Parents as Teachers (PAT)® Meets HHS Criteria

Last updated: October 2019

Effects Shown in Research & Outcome Measure Details

Positive Parenting Practices

Outcomes Rated High

Parents as Teachers (PAT)®
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type
HOME acceptance of child’s behavior subscale
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 335 mothers Mean = 6.40 Mean = 6.70 Mean difference = -0.30 Study reported = -0.28 Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
Primary
HOME involvement with child subscale
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 350 mothers Mean = 4.60 Mean = 4.60 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = -0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME involvement with child subscale
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 335 mothers Mean = 4.00 Mean = 4.00 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = 0.01 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME opportunities for stimulation subscale
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 335 mothers Mean = 3.40 Mean = 3.50 Mean difference = -0.10 Study reported = -0.07 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME acceptance of child’s behavior subscale
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 350 mothers Mean = 6.40 Mean = 6.70 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = -0.32 Statistically significant,
p < 0.001
Primary
HOME appropriate play materials subscale
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 350 mothers Mean = 6.60 Mean = 6.50 Mean difference = 0.10 Study reported = 0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME appropriate play materials subscale
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 335 mothers Mean = 6.70 Mean = 6.70 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = 0.00 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME language- and literacy-promoting behaviors
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 335 mothers Mean = 5.80 Mean = 5.80 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = 0.00 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME opportunities for stimulation subscale
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 350 mothers Mean = 3.50 Mean = 3.60 Mean difference = -0.10 Study reported = -0.13 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME organization of the environment subscale
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 350 mothers Mean = 5.70 Mean = 5.70 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = 0.05 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME organization of the environment subscale
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 335 mothers Mean = 5.70 Mean = 5.70 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = 0.08 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME parental responsivity subscale
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 350 mothers Mean = 10.00 Mean = 10.00 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = 0.00 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME parental responsivity subscale
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 335 mothers Mean = 9.90 Mean = 9.80 Mean difference = 0.10 Study reported = 0.04 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME total scale
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 350 mothers Mean = 36.60 Mean = 37.20 Mean difference = -0.60 Study reported = -0.09 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME total scale
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 335 mothers Mean = 36.20 Mean = 36.40 Mean difference = -0.20 Study reported = -0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
KIDI
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 367 mothers Mean = 0.65 Mean = 0.65 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = -0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
KIDI
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 350 mothers Mean = 0.66 Mean = 0.69 Mean difference = -0.02 Study reported = -0.18 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
PSOC parenting efficacy subscale
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 357 mothers Mean = 27.20 Mean = 27.00 Mean difference = 0.02 Study reported = 0.05 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
PSOC parenting efficacy subscale
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 341 mothers Mean = 27.10 Mean = 26.60 Mean difference = 0.50 Study reported = 0.15 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
PSOC parenting satisfaction subscale
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 357 mothers Mean = 24.60 Mean = 25.20 Mean difference = -0.06 Study reported = -0.09 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
PSOC parenting satisfaction subscale
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 341 mothers Mean = 25.40 Mean = 26.40 Mean difference = -1.00 Study reported = -0.18 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
PSOC total score
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 357 mothers Mean = 51.80 Mean = 52.20 Mean difference = -0.40 Study reported = -0.05 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
PSOC total score
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 341 mothers Mean = 52.40 Mean = 52.90 Mean difference = -0.50 Study reported = -0.06 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Discipline (from HOME items)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 335 mothers Mean = 5.70 Mean = 5.90 Mean difference = -0.20 Study reported = -0.27 Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
Primary
Home mother-child interaction
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 335 mothers Mean = 5.20 Mean = 5.20 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = -0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

KIDI

The KIDI measures the parent’s knowledge of childrearing practices and developmental processes. The researchers measured the percentage of items that were answered correctly on the 57-item assessment. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Secondary

PSOC Scale: Total score, Parenting satisfaction subscale, Parenting efficacy subscale

