Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-Up (ABC) -Infant Meets HHS Criteria

Last updated: 2020

Effects shown in research & outcome measure details

Positive parenting practices

Findings rated high

Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-Up (ABC) -Infant
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Outcome measure Effect Follow-up timing Sample Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance Notes

D.O.T.S. Emotion Coding System - Parent-child mutual positive affect

FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect

24 months of age

ABC-Infant vs. DEF; Philadelphia

107 parent/child dyads Not reported Not reported Not reported = 0.42

Statistically significant, p= 0.03

Model does not include statistical controls.

D.O.T.S. Emotion Coding System - Parent-child mutual positive affect

FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect

24 months of age

ABC-Infant vs. DEF; Philadelphia

107 parent/child dyads Not reported Not reported Not reported = 0.46

Statistically significant, p= 0.02

Model controls for child risk, parent risk (0 to 24 months), and instability risk (0 to 24 months).

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Outcome measure Outcome measure description Collection method Properties Operations links

D.O.T.S. Emotion Coding System - Parent-child mutual positive affect

Coding of emotion expression utilized the D.O.T.S. Emotion Coding System (Cole, Wiggins, Radzioch, & Pearl, 2007). The D.O.T.S. Emotion Coding System assesses child emotion expression and parent emotion expression during a parent-child interaction.

Parent-child interaction

Not reported by author.

Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-Up (ABC) -Infant
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Outcome measure Effect Follow-up timing Sample Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance Notes

Atypical Maternal Behavior Instrument for Assessment and Classification (AMBIANCE) - Affective communication errors

FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect

7 months post-intervention

ABC-I vs. DEF; Large mid-Atlantic city

109 parents Not reported Not reported Not reported HomeVEE calculated = 0.21

Not statistically significant, p= 0.27

Atypical Maternal Behavior Instrument for Assessment and Classification (AMBIANCE) - Disrupted parenting

FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect

7 months post-intervention

ABC-I vs. DEF; Large mid-Atlantic city

109 parents Unadjusted proportion = 0.50 Unadjusted proportion Unadjusted proportion = 0.61 Unadjusted proportion Mean difference = -0.11 HomeVEE calculated = -0.27

Not statistically significant, p= 0.23

Atypical Maternal Behavior Instrument for Assessment and Classification (AMBIANCE) - Fearful/disorientation

FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect

7 months post-intervention

ABC-I vs. DEF; Large mid-Atlantic city

109 parents Not reported Not reported Not reported HomeVEE calculated = 0.14

Not statistically significant, p= 0.46

Atypical Maternal Behavior Instrument for Assessment and Classification (AMBIANCE) - Intrusive/negativity

FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect

7 months post-intervention

ABC-I vs. DEF; Large mid-Atlantic city

109 parents Not reported Not reported Not reported HomeVEE calculated = 0.09

Not statistically significant, p= 0.64

Atypical Maternal Behavior Instrument for Assessment and Classification (AMBIANCE) - Parental withdrawal

FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect

7 months post-intervention

ABC-I vs. DEF; Large mid-Atlantic city

109 parents Unadjusted mean = 3.77 Unadjusted mean Unadjusted mean = 4.46 Unadjusted mean Mean difference = -0.69 HomeVEE calculated = -0.44

Statistically significant, p= 0.02

Atypical Maternal Behavior Instrument for Assessment and Classification (AMBIANCE) - Role/boundary confusion

FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect

7 months post-intervention

ABC-I vs. DEF; Large mid-Atlantic city

109 parents Not reported Not reported Not reported HomeVEE calculated = 0.04

Not statistically significant, p= 0.84

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Outcome measure Outcome measure description Collection method Properties Operations links

Atypical Maternal Behavior Instrument for Assessment and Classification (AMBIANCE) - Affective communication errors

AMBIANCE is a classification system which rates atypical parenting behavior observed in videotaped interactions between mother and child. Parent is categorized as having affective communication errors on a 7-point scale with higher scale rating indicating higher rates of communication errors with child.

