Child First Meets HHS Criteria

Last updated: July 2011

Model Overview

Theoretical Model

Child First intervenes with vulnerable young children and families at the earliest possible time to prevent and treat the effects of trauma and adversity. The goal is to decrease the incidence of emotional and behavioral disturbance, developmental and learning problems, and abuse and neglect among high-risk young children and their families. The Child First model is based on brain development research, which shows that extremely high-stress environments (including poverty, maternal depression, domestic violence, abuse and neglect, substance abuse, and homelessness) are toxic to the developing brain of the young child, and the presence of a nurturing, consistent, and responsive parent-child relationship buffers and protects the brain from these stressors.

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Model Components

Each family is assigned a Child First team consisting of a licensed, master’s-level mental health/developmental clinician, who is responsible for assessment and therapeutic intervention, and a care coordinator, who is responsible for connecting families to community services and supports. They provide the following services in the home or early care and education settings (the first month focuses on family engagement and assessment, followed by intervention):

  • Assessment of child and family needs. The clinician and care coordinator team uses an ecological approach to assess the child’s health and development, important relationships, and family challenges. The home-based assessment includes a protocol of standardized and informal measures; discussions with parents and caregivers; observations in the home and the early care and education settings; information from the child’s health provider, teacher, and others who regularly interact with the child and family; and reviews of records.
  • Observation and consultation in early care and education setting. A mental health/developmental clinician gathers information within the early care and education or school setting through observation, a formal assessment of social-emotional development completed by the child’s teacher, and conversations with the teacher and school administration. The clinician works with the teacher to understand the meaning of the child’s behavior and to develop classroom strategies to decrease challenging behaviors and enhance the child’s social-emotional development.
  • Development of a child and family plan of care. It outlines a plan for intervention, supports, and community-based services for the child, parents, and other family members. The Child First team develops the plan with the family during home visits; it reflects the parents’ goals, priorities, strengths, culture, and needs. The initial plan is revised as families accomplish goals and subsequent assessments reveal new challenges. The plan is reviewed at least every three months.
  • Parent-child mental health intervention. The home-based intervention incorporates both trauma-informed Child-Parent Psychotherapy (CPP; based on the work of Lieberman and Van Horn) and parent guidance. It is a two-generation approach, designed to strengthen the parent-child relationship and promote secure attachment so that the relationship serves both as a protective buffer to unavoidable stress and directly facilitates emotional, language, and cognitive growth. The model aims to promote parents’/caregivers’ understanding of normal and atypical developmental challenges and expectations; safety and joy in the relationship; parental reflection on the meaning and feelings motivating a child’s behavior; problem-solving and the development of new strategies; and reflection on the psychodynamic relationship between parental feelings, history, and the parental response to the child.
  • Care coordination. The care coordinator provides intensive support during home visits to connect the family to comprehensive community-based services and supports and addresses barriers to access. The care coordinator aims to build parents’ capacity for executive functioning through goal setting, planning, prioritizing, and revising; and by connecting families to resources.
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Target Population

Child First targets pregnant women and families with children from birth through age 5 in which (1) children have emotional, behavioral, or developmental challenges; or (2) the family faces multiple environmental and psychosocial challenges that may lead to negative child outcomes, such as maternal depression, domestic violence, substance abuse, homelessness, or abuse and neglect. Families are served without regard for ability to pay, legal status, or number of children in the family.

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Where to Find Out More

Child First, Inc.
35 Nutmeg Drive, Suite 385
Trumbull, CT 06611
Website: http://www.childfirst.org/
Darcy Lowell, M.D., CEO and Founder
Phone: (203) 538-5225
Email: dlowell@childfirst.org
Mary Peniston, Chief Program Officer
Phone: (203) 538-5224
Email: mpeniston@childfirst.org

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Effects Shown in Research & Outcome Measure Details

Summary of Findings

Please read Describing Effects for more information on these categories. Only results from studies that meet the standards for the high or moderate ratings are included above.

