Child First Meets HHS Criteria

Last updated: July 2011

Effects Shown in Research & Outcome Measure Details

Summary of Findings

Please read Describing Effects for more information on these categories. Only results from studies that meet the standards for the high or moderate ratings are included above.

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Child Development and School Readiness

Outcomes Rated High

Child First
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type Notes
ITSEA dysregulation
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families Mean = 16.40 Mean = 20.70 Mean difference = -4.30 HomeVEE calculated = 0.36 p > 0.05 Primary
ITSEA dysregulation
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families Mean = 18.40 Mean = 21.40 Mean difference = -3.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.22 p > 0.05 Primary
ITSEA dysregulation (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % (adjusted) = 11.30 Adjusted mean % = 12.70 Difference = -1.40 HomeVEE calculated = -0.08 p > 0.05 Primary
ITSEA dysregulation (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % (adjusted) = 7.00 Adjusted mean % = 15.90 Difference = -8.90 HomeVEE calculated = -0.56 p > 0.05 Primary
ITSEA externalizing
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families Mean = 13.80 Mean = 18.40 Mean difference = -4.60 HomeVEE calculated = 0.49 p < 0.05 Primary
ITSEA externalizing
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families Mean = 15.40 Mean = 18.40 Mean difference = -3.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.30 p > 0.05 Primary
ITSEA externalizing (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % (adjusted) = 17.00 Adjusted mean % = 29.10 Difference = 12.10 HomeVEE calculated = -0.42 p < 0.05 Primary
ITSEA externalizing (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % (adjusted) = 22.80 Adjusted mean % = 36.50 Difference = -13.70 HomeVEE calculated = -0.40 p > 0.05 Primary
ITSEA internalizing
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families Mean = 13.10 Mean = 14.60 Mean difference = -1.50 HomeVEE calculated = 0.19 p > 0.05 Primary
ITSEA internalizing
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families Mean = 15.40 Mean = 15.80 Mean difference = -0.40 HomeVEE calculated = 0.13 p > 0.05 Primary
ITSEA internalizing (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % (adjusted) = 1.90 Adjusted mean % = 1.80 Difference = 0.10 HomeVEE calculated = 0.03 p > 0.05 Primary
ITSEA internalizing (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % (adjusted) = 3.50 Adjusted mean % = 1.60 Difference = 1.90 HomeVEE calculated = 0.49 p > 0.05 Primary
Any ITSEA domain (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % (adjusted) = 26.40 Adjusted mean % = 36.40 Difference = -10.00 HomeVEE calculated = -0.28 p < 0.05 Primary

footnote124

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

HomVEE-calculated p-value is greater than 0.05, indicating that this result is not significant.

Any ITSEA domain (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % (adjusted) = 26.30 Adjusted mean % = 44.40 Difference = -18.10 HomeVEE calculated = -0.49 p > 0.05 Primary
Child language (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % (adjusted) = 10.50 Adjusted mean % = 33.30 OR = 4.40 HomeVEE calculated = -0.88 p < 0.05 Primary
Child language (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % (adjusted) = 16.90 Adjusted mean % = 30.30 OR = 3.00 HomeVEE calculated = -0.46 p < 0.05 Primary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

ITSEA dysregulation

Child social-emotional /behavioral problems were assessed with the Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (ITSEA). The ITSEA is composed of Internalizing, Externalizing, and Dysregulation (sleep, eating, sensory sensitivities, and negative emotionality) domains. Items are rated on a 3-point scale from not true (1), rarely to very true (2), and often (3).

Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Primary

ITSEA dysregulation (proportion with clinically concerning problems)

Child social-emotional /behavioral problems were assessed with the Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (ITSEA). The ITSEA is composed of Internalizing, Externalizing, and Dysregulation (sleep, eating, sensory sensitivities, and negative emotionality) domains. Items are rated on a 3-point scale from not true (1), rarely to very true (2), and often (3). Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Primary

ITSEA externalizing

Child social-emotional /behavioral problems were assessed with the Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (ITSEA). The ITSEA is composed of Internalizing, Externalizing, and Dysregulation (sleep, eating, sensory sensitivities, and negative emotionality) domains. Items are rated on a 3-point scale from not true (1), rarely to very true (2), and often (3).

Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Primary

ITSEA externalizing (proportion with clinically concerning problems)

Child social-emotional /behavioral problems were assessed with the Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (ITSEA). The ITSEA is composed of Internalizing, Externalizing, and Dysregulation (sleep, eating, sensory sensitivities, and negative emotionality) domains. Items are rated on a 3-point scale from not true (1), rarely to very true (2), and often (3).

Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Primary

ITSEA internalizing

Child social-emotional /behavioral problems were assessed with the Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (ITSEA). The ITSEA is composed of Internalizing, Externalizing, and Dysregulation (sleep, eating, sensory sensitivities, and negative emotionality) domains. Items are rated on a 3-point scale from not true (1), rarely to very true (2), and often (3).

Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Primary

ITSEA internalizing (proportion with clinically concerning problems)

Child social-emotional /behavioral problems were assessed with the Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (ITSEA). The ITSEA is composed of Internalizing, Externalizing, and Dysregulation (sleep, eating, sensory sensitivities, and negative emotionality) domains. Items are rated on a 3-point scale from not true (1), rarely to very true (2), and often (3).

Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Primary

Any ITSEA domain (proportion with clinically concerning problems)

Child social-emotional /behavioral problems were assessed with the Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (ITSEA). The ITSEA is composed of Internalizing, Externalizing, and Dysregulation (sleep, eating, sensory sensitivities, and negative emotionality) domains. Items are rated on a 3-point scale from not true (1), rarely to very true (2), and often (3).

Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Primary

Child language (proportion with clinically concerning problems)

Child language status was assessed using the Infant-Toddler Developmental Assessment (IDA) administered by a trained assessor. The authors reported the percentage of students that fell below the assessments ‘‘Of concern’’ cut-points which are derived from a standardization sample. Child assessment

Not reported by the author

Primary
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Linkages and Referrals

Outcomes Rated High

Child First
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type
Percentage of desired services received that were received, child development
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % = 99.00 % = 14.00 Difference = 85.00 HomeVEE calculated = 3.89 p < 0.001 Secondary
Percentage of desired services that were received
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % = 91.20 % = 33.20 Difference = 58.00 HomeVEE calculated = 3.93 p < 0.001 Secondary
Percentage of desired services that were received
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % = 88.10 % = 31.80 Difference = 56.30 HomeVEE calculated = 3.79 p < 0.001 Secondary
Percentage of desired services that were received—child mental health
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % = 93.00 % = 2.00 Difference = 91.00 HomeVEE calculated = 3.93 p < 0.001 Secondary
Percentage of desired services that were received, early education
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % = 88.00 % = 26.00 Difference = 62.00 HomeVEE calculated = 1.84 p < 0.001 Secondary
Percentage of desired services that were received, adult education
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % = 62.00 % = 9.00 Difference = 53.00 HomeVEE calculated = 1.70 p < 0.001 Secondary
Percentage of desired services that were received, adult mental health
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % = 92.00 % = 7.00 Difference = 85.00 HomeVEE calculated = 3.05 p < 0.001 Secondary
Percentage of desired services that were received, concrete needs
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % = 89.00 % = 16.00 Difference = 73.00 HomeVEE calculated = 2.27 p < 0.001 Secondary
Percentage of desired services that were received, family support
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % = 83.00 % = 9.00 Difference = 74.00 HomeVEE calculated = 2.36 p < 0.001 Secondary
Percentage of desired services that were received, medical services
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % = 98.00 % = 78.00 Difference = 20.00 HomeVEE calculated = 1.59 p < 0.001 Secondary
Percentage of desired services that were received, social services
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % = 93.00 % = 56.00 Difference = 37.00 HomeVEE calculated = 1.42 p < 0.001 Secondary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Percentage of desired services received that were received, child development

Percentage of families receiving desired child development services. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Secondary

Percentage of desired services that were received

Percentage of families whose wanted service needswere met. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Secondary

Percentage of desired services that were received, early education

Percentage of families receiving desired early education services. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Secondary

Percentage of desired services that were received, adult education

Percentage of families receiving desired adult education services.

Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Secondary

Percentage of desired services that were received, adult mental health

Percentage of families receiving desired adult mental health services. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Secondary

Percentage of desired services that were received, concrete needs

Percentage of families receiving assistance with their assessed concrete needs Parent/caregiver report

Not reported

Secondary

Percentage of desired services that were received, family support

Percentage of families receiving desired famly support services. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Secondary

Percentage of desired services that were received, medical services

Percentage of families receiving desired medical services. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Secondary

Percentage of desired services that were received, social services

Percentage of families receiving desired social services. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Secondary

Percentage of desired services that were received—child mental health

Percentage of families receiving desired child mental health services. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Secondary
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Maternal Health

Outcomes Rated High

Child First
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type Notes
BSI
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families Mean = 21.00 Mean = 35.10 Mean difference = -14.10 HomeVEE calculated = 0.56 p < 0.01 Primary
BSI
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families Mean = 32.70 Mean = 33.00 Mean difference = -0.30 HomeVEE calculated = 0.00 p > 0.05 Primary
BSI (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % (adjusted) = 14.00 Adjusted mean % = 39.00 Difference = -25.00 HomeVEE calculated = -0.83 p < 0.05 Primary
BSI (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % (adjusted) = 25.80 Adjusted mean % = 31.80 Difference = -6.00 HomeVEE calculated = -0.18 p > 0.05 Primary
CES-D
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families Mean = 13.50 Mean = 17.40 Mean difference = -3.90 HomeVEE calculated = 0.45 p < 0.05 Secondary
CES-D
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families Mean = 16.90 Mean = 18.50 Mean difference = -1.60 HomeVEE calculated = 0.20 p > 0.05 Secondary
CES-D (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % (adjusted) = 33.30 Adjusted mean % = 37.90 Difference = -4.60 HomeVEE calculated = -0.12 p > 0.05 Secondary
CES-D (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % (adjusted) = 46.00 Adjusted mean % = 40.80 Difference = 5.20 HomeVEE calculated = 0.13 p > 0.05 Secondary
PSI difficult child
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families Mean = 24.90 Mean = 25.90 Mean difference = -1.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.28 p > 0.05 Primary
PSI difficult child
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families Mean = 23.50 Mean = 26.50 Mean difference = -3.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.47 p < 0.05 Primary
PSI difficult child (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % (adjusted) = 7.10 Adjusted mean % = 11.90 Difference = -4.80 HomeVEE calculated = -0.35 p > 0.05 Primary
PSI difficult child (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % (adjusted) = 4.80 Adjusted mean % = 19.70 Difference = -14.90 HomeVEE calculated = -0.96 p < 0.05 Primary
PSI parent distress
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families Mean = 29.70 Mean = 30.40 Mean difference = -0.70 HomeVEE calculated = 0.23 p > 0.05 Primary
PSI parent distress
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families Mean = 30.30 Mean = 33.60 Mean difference = -3.30 HomeVEE calculated = 0.47 p < 0.05 Primary
PSI parent distress (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % (adjusted) = 21.40 Adjusted mean % = 28.80 Difference = -7.40 HomeVEE calculated = -0.24 p > 0.05 Primary
PSI parent distress (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % (adjusted) = 31.80 Adjusted mean % = 45.50 Difference = -13.70 HomeVEE calculated = -0.35 p < 0.05 Primary

footnote124

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

HomVEE-calculated p-value is greater than 0.05, indicating that this result is not significant.

PSI parent-child dysfunction
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families Mean = 21.60 Mean = 20.60 Mean difference = 1.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.00 p > 0.05 Primary
PSI parent-child dysfunction
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families Mean = 20.40 Mean = 21.90 Mean difference = -1.50 HomeVEE calculated = 0.27 p > 0.05 Primary
PSI parent-child dysfunction (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % (adjusted) = 21.40 Adjusted mean % = 17.40 Difference = 4.40 HomeVEE calculated = 0.17 p > 0.05 Primary
PSI parent-child dysfunction (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % (adjusted) = 19.10 Adjusted mean % = 22.70 Difference = -3.60 HomeVEE calculated = -0.13 p > 0.05 Primary
PSI total score
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families Mean = 76.30 Mean = 76.90 Mean difference = -0.60 HomeVEE calculated = 0.20 p > 0.05 Primary
PSI total score
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families Mean = 74.20 Mean = 81.90 Mean difference = -7.70 HomeVEE calculated = 0.49 p < 0.05 Primary
PSI total score (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % (adjusted) = 19.60 Adjusted mean % = 22.00 Difference = -2.40 HomeVEE calculated = -0.09 p > 0.05 Primary
PSI total score (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % (adjusted) = 20.60 Adjusted mean % = 34.90 Difference = -14.30 HomeVEE calculated = -0.44 p < 0.05 Primary
Any PSI scale (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % (adjusted) = 32.70 Adjusted mean % = 44.10 Difference = -11.40 HomeVEE calculated = -0.29 p < 0.05 Primary

footnote124

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

HomVEE-calculated p-value is greater than 0.05, indicating that this result is not significant.