Videotaped interactions between mother and child.

Interrater correlation for scale agreement was 79%.

Atypical Maternal Behavior Instrument for Assessment and Classification (AMBIANCE) - Disrupted parenting

AMBIANCE is a classification system which rates atypical parenting behavior observed in videotaped interactions between mother and child. Parent is categorized as disrupted or not disrupted in parenting style.

Videotaped interactions between mother and child.

Interrater agreement on disrupted parenting style was 87%.

Atypical Maternal Behavior Instrument for Assessment and Classification (AMBIANCE) - Fearful/disorientation

AMBIANCE is a classification system which rates atypical parenting behavior observed in videotaped interactions between mother and child. Parent is categorized as having fear/disorientation (e.g., appearing frightened or disoriented) on a 7-point scale with higher scale rating indicating higher rates of fear/disorientation.

Videotaped interactions between mother and child.

Interrater correlation for scale agreement was 68%.

Atypical Maternal Behavior Instrument for Assessment and Classification (AMBIANCE) - Intrusive/negativity

AMBIANCE is a classification system which rates atypical parenting behavior observed in videotaped interactions between mother and child. Parent is categorized as having intrusive/negative behavior on a 7-point scale with higher scale rating indicating higher rates of intrusive/negative behavior.

Videotaped interactions between mother and child.

Interrater correlation for scale agreement was 85%.

Atypical Maternal Behavior Instrument for Assessment and Classification (AMBIANCE) - Parental withdrawal

AMBIANCE is a classification system which rates atypical parenting behavior observed in videotaped interactions between mother and child. Parent is categorized as withdrawn parenting style on a 7-point scale with higher scale rating indicating higher withdrawal.

Videotaped interactions between mother and child.

Interrater correlation for scale agreement was 74%.

Atypical Maternal Behavior Instrument for Assessment and Classification (AMBIANCE) - Role/boundary confusion

AMBIANCE is a classification system which rates atypical parenting behavior observed in videotaped interactions between mother and child. Parent is categorized as having role/boundary confusion on a 7-point scale with higher scale rating indicating higher rates of role/boundary confusion.

Videotaped interactions between mother and child.

Interrater correlation for scale agreement was 73%.

Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-Up (ABC) -Infant
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Outcome measure Effect Follow-up timing Sample Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance Notes

Observational Record of the Caregiving Environment (ORCE) adapted scale - Intrusiveness

FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect

7-37 months post-intervention (pooled)

ABC-I vs. DEF; international adoptions; Mid-Atlantic

120 parents Not reported Not reported Not reported HomeVEE calculated = -0.32

Not statistically significant, p= 0.11

Observational Record of the Caregiving Environment (ORCE) adapted scale - Parenting sensitivity

FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect

7-37 months post-intervention (pooled)

ABC-I vs. DEF; international adoptions; Mid-Atlantic

120 parents Not reported Not reported Not reported HomeVEE calculated = 0.52

Statistically significant, p= 0.01

Observational Record of the Caregiving Environment (ORCE) adapted scale - Positive regard

FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect

7-37 months post-intervention (pooled)

ABC-I vs. DEF; international adoptions; Mid-Atlantic

120 parents Not reported Not reported Not reported HomeVEE calculated = 0.36

Statistically significant, p= 0.05

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Outcome measure Outcome measure description Collection method Properties Operations links

Observational Record of the Caregiving Environment (ORCE) adapted scale - Intrusiveness

Intrusiveness towards child; coded using adapted scales from NICHD's Observational Record of the Caregiving Environment.

Videotaped observation

Not reported by author

Observational Record of the Caregiving Environment (ORCE) adapted scale - Parenting sensitivity

Sensitivity towards child; coded using adapted scales from NICHD's Observational Record of the Caregiving Environment.

Videotaped observation

Not reported by author

Observational Record of the Caregiving Environment (ORCE) adapted scale - Positive regard

Positive regard towards child; coded using adapted scales from NICHD's Observational Record of the Caregiving Environment.