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Linkages and Referrals

Outcomes Rated High

Child First
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type
Percentage of desired services received that were received, child development
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % = 99.00 % = 14.00 Difference = 85.00 HomeVEE calculated = 3.89 p < 0.001 Secondary
Percentage of desired services that were received
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % = 91.20 % = 33.20 Difference = 58.00 HomeVEE calculated = 3.93 p < 0.001 Secondary
Percentage of desired services that were received
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % = 88.10 % = 31.80 Difference = 56.30 HomeVEE calculated = 3.79 p < 0.001 Secondary
Percentage of desired services that were received—child mental health
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % = 93.00 % = 2.00 Difference = 91.00 HomeVEE calculated = 3.93 p < 0.001 Secondary
Percentage of desired services that were received, early education
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % = 88.00 % = 26.00 Difference = 62.00 HomeVEE calculated = 1.84 p < 0.001 Secondary
Percentage of desired services that were received, adult education
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % = 62.00 % = 9.00 Difference = 53.00 HomeVEE calculated = 1.70 p < 0.001 Secondary
Percentage of desired services that were received, adult mental health
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % = 92.00 % = 7.00 Difference = 85.00 HomeVEE calculated = 3.05 p < 0.001 Secondary
Percentage of desired services that were received, concrete needs
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % = 89.00 % = 16.00 Difference = 73.00 HomeVEE calculated = 2.27 p < 0.001 Secondary
Percentage of desired services that were received, family support
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % = 83.00 % = 9.00 Difference = 74.00 HomeVEE calculated = 2.36 p < 0.001 Secondary
Percentage of desired services that were received, medical services
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % = 98.00 % = 78.00 Difference = 20.00 HomeVEE calculated = 1.59 p < 0.001 Secondary
Percentage of desired services that were received, social services
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % = 93.00 % = 56.00 Difference = 37.00 HomeVEE calculated = 1.42 p < 0.001 Secondary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Percentage of desired services received that were received, child development

Percentage of families receiving desired child development services. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Secondary

Percentage of desired services that were received

Percentage of families whose wanted service needswere met. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Secondary

Percentage of desired services that were received, early education

Percentage of families receiving desired early education services. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Secondary

Percentage of desired services that were received, adult education

Percentage of families receiving desired adult education services.

Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Secondary

Percentage of desired services that were received, adult mental health

Percentage of families receiving desired adult mental health services. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Secondary

Percentage of desired services that were received, concrete needs

Percentage of families receiving assistance with their assessed concrete needs Parent/caregiver report

Not reported

Secondary

Percentage of desired services that were received, family support

Percentage of families receiving desired famly support services. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Secondary

Percentage of desired services that were received, medical services

Percentage of families receiving desired medical services. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Secondary

Percentage of desired services that were received, social services

Percentage of families receiving desired social services. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Secondary

Percentage of desired services that were received—child mental health

Percentage of families receiving desired child mental health services. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Secondary
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Maternal Health

Outcomes Rated High

Child First
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type Notes
BSI
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families Mean = 21.00 Mean = 35.10 Mean difference = -14.10 HomeVEE calculated = 0.56 p < 0.01 Primary
BSI
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families Mean = 32.70 Mean = 33.00 Mean difference = -0.30 HomeVEE calculated = 0.00 p > 0.05 Primary
BSI (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % (adjusted) = 14.00 Adjusted mean % = 39.00 Difference = -25.00 HomeVEE calculated = -0.83 p < 0.05 Primary
BSI (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % (adjusted) = 25.80 Adjusted mean % = 31.80 Difference = -6.00 HomeVEE calculated = -0.18 p > 0.05 Primary
CES-D
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families Mean = 13.50 Mean = 17.40 Mean difference = -3.90 HomeVEE calculated = 0.45 p < 0.05 Secondary
CES-D
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families Mean = 16.90 Mean = 18.50 Mean difference = -1.60 HomeVEE calculated = 0.20 p > 0.05 Secondary
CES-D (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % (adjusted) = 33.30 Adjusted mean % = 37.90 Difference = -4.60 HomeVEE calculated = -0.12 p > 0.05 Secondary
CES-D (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % (adjusted) = 46.00 Adjusted mean % = 40.80 Difference = 5.20 HomeVEE calculated = 0.13 p > 0.05 Secondary
PSI difficult child
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families Mean = 24.90 Mean = 25.90 Mean difference = -1.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.28 p > 0.05 Primary
PSI difficult child
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families Mean = 23.50 Mean = 26.50 Mean difference = -3.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.47 p < 0.05 Primary
PSI difficult child (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % (adjusted) = 7.10 Adjusted mean % = 11.90 Difference = -4.80 HomeVEE calculated = -0.35 p > 0.05 Primary
PSI difficult child (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % (adjusted) = 4.80 Adjusted mean % = 19.70 Difference = -14.90 HomeVEE calculated = -0.96 p < 0.05 Primary
PSI parent distress
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families Mean = 29.70 Mean = 30.40 Mean difference = -0.70 HomeVEE calculated = 0.23 p > 0.05 Primary
PSI parent distress
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families Mean = 30.30 Mean = 33.60 Mean difference = -3.30 HomeVEE calculated = 0.47 p < 0.05 Primary
PSI parent distress (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % (adjusted) = 21.40 Adjusted mean % = 28.80 Difference = -7.40 HomeVEE calculated = -0.24 p > 0.05 Primary
PSI parent distress (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % (adjusted) = 31.80 Adjusted mean % = 45.50 Difference = -13.70 HomeVEE calculated = -0.35 p < 0.05 Primary

footnote124

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

HomVEE-calculated p-value is greater than 0.05, indicating that this result is not significant.

