Early Head Start–Home-Based Option (EHS-HBO) Meets HHS Criteria

Last updated: July 2016

Effects Shown in Research & Outcome Measure Details

Maternal Health

Outcomes Rated High

Early Head Start–Home-Based Option (EHS-HBO)
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type
Subsequent birth by 24 months after random assignment
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
28 months after assignment EHS-HBO impact sample 941 mothers % = 21.80 % = 24.70 Mean difference = -2.90 Study reported = -0.07 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Subsequent birth by 24 months after random assignment

Percentage of parents who had a subsequent birth by 24 months after random assignment Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Early Head Start–Home-Based Option (EHS-HBO)
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type
FES: Family conflict
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months postpartum EHS-HBO impact sample 966 mothers Adjusted mean = 1.70 Adjusted mean = 1.70 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = -0.12 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
PSI Parent-Child dysfunctional interaction
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months postpartum EHS-HBO impact sample 966 mothers Adjusted mean = 17.10 Adjusted mean = 17.50 Mean difference = -0.40 Study reported = -0.07 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
PSI parental distress
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months postpartum EHS-HBO impact sample 966 mothers Adjusted mean = 25.10 Adjusted mean = 26.20 Mean difference = -1.10 Study reported = -0.11 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

FES: Family conflict

The FES assesses the social-environmental characteristics of families. The researchers used the Family Conflict dimension, which measures the extent to which anger, aggression, frustration, and contentious interactions are common in the family. Parent/caregiver report

Cronbach’s α = 0.67

Primary

PSI–SF: Parental DistressPSI: Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction

The PSI–SF assesses stress in the parent-child relationship arising from child temperament, parental depression, and negatively reinforcing parent-child interactions. The researchers used two subscales: (1) Parental Distress, which measures the level of distress parents feel in their role because of personal factors; and (2) Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction, which measures parents’ perception of parent-child interaction not meeting expectations and feelings of child rejection and abuse. Parent/caregiver report

Cronbach’s α = 0.82 (Parental Distress)Cronbach’s a = 0.78 (Parent Child Dysfunctional Interaction)

Primary

Outcomes Rated Moderate

Early Head Start–Home-Based Option (EHS-HBO)
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type Notes
Parent depression
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Age 5 Home-based program approach Not reported Not reported Not reported Study reported = -0.08 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary

footnote238

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value favors the intervention.

Someone in household had alcohol/drug problem in past year
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Age 5 Home-based program approach Not reported Not reported Not reported Study reported = -0.04 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary

footnote238

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value favors the intervention.

Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Parent depression

The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) measured depression. Parent survey

Internal consistency= 0.88

Secondary

Someone in household had alcohol/drug problem in past year

Parent survey response. Parent survey

Not reported by author

Secondary
Early Head Start–Home-Based Option (EHS-HBO)
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type
FES: Family conflict
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months postpartum EHS-HBO impact sample 950 mothers Adjusted mean = 1.70 Adjusted mean = 1.70 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = -0.01 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
PSI Parent-Child dysfunctional interaction
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months postpartum EHS-HBO impact sample 950 mothers Adjusted mean = 17.50 Adjusted mean = 18.10 Mean difference = -0.60 Study reported = -0.10 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
PSI Parental distress
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months postpartum EHS-HBO impact sample 950 mothers Adjusted mean = 24.90 Adjusted mean = 26.30 Mean difference = -1.40 Study reported = -0.14 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

FES: Family conflict

The FES assesses the social-environmental characteristics of families. The researchers used the Family Conflict dimension, which measures the extent to which anger, aggression, frustration, and contentious interactions are common in the family. Parent/caregiver report

Cronbach’s α = 0.68

Primary

PSI: Parental DistressPSI: Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction

The PSI–SF assesses stress in the parent-child relationship arising from child temperament, parental depression, and negatively reinforcing parent-child interactions. The researchers used two subscales: (1) Parental Distress, which measures the level of distress parents feel in their role because of personal factors; and (2) Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction, which measures parents’ perception of parent-child interaction not meeting expectations and feelings of child rejection and abuse. Parent/caregiver report

Cronbach’s α = 0.84 (Parental Distress) Cronbach’s a = 0.81 (Parent-Child Dysfunctional Interaction)

Primary
Early Head Start–Home-Based Option (EHS-HBO)
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type
CIDI short screening scales: Major depression (probability)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months postpartum EHS-HBO impact sample 966 mothers Adjusted mean = 14.70 Adjusted mean = 12.00 Mean difference = 2.80 Study reported = 0.09 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Parent’s health status
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months postpartum EHS-HBO impact sample 966 mothers Adjusted mean = 3.40 Adjusted mean = 3.40 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = 0.00 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

CIDI-SF: Major depression

The CIDI-SF assesses the presence of six Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and two DSM-IIIR substance disorders. The researchers used one section of the CIDI-SF, Major Depression, which provided the probability of a depressive episode having been experienced during the previous 12 months. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Primary

CIDI short screening scales: Major depression (probability)

Provides a probability for a DSM-IV major depressive episode in the past 12 months Parent assessment

Not reported by author

Primary

Parent’s health status

A measure of perceived health status on a scale of 1 (poor) to 5 (excellent) Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Secondary
EHS - Early Head Start Infant Mental Health Home-Based Services Adaptation (IMH-HB EHS)
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type Notes
PSI: parent-child dysfunctional interaction
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Pooled (ages 3 and 7) Full sample Not reported Not reported Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
PSI: parental distress
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Pooled (ages 3 and 7) Full sample Not reported Not reported Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
F-COPES: cognitive reframing
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Pooled (ages 3, 5, and 7) Full sample Not reported Not reported Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p >0.10 Secondary
F-COPES: seeking support from family and friends
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Pooled (ages 3, 5, and 7) Full sample Not reported Not reported Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p >0.10 Secondary
F-COPES: seeking support from neighbors
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Pooled (ages 3, 5, and 7) Full sample Not reported Not reported Not reported Not available Statistically significant, p<0.05 Secondary

footnote234

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Comparison group was more likely to seek neighbor support. P-value reported by the author was based on an F-test of repeated measure analysis.

F-COPES: seeking support from service providers
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Pooled (ages 3, 5, and 7) Full sample Not reported Not reported Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p >0.10 Secondary
F-COPES: spiritual coping
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Pooled (ages 3, 5, and 7) Full sample Not reported Not reported Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p > 0.10 Secondary
McMaster FAD: healthy functioning
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Pooled (ages 3, 5, and 7) Full sample Not reported Not reported Not reported Not available Statistically significant, p<0.01 Secondary

footnote235

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

IMH-HB <abbr title="Early Head Start">EHS</abbr> group had higher scores on healthy functioning. P-value reported by the author was based on an F-test of repeated measure analysis.

McMaster FAD: unhealthy functioning
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Pooled (ages 3, 5, and 7) Full sample Not reported Not reported Not reported Not available Statistically significant, p<0.01 Secondary

footnote236

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

IMH-HB <abbr title="Early Head Start">EHS</abbr> group had lower scores on unhealthy functioning. P-value reported by the author was based on an F-test of repeated measure analysis.

Pearlin Mastery, age 7
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Age 7 0 Not reported Not reported Not reported Not available Statistically significant, p<0.05 Secondary

footnote237

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

IMH-HB <abbr title="Early Head Start">EHS</abbr> group showed higher levels of perceived mastery. P-value reported by the author was based on an F-test of repeated measure analysis.

PES: attitudes
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Pooled (ages 3, 5, and 7) Full sample Not reported Not reported Not reported Not available Statistically significant, p<0.01 Secondary

footnote232

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

IMH-HB <abbr title="Early Head Start">EHS</abbr> group had higher levels of empowerment based on reported attitudes. P-value reported by the author was based on an F-test of repeated measure analysis.

