary

Sexually transmitted disease

Percentage of mothers diagnosed with a sexually transmitted disease such as Chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis Review of medical records

Not applicable

Primary

Substance use

Percentage of mothers reporting use of alcohol (None, 1–2 times, or 3–9 times), tobacco (any use), and marijuana (any use) during the 30 day period prior to the interview Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Urinary tract infection

Percentage of mothers experiencing urinary tract infection during the prenatal period Review of medical records

Not applicable

Primary
Early Intervention Program for Adolescent Mothers
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type Notes
External social competence
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Two years postpartum San Bernardino sample 101 mothers Mean = 82.96 Mean = 82.57 Mean difference = 0.39 HomeVEE calculated = 0.06 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary

footnote102

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Authors report whether the groups are significantly different or not, but do not report actual p-values.

,

footnote106

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Information on outcomes was received through communication with the authors.

Internal social competence
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Two years postpartum San Bernardino sample 101 mothers Mean = 71.86 Mean = 69.56 Mean difference = 2.30 HomeVEE calculated = 0.29 Not statistically significant, p =0.057 Secondary

footnote106

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Information on outcomes was received through communication with the authors.

,

footnote108

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance is based on the results of the authors’ analysis using repeated-measures ANOVA.

Repeat pregnancy rate
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Two years postpartum San Bernardino sample 101 mothers Percentage = 0.32 Mean % = 0.47 Mean difference = -0.15 HomeVEE calculated = -0.38 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary

footnote102

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Authors report whether the groups are significantly different or not, but do not report actual p-values.

Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

External social competence

Socialcompetence measureswerecomposites derivedfrom (1)the Rosenberg Self–Esteem Inventory.(2)Pearlin’sSenseofMastery Scale. (3)the Centerfor EpidemiologicalStudies DepressionScale,(4) thePerceived StressScale;(5)the Community Life SkillsScale(CLSS), and (6)the SocialSkills Inventory (SSI). Factor analysis was used to develop two conceptual factors representing Internal and external social competence. Composite measures were formed by first standardizing each measure to a 0–100 scale with higher numbers representing higher skills, then averaging the relevant translated scores. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Secondary

Internal social competence

Socialcompetence measureswerecomposites derivedfrom (1)the Rosenberg Self–Esteem Inventory,(2)Pearlin’sSenseofMastery Scale, (3)the Centerfor EpidemiologicalStudies DepressionScale,(4) thePerceived StressScale,(5)the Community Life SkillsScale(CLSS), and (6)the SocialSkills Inventory (SSI). Factor analysis was used to develop two conceptual factors representing Internal and external social competence. Composite measures were formed by first standardizing each measure to a 0–100 scale with higher numbers representing higher skills, then averaging the relevant translated scores. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Secondary

Repeat pregnancy rate

Percentage of mothers that experienced a repeat pregnancy Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
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