Videotaped observation

Not reported by author

Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-Up (ABC) -Infant
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Outcome measure Effect Follow-up timing Sample Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance Notes
Growth in parental intrusiveness
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
16 to 19 weeks Delaware mothers 24 mothers Unadjusted mean = -1.22 Unadjusted mean = -0.26 Mean difference = -0.96 Study reported = 0.81 Statistically significant, p = 0.02

footnote162

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Growth in parental sensitivity
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
16 to 19 weeks Delaware mothers 24 mothers Unadjusted mean = 0.97 Unadjusted mean = 0.26 Mean difference = 0.71 Study reported = 0.70 Statistically significant, p = 0.04
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Growth in parental intrusiveness

The ORCE intrusiveness scale measures the mother's tendency to disregard a child's cues to disengage from an activity or physical contact. Coded videos of parent-child play

Not reported by authors.

Growth in parental sensitivity

The ORCE sensitivity scale measures the mother's ability to respond to the child's interests, needs, and emotions. Coded videos of parent-child play

Not reported by authors.

Findings rated moderate

Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-Up (ABC) -Infant
Show findings details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up timing Sample Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance
Parent positive regard
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
0-6 months International adoptions 108 caregivers Unadjusted mean = 4.32 Unadjusted mean = 3.76 Mean difference = 0.56 HomeVEE calculated = 0.70 Statistically significant, p<0.01
Parent sensitivity
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
0-6 months International adoptions 108 caregivers Unadjusted mean = 3.56 Unadjusted mean = 2.93 Mean difference = 0.63 HomeVEE calculated = 0.62 Statistically significant, p<0.01
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Outcome measure Outcome measure description Collection method Properties Operations links

Parent positive regard

Positive regard towards child; coded using adapted scales from NICHD's Observational Record of the Caregiving Environment. Videotaped observation

Not reported by author

Parent sensitivity

Sensitivity towards child; coded using adapted scales from NICHD's Observational Record of the Caregiving Environment. Videotaped observation

Not reported by author

Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-Up (ABC) -Infant
Show findings details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up timing Sample Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance Notes

Parent sensitivity

FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect

1 month post-intervention

ABC-Infant vs. DEF; Large mid-Atlantic city

89 mother/child dyads Unadjusted mean = 2.49 Unadjusted mean = 1.94 Mean difference = 0.55 Study reported = 0.47

Statistically significant, p= 0.03

Authors used ANOVA to estimate the difference between the ABC and DEF groups; effect size is Cohen's D.

Parent sensitivity: duration (seconds)

FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect

36 months of age

ABC-Infant vs. DEF; Large mid-Atlantic city

101 mother/child dyads Unadjusted mean = 31.23 Unadjusted mean = 21.37 Mean difference = 9.86 Study reported = 0.40

Not statistically significant, p= 0.05

Authors used ANOVA to estimate the difference between the ABC and DEF groups; effect size is Cohen's D.

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Outcome measure Outcome measure description Collection method Properties Operations links

Parent sensitivity

Parent sensitivity was coded using the 5-point scale of sensitivity adapted from the Observational Record of the Caregiving Environment (ORCE) during a free play activity.

Video recorded play interactions

Interrater reliability correlational coefficient at least .75

Parent sensitivity: duration (seconds)

Parent sensitivity was coded using the Noldus Observer XT 11 and conceptualized using the Observational Record of the Caregiving Environment (ORCE). A total duration (seconds) of parent sensitivity was coded. The observation was drawn from the 5-minute waiting task of the Disruptive Behavior Diagnostic Observation Schedule (DB-DOS).

