Early Head Start–Home-Based Option (EHS-HBO) Meets HHS Criteria

Last updated: July 2016

Effects Shown in Research & Outcome Measure Details

Positive Parenting Practices

Outcomes Rated High

Early Head Start–Home-Based Option (EHS-HBO)
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type Notes
HOME Language and Literacy
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Age 5 Home-based program approach Not reported Not reported Not reported Study reported = 0.16 Statistically significant, p < 0.05 Primary
Children's books (26 or more)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Age 5 Home-based program approach Not reported Not reported Not reported Study reported = 0.14 Statistically significant, p < 0.05 Secondary
Parent supportiveness during play
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Age 5 Home-based program approach Not reported Not reported Not reported Study reported = 0.04 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Percent reading daily
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Age 5 Home-based program approach Not reported Not reported Not reported Study reported = 0.15 Statistically significant, p < 0.05 Secondary
Percent spanked last week
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Age 5 Home-based program approach Not reported Not reported Not reported Study reported = -0.06 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary

footnote238

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value favors the intervention.

Teaching activities
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Age 5 Home-based program approach Not reported Not reported Not reported Study reported = 0.15 Statistically significant, p < 0.05 Secondary
Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

HOME Language and Literacy

The Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) scale is a 45-item measure that assesses parenting practices and the child's home environment, including physical structure, play materials, and amount of stimulation. Parent/caregiver interview and observational assessment

Not reported by author

Primary

Children's books (26 or more)

Percentage of parents who provided 26 or more children’s books in the home. Parent survey

Not reported by author

Secondary

Parent supportiveness during play

Parent behavior during play was coded. Parent behaviors reported include parental support (a composite of sensitivity, positive regard, and cognitive stimulation) and parent negative regard. Videotaped observation

Intercoder agreement= 94%

Secondary

Percent reading daily

Percentage of parents who read to their child daily. Parent survey

Not reported by author

Secondary

Percent spanked last week

Percentage of parents who spanked their child in the prior week.

Parent survey

Not reported by author

Secondary

Teaching activities

Percentage of parents who engaged in eight or more teaching activities with their child. Parent survey

Not reported by author

Secondary
Early Head Start–Home-Based Option (EHS-HBO)
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type Notes
Physical punishment (24 months)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months one site from larger EHS evaluation Not reported Not reported coeff = 0.04 Not available Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary

footnote150

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

High score equals unfavorable.

Physical punishment (36 months)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months one site from larger EHS evaluation Not reported Not reported coeff = -0.22 Not available Statistically significant, p < 0.05 Secondary

footnote151

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Higher score equals unfavorable; Note that this outcome measures the incremental impact between 24 months and 36 months

Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Physical punishment

Whether or not the child had been “spanked” in the last week, and if so, how many times

Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Secondary
Early Head Start–Home-Based Option (EHS-HBO)
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type
HOME absence of punitive interactions
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Age 2 EHS-HBO impact study 966 children Adjusted mean = 4.30 Adjusted mean = 4.30 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = -0.01 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME emotional responsivity
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Age 2 EHS-HBO impact study 966 children Adjusted mean = 6.50 Adjusted mean = 6.40 Mean difference = 0.10 Study reported = 0.10 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME maternal verbal/social skills
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Age 2 EHS-HBO impact study 966 children Adjusted mean = 2.90 Adjusted mean = 2.90 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = 0.05 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME support of cognitive, language, and literacy environment
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Age 2 EHS-HBO impact study 966 children Adjusted mean = 10.30 Adjusted mean = 10.10 Mean difference = 0.20 Study reported = 0.10 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME total score
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Age 2 EHS-HBO impact study 966 children Adjusted mean = 26.90 Adjusted mean = 26.40 Mean difference = 0.50 Study reported = 0.13 Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
Primary
KIDI
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Age 2 EHS-HBO impact study 966 children Adjusted mean = 3.40 Adjusted mean = 3.30 Mean difference = 0.10 Study reported = 0.17 Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
Secondary
Covers electric outlets (percentage)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Age 2 EHS-HBO impact study 966 children % = 61.00 % = 57.20 = -3.80 Study reported = 0.08 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Has gates or doors in front of stairs (percentage)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Age 2 EHS-HBO impact study 966 children % = 72.70 % = 75.50 = -2.80 Study reported = -0.07 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Has poison control number (percentage)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Age 2 EHS-HBO impact study 966 children % = 36.50 % = 36.40 = 0.10 Study reported = 0.00 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Has syrup of Ipecac at home (percentage)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Age 2 EHS-HBO impact study 966 children % = 30.20 % = 30.60 = -0.40 Study reported = -0.01 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Home has working smoke alarm (percentage)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Age 2 EHS-HBO impact study 966 children % = 83.20 % = 83.30 = -0.01 Study reported = 0.00 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Index of discipline severity
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Age 2 EHS-HBO impact study 966 children Adjusted mean = 2.50 Adjusted mean = 2.60 Mean difference = -0.10 Study reported = -0.06 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Observed child play area is safe (percentage)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Age 2 EHS-HBO impact study 966 children % = 74.60 % = 74.20 = 0.04 Study reported = 0.01 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Parent-child activities to stimulate cognitive and language development
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Age 2 EHS-HBO impact study 966 children Adjusted mean = 4.50 Adjusted mean = 4.50 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = 0.05 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Percentage of parents and children that have regular bedtime routines
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Age 2 EHS-HBO impact study 966 children % = 69.20 % = 65.10 = 4.10 Study reported = 0.09 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Percentage of parents suggesting only mild responses to the hypothetical conflicts
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Age 2 EHS-HBO impact study 966 children % = 48.00 % = 45.10 = 2.90 Study reported = 0.06 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Percentage of parents that read to child as part of bedtime routine
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Age 2 EHS-HBO impact study 966 children % = 26.00 % = 19.50 = 6.50 Study reported = 0.16 Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
Secondary
Percentage of parents that read to child daily
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Age 2 EHS-HBO impact study 966 children % = 55.50 % = 54.40 = 1.10 Study reported = 0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Percentage of parents that set a regular bedtime for child
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Age 2 EHS-HBO impact study 966 children % = 58.70 % = 54.00 = 4.70 Study reported = 0.09 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Percentage of parents that suggest responses to hypothetical conflict with child: Physical punishment
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Age 2 EHS-HBO impact study 966 children % = 23.00 % = 26.10 = -3.10 Study reported = -0.07 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Percentage of parents that suggest responses to hypothetical conflict with child: Prevent or distract
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Age 2 EHS-HBO impact study 966 children % = 69.60 % = 66.60 = 3.00 Study reported = 0.07 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Percentage of parents that suggest responses to hypothetical conflict with child: Remove child or object
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Age 2 EHS-HBO impact study 966 children % = 78.60 % = 80.40 = -1.80 Study reported = -0.05 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Percentage of parents that suggest responses to hypothetical conflict with child: Shout
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Age 2 EHS-HBO impact study 966 children % = 6.00 % = 3.60 = 2.40 Study reported = 0.11 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Percentage of parents that suggest responses to hypothetical conflict with child: Talk and explain
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Age 2 EHS-HBO impact study 966 children % = 34.10 % = 28.10 = 6.00 Study reported = 0.13 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Percentage of parents that suggest responses to hypothetical conflict with child: Threaten or command
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Age 2 EHS-HBO impact study 966 children % = 28.80 % = 28.20 = 0.50 Study reported = 0.01 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Reading frequency
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Age 2 EHS-HBO impact study 966 children Adjusted mean = 4.60 Adjusted mean = 4.60 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = -0.01 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Spanked child in last week (percentage)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Age 2 EHS-HBO impact study 966 children % = 49.00 % = 52.40 = -3.40 Study reported = -0.07 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Uses a car seat (percentage)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Age 2 EHS-HBO impact study 966 children % = 81.10 % = 80.70 = 0.04 Study reported = 0.01 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Uses guards or gates for windows (percentage)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Age 2 EHS-HBO impact study 966 children % = 52.60 % = 55.40 = -2.80 Study reported = -0.06 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