The PSOC measures parent attitudes and self-efficacy. The researchers examined the total score and two subscale scores regarding parental, efficacy and satisfaction. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Secondary

HOME:

  • Total score
  • Parental responsivity subscale
  • Acceptance of child’s behavior subscale
  • Organization of the environment subscale
  • Appropriate play materials subscale
  • Involvement with child subscale
  • Opportunities for stimulation subscale
  • Parental responsivity subscale
  • Language- and literacy-promoting behaviors
  • Mother-child interaction
  • Discipline
The HOME assesses parenting practices and aspects of the home environment. The researchers examined the total score, as well as the following subscales: acceptance of child’s behavior, opportunity for stimulation, organization of the environment, parental involvement, parental responsivity, appropriate play materials, language promoting behaviors, mother-child interaction, and discipline. Parent/caregiver interview and observational assessment

Not reported by author

Primary

Outcomes Rated Moderate

Parents as Teachers (PAT)®
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type
AAPI average child maltreatment precursor scale (range = 6 to 24)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
1-year assessment Three-site sample 344 mothers Mean = 19.10 Mean = 19.10 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = 0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
AAPI average child maltreatment precursor scale (range = 6 to 24)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2-year assessment Three-site sample 267 mothers Mean = 18.30 Mean = 18.30 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = 0.01 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME acceptance of child’s behavior subscale
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
1-year assessment Three-site sample 343 mothers Mean = 6.00 Mean = 6.20 Mean difference = -0.20 Study reported = -0.12 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME acceptance of child’s behavior subscale
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2-year assessment Three-site sample 254 mothers Mean = 6.00 Mean = 5.70 Mean difference = 0.30 Study reported = 0.22 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME appropriate play materials subscale
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2-year assessment Three-site sample 254 mothers Mean = 7.90 Mean = 7.40 Mean difference = 0.30 Study reported = 0.26 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME involvement with child subscale
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
1-year assessment Three-site sample 343 mothers Mean = 4.10 Mean = 4.10 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = -0.01 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME involvement with child subscale
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2-year assessment Three-site sample 254 mothers Mean = 5.00 Mean = 4.90 Mean difference = 0.10 Study reported = 0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME opportunities for stimulation subscale
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
1-year assessment Three-site sample 343 mothers Mean = 3.40 Mean = 3.40 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = -0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME opportunities for stimulation subscale
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2-year assessment Three-site sample 254 mothers Mean = 3.70 Mean = 3.50 Mean difference = 0.20 Study reported = 0.20 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME organization of the environment subscale
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
1-year assessment Three-site sample 343 mothers Mean = 5.30 Mean = 5.30 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = 0.03 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME appropriate play materials subscale
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
1-year assessment Three-site sample 343 mothers Mean = 6.80 Mean = 6.70 Mean difference = 0.10 Study reported = 0.06 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME organization of the environment subscale
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2-year assessment Three-site sample 254 mothers Mean = 5.70 Mean = 5.60 Mean difference = 0.10 Study reported = 0.17 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME parental responsivity subcale
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2-year assessment Three-site sample 254 mothers Mean = 9.40 Mean = 9.30 Mean difference = 0.10 Study reported = 0.09 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME subscale related to language- and literacy-promoting behaviors (range = 0 to 8)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
