Parents as Teachers (PAT)® Meets HHS Criteria

Last updated: October 2019

Effects Shown in Research & Outcome Measure Details

Child Health

Outcomes Rated High

Parents as Teachers (PAT)®
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type
Child saw doctor for well-child care in past 6 months
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 365 children % = 84.70 % = 86.90 = -2.20 Study reported = -0.24 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Child saw doctor for well-child care in past 6 months
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 352 children % = 56.90 % = 57.60 = -0.70 Study reported = -0.01 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Child treated for illness in the past year
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 365 children % = 39.30 % = 33.30 = 6.00 Study reported = 0.13 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Child treated for illness in the past year
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 352 children % = 51.00 % = 50.20 = 0.80 Study reported = -0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Child went to the emergency room in the past year
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 365 children % = 29.70 % = 33.60 = -3.90 Study reported = -0.08 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Child went to the emergency room in the past year
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 352 children % = 20.30 % = 24.50 = -4.20 Study reported = -0.10 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Child saw doctor for well-child care in past 6 months

Percentage of children who saw a doctor for well-child care within the past 6 months Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Child treated for illness in the past year

Percentage of children who were treated for an illness during the past year Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Child went to the emergency room in the past year

Percentage of children who went to the emergency room during the past year Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Outcomes Rated Moderate

Parents as Teachers (PAT)®
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type Notes
Child saw doctor for well-child care in past 6 months
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Three-site sample 265 children % = 91.40 % = 94.80 = -3.40 Study reported = -0.14 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary

footnote61

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

In contrast to the study-reported results, HomVEE calculations showed this difference to be statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05). The HomVEE tests of statistical significance are based on the HomVEE calculated effect sizes, whereas authors may have used other techniques to determine statistical significance, such as regression models or analyses of variance (ANOVA).

Child was fully immunized
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Three-site sample 265 children % = 26.30 % = 19.00 = 7.30 Study reported = 0.17 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Child went to the emergency room
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Three-site sample 265 children % = 38.50 % = 50.60 = -12.10 Study reported = -0.24 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary

footnote61

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

In contrast to the study-reported results, HomVEE calculations showed this difference to be statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05). The HomVEE tests of statistical significance are based on the HomVEE calculated effect sizes, whereas authors may have used other techniques to determine statistical significance, such as regression models or analyses of variance (ANOVA).

Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Child saw doctor for well-child care in past 6 months

Percentage of children who had seen a doctor for well-child care during the past 6 months Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Child was fully immunized

Percentage of children who were fully immunized for their age Review of immunization records for families who could produce them

Not applicable

Primary

Child went to the emergency room

Percentage of children who went to the emergency room during the past year Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Parents as Teachers (PAT)®
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type Notes
Child had a regular source of medical care
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
1 year Teen mothers sample 232 children % = 92.00 % = 94.10 = -2.10 HomeVEE calculated = -0.20 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Child had a regular source of medical care
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Teen mothers sample 192 children % = 90.30 % = 92.90 = -2.60 HomeVEE calculated = -0.21 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Child saw a doctor for well-baby care in past 6 months
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
1 year Teen mothers sample 232 children % = 97.40 % = 95.80 = 1.60 HomeVEE calculated = 0.30 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary

footnote61

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

In contrast to the study-reported results, HomVEE calculations showed this difference to be statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05). The HomVEE tests of statistical significance are based on the HomVEE calculated effect sizes, whereas authors may have used other techniques to determine statistical significance, such as regression models or analyses of variance (ANOVA).

Child saw a doctor for well-baby care in past 6 months
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Teen mothers sample 194 children % = 87.10 % = 92.10 = -5.00 HomeVEE calculated = -0.33 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary

footnote61

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

In contrast to the study-reported results, HomVEE calculations showed this difference to be statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05). The HomVEE tests of statistical significance are based on the HomVEE calculated effect sizes, whereas authors may have used other techniques to determine statistical significance, such as regression models or analyses of variance (ANOVA).

Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Child had a regular source of medical care

Percentage of children who had a regular source of medical care Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Child saw a doctor for well-baby care in past 6 months

Percentage of children who had seen a doctor for well-child care during the past 6 months Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
PAT Parents as First Teachers (New Zealand)
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type Notes
Incidence of ear infections
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.70 Unadjusted % = 0.79 Mean difference = -0.09 HomeVEE calculated = -0.29 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Incidence of hearing problems
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.08 Unadjusted % = 0.07 Mean difference = 0.01 HomeVEE calculated = 0.09 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Number of health problems children had experienced
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 208 mothers Unadjusted mean = 4.85 Unadjusted mean = 4.91 Mean difference = -0.06 HomeVEE calculated = -0.03 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary

footnote165

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Authors report that significantly more program children experienced bronchitis attacks.

Number of hospital admissions
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.33 Unadjusted % = 0.30 Mean difference = 0.03 HomeVEE calculated = 0.08 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Number of hospital visits
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.64 Unadjusted % = 0.72 Mean difference = -0.08 HomeVEE calculated = -0.22 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Number of times children visited a hospital clinic
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.42 Unadjusted % = 0.51 Mean difference = -0.09 HomeVEE calculated = -0.22 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Number of times children visited general practitioner
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.00 Unadjusted % = 0.00 Mean difference = 0.00 Not available Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Number of times children visited health specialist
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.54 Unadjusted % = 0.51 Mean difference = 0.03 HomeVEE calculated = 0.07 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Number of times children visited other professional health service
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.18 Unadjusted % = 0.15 Mean difference = 0.03 HomeVEE calculated = 0.13 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Total number of injuries
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.42 Unadjusted % = 0.38 Mean difference = 0.04 HomeVEE calculated = 0.10 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Incidence of ear infections

Number/percentage of children who experienced an ear infection

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Incidence of hearing problems

Number/percentage of children who experienced a hearing problem

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Number of health problems children had experienced

Mean number of health problems children experienced

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Number of hospital admissions

Number of hospital admissions children experienced

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Number of hospital visits

Number of hospital visits children experienced

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Number of times children visited a hospital clinic

Number of times children visited a hospital clinic

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Number of times children visited general practitioner

Number of times children visited a general practitioner

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Number of times children visited health specialist

Number of times children visited a health specialist

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Number of times children visited other professional health service

Number of times children visited another professional health service

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Total number of injuries

Total number of injuries children experienced

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
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