KIDI

The KIDI measures the parent’s knowledge of childrearing practices and developmental processes. The researchers selected a subset of 8 items from the 17 items used in the Infant Health and Development Program evaluation. Items were coded on a 4-point scale indicating the average level of accuracy of responses to each statement. Parent/caregiver report

Cronbach’s α = .56

Secondary

HOME:

  • Emotional responsivity
  • Total score
  • Support of cognitive, language, and literacy environment
  • Maternal verbal/social skills
  • Absence of punitive interactions
The HOME assesses parenting practices and aspects of the home environment. Emotional responsivity measures the parent’s verbal responsivity to child, praise of child, and expressions of warmth and affection to child (sum of 7 observation items). Support of cognitive, language, and literacy environment measures the presence of toys, books, and developmentally appropriate furnishings and equipment. It also includes parental cognitive stimulation such as reading and talking to the child (sum of 12 items). Maternal verbal-social skills measures the parent’s ability to speak freely and clearly to the interviewer, with a maximum potential score of 3. Absence of punitive interactions measured harsh or punitive parenting behavior observed during the HOME interview. Items were scored 1 if the parent did not engage in the particular harsh or punitive behavior. Parent/caregiver interview and observational assessment

Cronbach’s α = 0.74 (Emotional responsivity) Cronbach’s α = 0.76 (Total score)  Cronbach’s α = 0.68 (Support of cognitive, language, and literacy environment) Cronbach’s α = 0.71 (Maternal verbal/social skills) Cronbach’s α = 0.78 (absence of punitive interactions)

Primary

Covers electric outlets

Percentage of families who used covers for the electrical outlets that the child could reach in the home Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Has gates or doors in front of stairs

Percentage of families who used guards or gates in front of their staircases Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Has poison control number

Percentage of parents who had access to the poison control number in case of poison emergencies Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Has syrup of Ipecac at home

Percentage of parents who kept syrup of Ipecac in the home in case of poison emergencies Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Home has working smoke alarm

Percentage of families who had working smoke alarms in the home Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Observed child play area is safe

Percentage of families who had a safe child play area Interviewer observation

Not applicable

Primary

Parent-child activities to stimulate cognitive and language development

The frequency with which the parent engaged in several activities with the child that can stimulate cognitive and language development, including reading or telling stories, dancing, singing, and playing outside together Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Primary

Percentage of parents and children who have regular bedtime routines

Percentage of parents who had regular routines with the child around bedtime, such as singing lullabies, putting toys away, or telling stories Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Percentage of parents who read to child as part of bedtime routine

Percentage of parents who read to child as part of the regular bedtime routine and followed this routine four out of five weekdays in previous week Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Percentage of parents who read to child daily

Percentage of parents who read to the child every day or more than once per day Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Percentage of parents who set a regular bedtime for child

Percentage of parents who set a regular bedtime for the child, and the child was put to bed at that time four out of five weekdays in previous week Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Percentage of parents who suggest responses to hypothetical conflict with child:

  • Prevent or distract
  • Remove child or object
  • Talk and explain
  • Threaten or command
  • Shout
  • Physical punishment

Percentage of parents suggesting only mild responses to the hypothetical conflicts Index of discipline severity

Parents were asked how they would respond to three situations: (1) child keeps playing with breakables; (2) child refuses to eat; and (3) child has a temper tantrum in a store. Responses were coded dichotomously with 1 if the reference technique is ever mentioned and 0 if not. The percentage of mild responses was a binary variable indicating parents who mentioned only the following types of responses for each situation: prevent the situation; distract the child; talk to the child or explain the issue; ignore the behavior; or remove the child or object. The index of severity measured the degree of harshness of discipline strategies suggested. An individual’s score on this index ranged from 1 to 5, and was determined by the harshest strategy that was suggested in response to any of the three conflict situations. Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable Not reported by author (for Index of discipline severity)