1-year assessment Three-site sample 343 mothers Mean = 5.50 Mean = 5.30 Mean difference = 0.20 Study reported = 0.08 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME subscale related to language- and literacy-promoting behaviors (range = 0 to 8)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2-year assessment Three-site sample 266 mothers Mean = 6.50 Mean = 6.10 Mean difference = 0.40 Study reported = 0.31 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME subscale: parental responsivity
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
1-year assessment Three-site sample 343 mothers Mean = 8.50 Mean = 8.50 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = -0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME total scale (range = 0 to 45)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
1-year assessment Three-site sample 343 mothers Mean = 34.10 Mean = 34.20 Mean difference = -0.10 Study reported = -0.01 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.93
Primary
HOME total scale (range = 0 to 45)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2-year assessment Three-site sample 254 mothers Mean = 37.70 Mean = 36.40 Mean difference = 1.30 Study reported = 0.22 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
NCAST, total scale score
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2-year assessment Three-site sample 254 mothers Mean = 52.60 Mean = 52.90 Mean difference = -0.30 Study reported = -0.09 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.41
Primary
PSOC parenting efficacy subscale (range = 8 to 32)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
1-year assessment Three-site sample 344 mothers Mean = 28.60 Mean = 28.80 Mean difference = -0.20 Study reported = -0.10 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
PSOC parenting efficacy subscale (range = 8 to 32)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2-year assessment Three-site sample 267 mothers Mean = 28.70 Mean = 28.70 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = 0.01 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
PSOC satisfaction subscale (range = 9 to 36)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
1-year assessment Three-site sample 344 mothers Mean = 25.90 Mean = 26.80 Mean difference = -0.90 Study reported = -0.20 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
PSOC satisfaction subscale (range = 9 to 36)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2-year assessment Three-site sample 267 mothers Mean = 25.50 Mean = 25.70 Mean difference = -0.20 Study reported = -0.05 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
PSOC total scale (range = 17 to 68)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
1-year assessment Three-site sample 344 mothers Mean = 54.40 Mean = 55.60 Mean difference = -1.20 Study reported = -0.20 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
PSOC total scale (range = 17 to 68)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2-year assessment Three-site sample 267 mothers Mean = 54.20 Mean = 54.40 Mean difference = -0.20 Study reported = -0.04 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Language literacy numeracy promotion scale (range = 6 to 24)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
1-year assessment Three-site sample 343 mothers Mean = 19.00 Mean = 18.50 Mean difference = 0.50 Study reported = 0.12 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Language literacy numeracy promotion scale (range = 6 to 24)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2-year assessment Three-site sample 266 mothers Mean = 20.00 Mean = 19.70 Mean difference = 0.30 Study reported = 0.09 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Parent Observation Scale (range 1 to 4; 4 = more observant)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
1-year assessment Three-site sample 340 mothers Mean = 3.70 Mean = 3.80 Mean difference = -0.10 Study reported = -0.21 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Parent Observation Scale (range 1 to 4; 4 = more observant)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2-year assessment Three-site sample 267 mothers Mean = 3.80 Mean = 3.80 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = 0.01 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Parent reads books with child
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
1-year assessment Three-site sample 327 mothers Mean = 3.00 Mean = 3.00 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = 0.07 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Parent reads books with child
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2-year assessment Three-site sample 261 mothers Mean = 3.20 Mean = 3.20 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = 0.05 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Parent talks to/asks child questions during reading
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
1-year assessment Three-site sample 327 mothers Mean = 3.30 Mean = 3.10 Mean difference = 0.20 Study reported = 0.20 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Parent talks to/asks child questions during reading
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2-year assessment Three-site sample 261 mothers Mean = 3.60 Mean = 3.60 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = -0.04 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Parent tell stories sings with child