Any PSI scale (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % (adjusted) = 38.10 Adjusted mean % = 57.60 Difference = -19.50 HomeVEE calculated = -0.48 p < 0.05 Primary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

BSI

The Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) is designed to assess global psychiatric symptoms. Items are rated on a 5-point scale from not at all to extremely. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Primary

BSI (proportion with clinically concerning problems)

The Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) is designed to assess global psychiatric symptoms. Items are rated on a 5-point scale from not at all to extremely. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Primary

CES-D

Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES–D; Radloff, 1977). Items are rated on a 4-point scale from rarely or none of the time to most or all of the time. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Secondary

CES-D (proportion with clinically concerning problems)

Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES–D; Radloff, 1977). Items are rated on a 4-point scale from rarely or none of the time to most or all of the time. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Secondary

PSI difficult child

Parenting Stress Index (PSI) Short Form is designed to identify parent-child systems that are under stress and are at risk for dysfunction parenting practices. The PSI includes three domains (Parent Distress, Difficult Child,and Parent–Child Dysfunctional) and items are rated on a 5-point scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Primary

PSI difficult child (proportion with clinically concerning problems)

Parenting Stress Index (PSI) Short Form is designed to identify parent-child systems that are under stress and are at risk for dysfunction parenting practices. The PSI includes three domains (Parent Distress, Difficult Child,and Parent–Child Dysfunctional) and items are rated on a 5-point scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Primary

PSI parent distress

Parenting Stress Index (PSI) Short Form is designed to identify parent-child systems that are under stress and are at risk for dysfunction parenting practices. The PSI includes three domains (Parent Distress, Difficult Child,and Parent–Child Dysfunctional) and items are rated on a 5-point scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Primary

PSI parent distress (proportion with clinically concerning problems)

Parenting Stress Index (PSI) Short Form is designed to identify parent-child systems that are under stress and are at risk for dysfunction parenting practices. The PSI includes three domains (Parent Distress, Difficult Child,and Parent–Child Dysfunctional) and items are rated on a 5-point scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Primary

PSI parent-child dysfunction

Parenting Stress Index (PSI) Short Form is designed to identify parent-child systems that are under stress and are at risk for dysfunction parenting practices. The PSI includes three domains (Parent Distress, Difficult Child,and Parent–Child Dysfunctional) and items are rated on a 5-point scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Primary

PSI parent-child dysfunction (proportion with clinically concerning problems)

Parenting Stress Index (PSI) Short Form is designed to identify parent-child systems that are under stress and are at risk for dysfunction parenting practices. The PSI includes three domains (Parent Distress, Difficult Child,and Parent–Child Dysfunctional) and items are rated on a 5-point scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Primary

PSI total score

Parenting Stress Index (PSI) Short Form is designed to identify parent-child systems that are under stress and are at risk for dysfunction parenting practices. The PSI includes three domains (Parent Distress, Difficult Child,and Parent–Child Dysfunctional) and items are rated on a 5-point scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Primary

PSI total score (proportion with clinically concerning problems)

Parenting Stress Index (PSI) Short Form is designed to identify parent-child systems that are under stress and are at risk for dysfunction parenting practices. The PSI includes three domains (Parent Distress, Difficult Child,and Parent–Child Dysfunctional) and items are rated on a 5-point scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Primary

Any PSI scale (proportion with clinically concerning problems)

Parenting Stress Index (PSI) Short Form is designed to identify parent-child systems that are under stress and are at risk for dysfunction parenting practices. The PSI includes three domains (Parent Distress, Difficult Child,and Parent–Child Dysfunctional) and items are rated on a 5-point scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Primary
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