Secondary

Reading frequency

A measure of the frequency with which parents read to their child Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Spanked child in last week

Percentage of parents who had spanked the child in the previous week Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Uses a car seat

Percentage of families who used a car seat for the child, and it was in the back seat of the car. Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Uses guards or gates for windows

Percentage of families who used guards or gates for their windows Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Outcomes Rated Moderate

Early Head Start–Home-Based Option (EHS-HBO)
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type
HOME harshness
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Age 3 EHS-HBO impact study 950 children Adjusted mean = 0.30 Adjusted mean = 0.30 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = 0.06 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME internal physical environment
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Age 3 EHS-HBO impact study 950 children Adjusted mean = 8.00 Adjusted mean = 8.00 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = -0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME total score
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Age 3 EHS-HBO impact study 950 children Adjusted mean = 28.30 Adjusted mean = 28.10 Mean difference = 0.20 Study reported = 0.04 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME warmth
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Age 3 EHS-HBO impact study 950 children Adjusted mean = 2.70 Adjusted mean = 2.70 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = -0.01 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME: support of language and learning
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Age 3 EHS-HBO impact study 950 children Adjusted mean = 10.90 Adjusted mean = 10.70 Mean difference = 0.20 Study reported = 0.07 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Detachment during parent-child puzzle challenge tasks
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Age 3 EHS-HBO impact study 744 children Adjusted mean = 1.60 Adjusted mean = 1.60 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = -0.04 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Detachment during parent-child semi-structured play
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Age 3 EHS-HBO impact study 744 children Adjusted mean = 1.20 Adjusted mean = 1.30 Mean difference = -0.10 Study reported = -0.09 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Index of severity of discipline strategies
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Age 3 EHS-HBO impact study 950 children Adjusted mean = 3.30 Adjusted mean = 3.30 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = -0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Intrusiveness during parent-child puzzle challenge task
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Age 3 EHS-HBO impact study 744 children Adjusted mean = 2.50 Adjusted mean = 2.60 Mean difference = -0.10 Study reported = -0.09 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Intrusiveness during parent-child semistructured play
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Age 3 EHS-HBO impact study 744 children Adjusted mean = 1.60 Adjusted mean = 1.60 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = -0.06 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Negative regard during parent-child semistructured play
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Age 3 EHS-HBO impact study 744 children Adjusted mean = 1.20 Adjusted mean = 1.30 Mean difference = -0.10 Study reported = -0.10 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Parent-child play
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Age 3 EHS-HBO impact study 744 children Adjusted mean = 4.40 Adjusted mean = 4.40 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = -0.06 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Percentage of children that follow a bedtime routine
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Age 3 EHS-HBO impact study 950 children % = 72.00 % = 71.00 = 1.00 Study reported = 0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Percentage of children with a regular bedtime
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Age 3 EHS-HBO impact study 950 children % = 59.30 % = 55.60 = 3.70 Study reported = 0.07 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Percentage of parents suggesting physical punishment as a discipline strategy
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Age 3 EHS-HBO impact study 950 children = 44.90 = 44.50 = 0.40 Study reported = 0.01 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Percentage of parents that read to child at bedtime
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Age 3 EHS-HBO impact study 950 children % = 29.60 % = 25.80 = 3.80 Study reported = 0.08 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Percentage of parents that read to child daily
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Age 3 EHS-HBO impact study 950 children % = 54.50 % = 55.70 = -1.20 Study reported = -0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Percentage of parents that spanked child in the past week
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Age 3 EHS-HBO impact study 950 children % = 44.10 % = 49.60 = -5.50 Study reported = -0.11 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Percentage of parents that usually use a car seat correctly
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Age 3 EHS-HBO impact study 950 children = 70.40 = 69.40 = 1.00 Study reported = 0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Percentage of parents that would use mild discipline only
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Age 3 EHS-HBO impact study 950 children = 45.80 = 45.90 = -0.10 Study reported = 0.00 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Quality of assistance during parent-child puzzle challenge task
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Age 3 EHS-HBO impact study 744 children Adjusted mean = 3.60 Adjusted mean = 3.50 Mean difference = 0.10 Study reported = 0.03 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Supportive presence during parent-child puzzle challenge task
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Age 3 EHS-HBO impact study 744 children Adjusted mean = 4.60 Adjusted mean = 4.50 Mean difference = 0.10 Study reported = 0.07 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Supportiveness during parent-child semistructured play
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Age 3 EHS-HBO impact study 744 children Adjusted mean = 4.00 Adjusted mean = 3.90 Mean difference = 0.10 Study reported = 0.16 Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
Primary
Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