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
1-year assessment Three-site sample 343 mothers Mean = 3.40 Mean = 3.50 Mean difference = -0.10 Study reported = -0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Parent tell stories sings with child
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2-year assessment Three-site sample 266 mothers Mean = 3.40 Mean = 3.20 Mean difference = 0.20 Study reported = 0.19 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Parental knowledge all items (percentage answered correctly)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
1-year assessment Three-site sample 344 mothers Mean % = 78.80 Mean % = 80.00 Mean difference = -0.20 Study reported = -0.20 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Parental knowledge all items (percentage answered correctly)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2-year assessment Three-site sample 268 mothers Mean % = 77.70 Mean % = 75.90 Mean difference = 1.80 Study reported = 0.14 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Parental knowledge child care and safety (percentage answered correctly)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
1-year assessment Three-site sample 344 mothers Mean % = 84.00 Mean % = 85.50 Mean difference = -1.50 Study reported = -0.09 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Parental knowledge child care and safety (percentage answered correctly)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2-year assessment Three-site sample 268 mothers Mean % = 74.30 Mean % = 74.60 Mean difference = -0.30 Study reported = -0.01 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Parental knowledge discipline (percentage answered correctly)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
1-year assessment Three-site sample 344 mothers Mean % = 84.80 Mean % = 85.20 Mean difference = -0.40 Study reported = -0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Parental knowledge discipline (percentage answered correctly)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2-year assessment Three-site sample 268 mothers Mean % = 75.40 Mean % = 75.80 Mean difference = -0.40 Study reported = -0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Parental knowledge emotional development (percentage answered correctly)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
1-year assessment Three-site sample 344 mothers Mean % = 75.50 Mean % = 77.90 Mean difference = -2.40 Study reported = -0.12 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Parental knowledge emotional development (percentage answered correctly)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2-year assessment Three-site sample 268 mothers Mean % = 79.80 Mean % = 75.10 Mean difference = 4.70 Study reported = 0.24 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Parental knowledge general child development (percentage answered correctly)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
1-year assessment Three-site sample 344 mothers Mean % = 82.40 Mean % = 80.30 Mean difference = 2.10 Study reported = 0.14 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Parental knowledge general child development (percentage answered correctly)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2-year assessment Three-site sample 268 mothers Mean % = 74.00 Mean % = 71.90 Mean difference = 2.10 Study reported = 0.13 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Parental knowledge language/cognitive development (percentage answered correctly)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
1-year assessment Three-site sample 344 mothers Mean % = 70.70 Mean % = 73.90 Mean difference = -3.20 Study reported = -0.20 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Parental knowledge language/cognitive development (percentage answered correctly)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2-year assessment Three-site sample 268 mothers Mean % = 79.90 Mean % = 78.70 Mean difference = 1.20 Study reported = 0.07 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
While doing everyday things parent counts things or uses numbers with child
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
1-year assessment Three-site sample 343 mothers Mean = 3.10 Mean = 3.20 Mean difference = -0.10 Study reported = -0.10 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
While doing everyday things parent counts things or uses numbers with child
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2-year assessment Three-site sample 266 mothers Mean = 3.40 Mean = 3.40 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = 0.04 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
While doing everyday things parent reads aloud to child
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
1-year assessment Three-site sample 343 mothers Mean = 2.80 Mean = 2.60 Mean difference = 0.20 Study reported = 0.13 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