Video recorded play interactions

Interrater reliability k=.79

Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-Up (ABC) -Infant
Show findings details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up timing Sample Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance Notes

Atypical Maternal Behavior Instrument for Assessment and Classification (AMBIANCE) Scale - Disrupted parenting

FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect

7 months after enrollment (1 month post-intervention)

ABC-Infant vs. DEF; Large mid-Atlantic city

105 mothers Unadjusted proportion = 0.52 Unadjusted proportion = 0.62 Mean difference = -0.10 HomeVEE calculated = -0.24

Not statistically significant, p= 0.31

Atypical Maternal Behavior Instrument for Assessment and Classification (AMBIANCE) Scale - Parental affective communication errors

FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect

7 months after enrollment (1 month post-intervention)

ABC-Infant vs. DEF; Large mid-Atlantic city

105 mothers Not reported Not reported Not reported HomeVEE calculated = 0.31

Not statistically significant, p = 0.33

Atypical Maternal Behavior Instrument for Assessment and Classification (AMBIANCE) Scale - Parental fearful/disoriented

FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect

7 months after enrollment (1 month post-intervention)

ABC-Infant vs. DEF; Large mid-Atlantic city

105 mothers Not reported Not reported Not reported HomeVEE calculated = 0.12

Not statistically significant, p= 0.52

Atypical Maternal Behavior Instrument for Assessment and Classification (AMBIANCE) Scale - Parental intrusive/negativity

FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect

7 months after enrollment (1 month post-intervention)

ABC-Infant vs. DEF; Large mid-Atlantic city

105 mothers Not reported Not reported Not reported HomeVEE calculated = 0.10

Not statistically significant, p= 0.60

Atypical Maternal Behavior Instrument for Assessment and Classification (AMBIANCE) Scale - Parental role/boundary confusion

FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect

7 months after enrollment (1 month post-intervention)

ABC-Infant vs. DEF; Large mid-Atlantic city

105 mothers Not reported Not reported Not reported HomeVEE calculated = -0.32

Not statistically significant, p= 0.74

Atypical Maternal Behavior Instrument for Assessment and Classification (AMBIANCE) Scale - Parental withdrawal

FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect

7 months after enrollment (1 month post-intervention)

ABC-Infant vs. DEF; Large mid-Atlantic city

105 mothers Unadjusted mean = 3.76 Unadjusted mean = 4.42 Mean difference = -0.66 Study reported = -0.42

Statistically significant, p= 0.03

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Outcome measure Outcome measure description Collection method Properties Operations links

Atypical Maternal Behavior Instrument for Assessment and Classification (AMBIANCE) Scale - Disrupted parenting

A categorical indication of whether the parent is disrupted or not using the AMBIANCE coding system.

Parent-child assessment

Interrater reliability=.90

Atypical Maternal Behavior Instrument for Assessment and Classification (AMBIANCE) Scale - Parental affective communication errors

AMBIANCE is a coding system that assesses negative parenting practices on a 7-point scale. Parental affective communication errors is exemplified by parents' failure to respond appropriately to children's cues.

Parent-child assessment

Interrater reliability=.80

Atypical Maternal Behavior Instrument for Assessment and Classification (AMBIANCE) Scale - Parental fearful/disoriented

AMBIANCE is a coding system that assesses negative parenting practices on a 7-point scale. Parental fearful/disoriented behavior is characterized by parents appearing to be disoriented or afraid of child.

Parent-child assessment

Interrater reliability=.68

Atypical Maternal Behavior Instrument for Assessment and Classification (AMBIANCE) Scale - Parental intrusive/negativity

AMBIANCE is a coding system that assesses negative parenting practices on a 7-point scale. Parental intrusiveness/negativity is characterized by a parents' physical and/or verbal abuse of their children.

Parent-child assessment

Interrater reliability=.85

Atypical Maternal Behavior Instrument for Assessment and Classification (AMBIANCE) Scale - Parental role/boundary confusion

AMBIANCE is a coding system that assesses negative parenting practices on a 7-point scale. Parental role/boundary confusion is characterized by parents placing their needs over those of their children.

Parent-child assessment

Interrater reliability=.73

Atypical Maternal Behavior Instrument for Assessment and Classification (AMBIANCE) Scale - Parental withdrawal

AMBIANCE is a coding system that assesses negative parenting practices on a 7-point scale. Parental withdrawal is exemplified by parents distancing themselves from their children via physical or verbal cues.

Parent-child assessment

Interrater reliability=.74

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