PSI parent-child dysfunction
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families Mean = 21.60 Mean = 20.60 Mean difference = 1.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.00 p > 0.05 Primary
PSI parent-child dysfunction
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families Mean = 20.40 Mean = 21.90 Mean difference = -1.50 HomeVEE calculated = 0.27 p > 0.05 Primary
PSI parent-child dysfunction (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % (adjusted) = 21.40 Adjusted mean % = 17.40 Difference = 4.40 HomeVEE calculated = 0.17 p > 0.05 Primary
PSI parent-child dysfunction (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % (adjusted) = 19.10 Adjusted mean % = 22.70 Difference = -3.60 HomeVEE calculated = -0.13 p > 0.05 Primary
PSI total score
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families Mean = 76.30 Mean = 76.90 Mean difference = -0.60 HomeVEE calculated = 0.20 p > 0.05 Primary
PSI total score
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families Mean = 74.20 Mean = 81.90 Mean difference = -7.70 HomeVEE calculated = 0.49 p < 0.05 Primary
PSI total score (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % (adjusted) = 19.60 Adjusted mean % = 22.00 Difference = -2.40 HomeVEE calculated = -0.09 p > 0.05 Primary
PSI total score (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % (adjusted) = 20.60 Adjusted mean % = 34.90 Difference = -14.30 HomeVEE calculated = -0.44 p < 0.05 Primary
Any PSI scale (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % (adjusted) = 32.70 Adjusted mean % = 44.10 Difference = -11.40 HomeVEE calculated = -0.29 p < 0.05 Primary

footnote124

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

HomVEE-calculated p-value is greater than 0.05, indicating that this result is not significant.

Any PSI scale (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % (adjusted) = 38.10 Adjusted mean % = 57.60 Difference = -19.50 HomeVEE calculated = -0.48 p < 0.05 Primary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

BSI

The Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) is designed to assess global psychiatric symptoms. Items are rated on a 5-point scale from not at all to extremely. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Primary

BSI (proportion with clinically concerning problems)

The Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) is designed to assess global psychiatric symptoms. Items are rated on a 5-point scale from not at all to extremely. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Primary

CES-D

Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES–D; Radloff, 1977). Items are rated on a 4-point scale from rarely or none of the time to most or all of the time. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Secondary

CES-D (proportion with clinically concerning problems)

Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES–D; Radloff, 1977). Items are rated on a 4-point scale from rarely or none of the time to most or all of the time. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Secondary

PSI difficult child

Parenting Stress Index (PSI) Short Form is designed to identify parent-child systems that are under stress and are at risk for dysfunction parenting practices. The PSI includes three domains (Parent Distress, Difficult Child,and Parent–Child Dysfunctional) and items are rated on a 5-point scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Primary

PSI difficult child (proportion with clinically concerning problems)

Parenting Stress Index (PSI) Short Form is designed to identify parent-child systems that are under stress and are at risk for dysfunction parenting practices. The PSI includes three domains (Parent Distress, Difficult Child,and Parent–Child Dysfunctional) and items are rated on a 5-point scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Primary

PSI parent distress

Parenting Stress Index (PSI) Short Form is designed to identify parent-child systems that are under stress and are at risk for dysfunction parenting practices. The PSI includes three domains (Parent Distress, Difficult Child,and Parent–Child Dysfunctional) and items are rated on a 5-point scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Primary

PSI parent distress (proportion with clinically concerning problems)

Parenting Stress Index (PSI) Short Form is designed to identify parent-child systems that are under stress and are at risk for dysfunction parenting practices. The PSI includes three domains (Parent Distress, Difficult Child,and Parent–Child Dysfunctional) and items are rated on a 5-point scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Primary

PSI parent-child dysfunction

Parenting Stress Index (PSI) Short Form is designed to identify parent-child systems that are under stress and are at risk for dysfunction parenting practices. The PSI includes three domains (Parent Distress, Difficult Child,and Parent–Child Dysfunctional) and items are rated on a 5-point scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Primary