KIDI:

  • All items
  • General child development
  • Language/cognitive development
  • Emotional development
  • Discipline
  • Child care and safety
The KIDI measures the parent’s knowledge of childrearing practices and developmental processes. In addition to the total score, the researchers examined subscales about general child development, language/cognitive development, emotional development, and discipline. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Secondary

NCAST: Total score

The NCAST assesses the quality of teaching interaction between caregivers and young children. Mothers were assessed while introducing a new toy to their child. Areas of assessment included cue-giving and responsiveness to cues of both the parents and children. Observation

Not reported by author

Primary

PSOC: Total score, Parenting efficacy, Satisfaction

The PSOC measures parent attitudes and self-efficacy. The researchers analyzed the total score and scores on the two subscales: parent satisfaction and parent efficacy. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Secondary

AAPI: Average CMPS score

The CMPS from the AAPI assesses attitudes toward disciplining children that have been shown to, correlate with later abusive behaviors toward them. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Primary

HOME:

  • Language- and literacy-promoting behaviors
  • Total score
  • Parental responsivity
  • Acceptance of child’s behavior
  • Organization of the environment
  • Appropriate play materials
  • Involvement
  • Opportunities for stimulation
The HOME assesses parenting practices and aspects of the home environment. The researchers examined the total score, as well as subscales related to parental responsivity, acceptance of child's behavior, provision of appropriate play materials,, organization of the child’s environment, parental involvement with children, and the opportunities provided for daily stimulation. Parent/caregiver interview and observational assessment

Not reported by author

Primary

Language, literacy, numeracy promotion scale

  • While doing everyday things, parent talks to/asks child questions
  • While doing everyday things, parent reads aloud to child
  • While doing everyday things, parent counts things or uses numbers with child
  • Parent tells stories, sings with child
  • Parent reads books with child
  • Parent talks to/asks child questions during reading
A 6-item measure of direct parent-child verbal interactions that encourage children’s language development, literacy, and numeracy. Each question was answered on a 4-point scale, with 4 being the most positive response. An overall scale was formed by summing the values on these six items. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Secondary

Parent Observation Scale

A scale of parent observations skills ranging from 1 to 4, with 4 being the most observant Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Secondary
Parents as Teachers (PAT)®
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type
HOME appropriate play materials subscale
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
1 year Teen mothers sample 236 mothers Mean = 7.60 Mean = 7.20 Mean difference = 0.40 Not available Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
Primary
HOME appropriate play materials subscale
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 year Teen mothers sample 195 mothers Mean = 7.60 Mean = 8.00 Mean difference = -0.40 Not available Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
Primary
HOME involvement with child subscale
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
1 year Teen mothers sample 236 mothers Mean = 5.00 Mean = 4.70 Mean difference = 0.30 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME involvement with child subscale
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 year Teen mothers sample 195 mothers Mean = 4.70 Mean = 4.90 Mean difference = -0.20 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME opportunities for stimulation subscale
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
1 year Teen mothers sample 236 mothers Mean = 3.50 Mean = 3.40 Mean difference = 0.10 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME opportunities for stimulation subscale
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 year Teen mothers sample 195 mothers Mean = 4.00 Mean = 3.70 Mean difference = 0.30 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME organization of the environment subscale
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
1 year Teen mothers sample 236 mothers Mean = 5.60 Mean = 5.60 Mean difference = 0.00 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME organization of the environment subscale
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 year Teen mothers sample 195 mothers Mean = 5.70 Mean = 5.70 Mean difference = 0.00 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME acceptance of child’s behavior subscale
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
1 year Teen mothers sample 236 mothers Mean = 6.10 Mean = 6.00 Mean difference = 0.10 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME acceptance of child’s behavior subscale
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 year Teen mothers sample 195 mothers Mean = 6.30 Mean = 6.30 Mean difference = 0.00 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME parental responsivity subscale
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
1 year Teen mothers sample 236 mothers Mean = 9.90 Mean = 9.40 Mean difference = 0.50 Not available Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
Primary
HOME parental responsivity subscale
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 year Teen mothers sample 195 mothers Mean = 9.80 Mean = 9.90 Mean difference = -0.10 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME total scale
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
1 year Teen mothers sample 236 mothers Mean = 37.60 Mean = 36.20 Mean difference = 1.40 Not available Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
Primary
HOME total scale
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
2 year Teen mothers sample 195 mothers Mean = 38.00 Mean = 38.50 Mean difference = -0.50 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

HOME:

  • Total score
  • Parental responsivity subscale
  • Acceptance of child’s behavior subscale
  • Appropriate play materials subscale
  • Organization of the environment subscale
  • Involvement with child subscale
  • Opportunities for stimulation subscale
The HOME assesses parenting practices and aspects of the home environment. The researchers examined the total score, as well as subscales related to parental responsivity, acceptance of child's behavior, provision of appropriate play materials, organization of the child’s environment, parental involvement with children, and the opportunities provided for daily stimulation. Parent/caregiver interview and observational assessment