HOME:

  • Total score
  • Internal physical environment
  • Warmth
  • Harshness
  • Support of language and learning
The HOME assesses parenting practices and aspects of the home environment. In addition to a total score, four subscales were used. Warmth measured responsive and supportive parenting behavior. Items included whether the mother kissed or caressed the child during the visit, whether her voice conveyed positive feeling, and whether she praised the child. Scores ranged from 0, if none of the positive behaviors were observed, to 3, if all of the behaviors were observed. Harshness measured harsh or punitive parenting behavior observed during the HOME interview. Items included whether the parent scolded the child, physically restrained the child, or slapped or spanked the child. For this subscale (but not for the total HOME score), items were reverse-coded so that higher scores indicate greater harshness. Scores ranged from 0, if no harsh behavior was observed, to 3, if the three types of harsh behavior were observed. Support of language and learning measured the breadth and quality of the mother’s speech and verbal responses to the child, such as whether the parent encourages the child to learn shapes, colors, numbers, and the alphabet; the presence of books, toys, and games accessible to the child; and whether the parent read to the child several times per week. Internal physical environment measured the cleanliness, organization, and warmth of the home environment. Items in this subscale were each coded on a 3-point scale for this subscale (but on a binary scale for the total HOME) ranging from 3 to 9. Parent/caregiver interview and observational assessment

Cronbach’s α = .80 (Total Score) Cronbach’s α = .77 ( Internal physical environment) Cronbach’s α = .72 (Warmth) Cronbach’s α = .55 (Harshness) Cronbach’s α = .67 (Support of language and learning) 

Primary

Parent-child play

Measured the frequency with which the parent engaged in several activities with the child that can stimulate cognitive and language development, including reading or telling stories, dancing, singing, and playing outside together Parent/caregiver report

Cronbach’s α = .80

Primary

Percentage of children who follow a bedtime routine

Percentage of parents who had regular routines with the child around bedtime, such as singing lullabies, putting toys away, or telling stories Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Percentage of children with a regular bedtime

Percentage of parents who set a regular bedtime for the child, and the child was put to bed at that time four out of five weekdays in previous week Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Percentage of parents suggesting physical punishment as a discipline strategy Percentage of parents who would use mild discipline only Index of severity of discipline strategies

Parents were asked about strategies for handling four different potential conflict situations with the child: (1) the child keeps playing with breakable things; (2) the child refuses to eat; (3) the child throws a temper tantrum in a public place; and (4) the child hits the parent in anger. Parents provided open-ended answers to how they would respond to each of the four situations, and these responses were classified into discipline strategies that were coded as binary variables. Index of severity measured the degree of harshness of discipline strategies suggested. An individual’s score on this ranged from 1 to 5, and was determined by the harshest strategy that was suggested in response to any of the four conflict situations. Mild Discipline was a binary variable indicating parents who mentioned only the following types of responses for each situation: prevent the situation; distract the child; remove the child or object; talk to the child or explain the issue; ignore the behavior; put the child in time out; send the child to his or her room; threaten to take away treats or threaten time out; or tell child "No." Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Percentage of parents who read to child at bedtime

Percentage of parents who read to child as part of the regular bedtime routine and followed this routine four out of five weekdays in previous week Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Percentage of parents who read to child daily