PSI parent-child dysfunction (proportion with clinically concerning problems)

Parenting Stress Index (PSI) Short Form is designed to identify parent-child systems that are under stress and are at risk for dysfunction parenting practices. The PSI includes three domains (Parent Distress, Difficult Child,and Parent–Child Dysfunctional) and items are rated on a 5-point scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Primary

PSI total score

Parenting Stress Index (PSI) Short Form is designed to identify parent-child systems that are under stress and are at risk for dysfunction parenting practices. The PSI includes three domains (Parent Distress, Difficult Child,and Parent–Child Dysfunctional) and items are rated on a 5-point scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Primary

PSI total score (proportion with clinically concerning problems)

Parenting Stress Index (PSI) Short Form is designed to identify parent-child systems that are under stress and are at risk for dysfunction parenting practices. The PSI includes three domains (Parent Distress, Difficult Child,and Parent–Child Dysfunctional) and items are rated on a 5-point scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Primary

Any PSI scale (proportion with clinically concerning problems)

Parenting Stress Index (PSI) Short Form is designed to identify parent-child systems that are under stress and are at risk for dysfunction parenting practices. The PSI includes three domains (Parent Distress, Difficult Child,and Parent–Child Dysfunctional) and items are rated on a 5-point scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Primary
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Child Development and School Readiness

Outcomes Rated High

Child First
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type Notes
ITSEA dysregulation
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families Mean = 16.40 Mean = 20.70 Mean difference = -4.30 HomeVEE calculated = 0.36 p > 0.05 Primary
ITSEA dysregulation
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families Mean = 18.40 Mean = 21.40 Mean difference = -3.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.22 p > 0.05 Primary
ITSEA dysregulation (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % (adjusted) = 11.30 Adjusted mean % = 12.70 Difference = -1.40 HomeVEE calculated = -0.08 p > 0.05 Primary
ITSEA dysregulation (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % (adjusted) = 7.00 Adjusted mean % = 15.90 Difference = -8.90 HomeVEE calculated = -0.56 p > 0.05 Primary
ITSEA externalizing
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families Mean = 13.80 Mean = 18.40 Mean difference = -4.60 HomeVEE calculated = 0.49 p < 0.05 Primary
ITSEA externalizing
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families Mean = 15.40 Mean = 18.40 Mean difference = -3.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.30 p > 0.05 Primary
ITSEA externalizing (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % (adjusted) = 17.00 Adjusted mean % = 29.10 Difference = 12.10 HomeVEE calculated = -0.42 p < 0.05 Primary
ITSEA externalizing (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % (adjusted) = 22.80 Adjusted mean % = 36.50 Difference = -13.70 HomeVEE calculated = -0.40 p > 0.05 Primary
ITSEA internalizing
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families Mean = 13.10 Mean = 14.60 Mean difference = -1.50 HomeVEE calculated = 0.19 p > 0.05 Primary
ITSEA internalizing
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families Mean = 15.40 Mean = 15.80 Mean difference = -0.40 HomeVEE calculated = 0.13 p > 0.05 Primary
ITSEA internalizing (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % (adjusted) = 1.90 Adjusted mean % = 1.80 Difference = 0.10 HomeVEE calculated = 0.03 p > 0.05 Primary
ITSEA internalizing (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % (adjusted) = 3.50 Adjusted mean % = 1.60 Difference = 1.90 HomeVEE calculated = 0.49 p > 0.05 Primary
Any ITSEA domain (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % (adjusted) = 26.40 Adjusted mean % = 36.40 Difference = -10.00 HomeVEE calculated = -0.28 p < 0.05 Primary

footnote124

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

HomVEE-calculated p-value is greater than 0.05, indicating that this result is not significant.

Any ITSEA domain (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % (adjusted) = 26.30 Adjusted mean % = 44.40 Difference = -18.10 HomeVEE calculated = -0.49 p > 0.05 Primary
Child language (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
12 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % (adjusted) = 10.50 Adjusted mean % = 33.30 OR = 4.40 HomeVEE calculated = -0.88 p < 0.05 Primary
Child language (proportion with clinically concerning problems)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
6 months Bridgeport, CT 117 families % (adjusted) = 16.90 Adjusted mean % = 30.30 OR = 3.00 HomeVEE calculated = -0.46 p < 0.05 Primary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

ITSEA dysregulation

Child social-emotional /behavioral problems were assessed with the Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (ITSEA). The ITSEA is composed of Internalizing, Externalizing, and Dysregulation (sleep, eating, sensory sensitivities, and negative emotionality) domains. Items are rated on a 3-point scale from not true (1), rarely to very true (2), and often (3).

Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Primary

ITSEA dysregulation (proportion with clinically concerning problems)

Child social-emotional /behavioral problems were assessed with the Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (ITSEA). The ITSEA is composed of Internalizing, Externalizing, and Dysregulation (sleep, eating, sensory sensitivities, and negative emotionality) domains. Items are rated on a 3-point scale from not true (1), rarely to very true (2), and often (3). Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Primary

ITSEA externalizing

Child social-emotional /behavioral problems were assessed with the Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (ITSEA). The ITSEA is composed of Internalizing, Externalizing, and Dysregulation (sleep, eating, sensory sensitivities, and negative emotionality) domains. Items are rated on a 3-point scale from not true (1), rarely to very true (2), and often (3).

Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Primary

ITSEA externalizing (proportion with clinically concerning problems)

Child social-emotional /behavioral problems were assessed with the Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (ITSEA). The ITSEA is composed of Internalizing, Externalizing, and Dysregulation (sleep, eating, sensory sensitivities, and negative emotionality) domains. Items are rated on a 3-point scale from not true (1), rarely to very true (2), and often (3).

Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Primary

ITSEA internalizing

Child social-emotional /behavioral problems were assessed with the Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (ITSEA). The ITSEA is composed of Internalizing, Externalizing, and Dysregulation (sleep, eating, sensory sensitivities, and negative emotionality) domains. Items are rated on a 3-point scale from not true (1), rarely to very true (2), and often (3).

Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Primary

ITSEA internalizing (proportion with clinically concerning problems)

Child social-emotional /behavioral problems were assessed with the Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (ITSEA). The ITSEA is composed of Internalizing, Externalizing, and Dysregulation (sleep, eating, sensory sensitivities, and negative emotionality) domains. Items are rated on a 3-point scale from not true (1), rarely to very true (2), and often (3).

Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Primary

Any ITSEA domain (proportion with clinically concerning problems)

Child social-emotional /behavioral problems were assessed with the Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (ITSEA). The ITSEA is composed of Internalizing, Externalizing, and Dysregulation (sleep, eating, sensory sensitivities, and negative emotionality) domains. Items are rated on a 3-point scale from not true (1), rarely to very true (2), and often (3).

Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by the author

Primary

Child language (proportion with clinically concerning problems)

Child language status was assessed using the Infant-Toddler Developmental Assessment (IDA) administered by a trained assessor. The authors reported the percentage of students that fell below the assessments ‘‘Of concern’’ cut-points which are derived from a standardization sample. Child assessment

Not reported by the author

Primary
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In Brief

Evidence of Model Effectiveness

This model meets the criteria established by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) for an “evidence-based early childhood home visiting service delivery model” for the general population, but does not meet the criteria for tribal populations.

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Model Description

Child First works to decrease the incidence of emotional and behavioral disturbance, developmental and learning problems, and abuse and neglect among high-risk young children and families. Child First serves pregnant women and families with children from birth through age 5. A mental health/developmental clinician and care coordinator work as a team to provide services that include a comprehensive assessment of child and family needs, observation and consultation in early care and education settings, a family and child plan of care, a parent-child mental health intervention, and care coordination. The model typically lasts 6 to 12 months, depending on a family’s needs. During the first month, the clinician and care coordinator conduct joint home visits twice per week, and thereafter visits occur either separately or jointly and at least weekly. For more information, please read the Model Overview.

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Extent of Evidence

Results of Research and Review
Number of studies
Eligible for review
1
Rated high
1
Rated moderate
0
Rated low
0
Additional source1
0

For more information, see the study database. For more information on the criteria used to determine the study ratings, please read Producing Study Ratings.

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Summary of Findings

Please read Describing Effects for more information on these categories. Only results from studies that meet the standards for the high or moderate ratings are included above.

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Criteria Established by the Department of Health and Human Services

Information Based on Comprehensive Review of All High- and Moderate-Impact Studies for this Model
High- or moderate-quality impact study?
Yes
Across high- or moderate-quality studies, favorable impacts in at least two outcome domains within one sample OR the same domain for at least two non-overlapping samples?
Yes
Favorable impacts on full sample?
Yes
Any favorable impacts on outcome measures sustained at least 12 months after model enrollment?1
Yes
One or more favorable, statistically significant impact reported in a peer-reviewed journal?1
Yes

Please read the HHS Criteria for Evidence-Based models for more information.

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