Not reported by author

Primary
Parents as First Teachers (New Zealand)
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type
Positive caregiver behaviors - imaginative play episode, responding to child
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 years Whangarei 143 mothers Unadjusted mean = 3.75 Unadjusted mean = 4.29 Mean difference = -0.54 HomeVEE calculated = -0.19 Not statistically significant, p = 0.25 Secondary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Parents as First Teachers (New Zealand)
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type Notes
HOME Questionnaire, Overall
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 207 mothers Not available Not available Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
Parental Concerns, Disruption of plans
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.04 Unadjusted % = 0.04 Mean difference = 0.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.00 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Parental Concerns, Disruption of relationship with partner
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.10 Unadjusted % = 0.15 Mean difference = -0.05 HomeVEE calculated = -0.28 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Parental Concerns, Significant Concern
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.18 Unadjusted % = 0.14 Mean difference = 0.04 HomeVEE calculated = 0.18 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Parental Concerns, Social Concern
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.21 Unadjusted % = 0.25 Mean difference = -0.04 HomeVEE calculated = -0.14 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Parents as Teachers Questionnaire, Overall
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 208 mothers Not available Not available Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary

footnote167

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Authors report that significantly more program parents respond yes to the following item: Looking around his/her surroundings takes up much of a baby's day during the first month of life.

Total number of activities
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 208 mothers Unadjusted mean = 27.64 Unadjusted mean = 27.27 Mean difference = 0.37 HomeVEE calculated = 0.17 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary

footnote166

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Authors report that significantly more program children play fantasy games.

Total number of experiences
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 208 mothers Unadjusted mean = 18.93 Unadjusted mean = 18.79 Mean difference = 0.14 HomeVEE calculated = 0.04 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Video Session, Parent-Child Interaction
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 155 mothers Unadjusted mean = 26.78 Unadjusted mean = 30.97 Mean difference = -4.19 HomeVEE calculated = -0.21 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary

footnote168

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Authors report significant differences on several items: &amp;#8220;Book chosen by,&amp;#8221; &amp;#8220;Motivation,&amp;#8221; &amp;#8220;Attention maintained,&amp;#8221;&nbsp;&amp;#8220;Attending to help,&amp;#8221;&nbsp;and&nbsp;&amp;#8220;Using information.&amp;#8221;

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Bureau of Indian Affairs’ Baby Family and Child Education Program (Baby FACE)
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type

Frequency of home literacy activity

FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect

3 years

RCT: BabyFACE vs. comparision

67 families Adjusted mean = 60.08 Adjusted mean = 55.45 MD = 4.63 = 0.64

Statistically significant, p = 0.01

Secondary

Hours parent reads to child

FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect

3 years

RCT: BabyFACE vs. comparision

67 families Adjusted mean = 64.00 Adjusted mean = 33.73 MD = 30.27 = 0.49

Statistically significant, p = 0.04

Secondary

Protective Factors Survey - Nurturing and Attachment

FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect

2 years

RCT: BabyFACE vs. comparision

66 families Adjusted mean = 27.06 Adjusted mean = 26.87 MD = 0.19 = 0.08

Not statistically significant, p = 0.55

Secondary

Protective Factors Survey - Nurturing and Attachment

FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect

3 years

RCT: BabyFACE vs. comparision

68 families Adjusted mean = 26.87 Adjusted mean = 26.70 MD = 0.17 = 0.13

Not statistically significant, p = 0.56

Secondary

Protective Factors Survey - Parent's Child Development Knowledge

FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect

2 years

RCT: BabyFACE vs. comparision

66 families Adjusted mean = 30.43 Adjusted mean = 29.57 MD = 0.86 = 0.16

Not statistically significant, p = 0.21

Secondary

Protective Factors Survey - Parent's Child Development Knowledge

FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect

3 years

RCT: BabyFACE vs. comparision

68 families Adjusted mean = 31.11 Adjusted mean = 30.03 MD = 1.08 = 0.27

Not statistically significant, p = 0.13

Secondary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
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