Percentage of parents who read to the child every day or more than once per day Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Percentage of parents who spanked child in the past week

Percentage of parents who had spanked the child in the previous week Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Percentage of parents who usually use a car seat correctly

Percentage of families who used a car seat for the child, and it was in the back seat of the car Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Supportive presence during parent-child puzzle challenge task Quality of assistance during parent-child puzzle challenge task Detachment during parent-child puzzle challenge tasks Intrusiveness during parent-child puzzle challenge task

The child was given a puzzle to play with, and the parent was instructed to give the child any help needed. After 3 minutes, or earlier if the puzzle was completed, the interviewer gave the child a second, harder puzzle and asked the mother not to help the child. If that puzzle was completed or 3 minutes elapsed, another, more challenging puzzle was provided. Child and parent behaviors were coded on a 7-point scale. Supportive presence measured the parent’s level of emotional support and enthusiasm toward the child and his or her work on the puzzles, displays of affection, and a positive attitude toward the child and his or her abilities. Quality of Assistance measured the frequency and quality of clear guidance to the child, flexible strategies for providing assistance, and diverse, descriptive verbal instructions and exchanges with the child. Detachment measured the extent to which the parent acted inattentive or indifferent toward the child. Intrusiveness measured the extent to which the parent controlled the child, rather than validating the child’s perspective and exploration. Higher scores indicate that the parent controlled the play agenda. Videotaped observation

Cronbach’s α = .82

Primary

Supportiveness during parent-child semistructured play  Intrusiveness during parent-child semistructured play  Negative regard during parent-child semistructured play Detachment during parent-child semistructured play

The parent and child were given three bags of toys and asked to play with the toys in sequence, and child and parent behaviors were coded. The assessment was adapted from the Three Box coding scales used in the NICHD Study of Early Child Care. Aspects of the parent’s behavior with the child were rated on a 7-point scale. Supportiveness was a measure of parental sensitivity, cognitive stimulation, and positive regard during play. Detachment measured the extent to which the parent was inattentive to the child, or interacted in a indifferent manner. Intrusiveness measured the degree to which the parent controlled the child, rather than recognizing and respecting the validity of the child’s independent efforts to solve the puzzle. Negative regard measured the parent’s expression of discontent with, anger toward, disapproval of, or rejection of the child. High scores on negative regard indicate that the parent used a disapproving or negative tone; showed frustration, anger, physical roughness, or harshness toward the child; threatened the child for failing at a task or not playing the way the parent desired; or belittled the child. Videotaped observation

Not reported by author

Primary
Early Head Start–Home-Based Option (EHS-HBO)
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type
Parent-child structured play: Negative regard
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Age 2 EHS-HBO impact study 794 children Adjusted mean = 1.40 Adjusted mean = 1.50 Mean difference = -0.10 Study reported = -0.05 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Parent-child structured play: Parent detachment
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Age 2 EHS-HBO impact study 794 children Adjusted mean = 1.40 Adjusted mean = 1.50 Mean difference = -0.10 Study reported = -0.15 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Parent-child structured play: Parent intrusiveness
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Age 2 EHS-HBO impact study 794 children Adjusted mean = 1.80 Adjusted mean = 1.90 Mean difference = -0.10 Study reported = -0.07 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Parent-child structured play: Parent supportiveness
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Age 2 EHS-HBO impact study 794 children Adjusted mean = 4.00 Adjusted mean = 3.90 Mean difference = 0.10 Study reported = 0.14 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Parent-child structured play:

  • Parent supportiveness
  • Parent detachment
  • Parent intrusiveness
  • Negative regard
Parent behavior during a structured play task was coded. Parent supportiveness was measured as contingent responsivity, positive regard, and cognitive stimulation. Parent detachment was measured as under-involvement, lack of awareness, attention, or engagement. Parent intrusiveness was measured as over-involvement or over-control. Parent negative regard was measured as discontent, anger, or rejection. Videotaped observation

Not reported by author

Primary
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