PES: skills & knowledge
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Pooled (ages 3, 5, and 7) Full sample Not reported Not reported Not reported Not available Statistically significant, p<0.01 Secondary

footnote233

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

IMH-HB <abbr title="Early Head Start">EHS</abbr> group had higher levels of empowerment based on reported knowledge and skills. P-value reported by the author was based on an F-test of repeated measure analysis.

Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

PSI: parent-child dysfunctional interaction

This subscale from the PSI measures parents’ perception of parent-child interaction not meeting the parent's expectations.

Parent/caregiver report

The parent-child dysfunctional interaction subscale had Cronbach's alphas of .79 and .78 for the study sample at ages 3 and 7, respectively.

Primary

PSI: parental distress

This subscale from the PSI measures the level of distress parents feel in their role because of personal factors.

Parent/caregiver report

The authors report that the parental distress subscale was associated with stress associated with parenting demands and with depressive symptomatology. The subscale had Cronbach's alphas of .83 and .82 for the study sample at ages 3 and 7, respectively.

Primary

F-COPES: cognitive reframing

The F-COPES measures behaviors and attitudes that families use to respond to problems.

Parent/caregiver report

The reframing subscale had Cronbach's alphas of .72, .68, and .68 for the study sample at ages 3, 5, and 7, respectively.

Secondary

F-COPES: seeking support from family and friends

The F-COPES measures behaviors and attitudes that families use to respond to problems.

Parent/caregiver report

The seeking support from family and friends subscale had Cronbach's alphas of .81, .83, and .80 for the study sample at ages 3, 5, and 7, respectively.

Secondary

F-COPES: seeking support from neighbors

The F-COPES measures behaviors and attitudes that families use to respond to problems.

Parent/caregiver report

The seeking support from neighbors subscale had Cronbach's alphas of .72, .79, and .69 for the study samples at ages 3, 5, and 7, respectively.

Secondary

F-COPES: seeking support from service providers

The F-COPES measures behaviors and attitudes that families use to respond to problems.

Parent/caregiver report

The seeking support from service providers subscale had Cronbach's alphas of .60, .61, and .74 for the study sample at ages 3, 5, and 7, respectively.

Secondary

F-COPES: spiritual coping

The F-COPES measures behaviors and attitudes that families use to respond to problems.

Parent/caregiver report

The spiritual coping subscale had Cronbach's alphas of .85, .82, and .85 for the study sample at ages 3, 5, and 7, respectively.

Secondary

McMaster FAD: healthy functioning

The McMaster FAD healthy functioning subscale assesses emotional supportiveness between family members.

Parent/caregiver report

The healthy functioning subscale had Cronbach's alphas of .85, .76, and .86 for the study sample at ages 3, 5, and 7, respectively.

Secondary

McMaster FAD: unhealthy functioning

The McMaster FAD unhealthy functioning subscale assesses lack of family cohesion.

Parent/caregiver report

The unhealthy functioning subscale had Cronbach's alphas of .78, .80, and .84 for the study sample at ages 3, 5, and 7, respectively.

Secondary

Pearlin Mastery, age 7

The Pearlin Mastery Scale assesses the degree to which a person has a sense of mastery or control over their life.

Parent/caregiver report

The Pearlin Mastery Scale had a Cronbach's alpha of .69 for the study sample at age 7.

Secondary

PES: attitudes

The PES measures psychological empowerment for parents of children with a disability.

Parent/caregiver report

The attitudes subscale had Cronbach's alphas of .83 and .86 for the study samples at ages 3 and 5, respectively.

Secondary

PES: skills & knowledge

The PES measures psychological empowerment for parents of children with a disability.

Parent/caregiver report

The skills and knowledge subscale had a Cronbach's alpha of .77 for the study sample at both ages 3 and 5.

Secondary
View Revisions