Parents as Teachers (PAT)® Meets HHS Criteria

Last updated: October 2019

Effects Shown in Research & Outcome Measure Details

Child Health

Outcomes Rated High

Parents as Teachers (PAT)®
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type
Child saw doctor for well-child care in past 6 months
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 365 children % = 84.70 % = 86.90 = -2.20 Study reported = -0.24 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Child saw doctor for well-child care in past 6 months
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 352 children % = 56.90 % = 57.60 = -0.70 Study reported = -0.01 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Child treated for illness in the past year
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 365 children % = 39.30 % = 33.30 = 6.00 Study reported = 0.13 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Child treated for illness in the past year
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 352 children % = 51.00 % = 50.20 = 0.80 Study reported = -0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Child went to the emergency room in the past year
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 365 children % = 29.70 % = 33.60 = -3.90 Study reported = -0.08 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Child went to the emergency room in the past year
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 352 children % = 20.30 % = 24.50 = -4.20 Study reported = -0.10 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Child saw doctor for well-child care in past 6 months

Percentage of children who saw a doctor for well-child care within the past 6 months Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Child treated for illness in the past year

Percentage of children who were treated for an illness during the past year Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Child went to the emergency room in the past year

Percentage of children who went to the emergency room during the past year Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Outcomes Rated Moderate

Parents as Teachers (PAT)®
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type Notes
Child saw doctor for well-child care in past 6 months
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Three-site sample 265 children % = 91.40 % = 94.80 = -3.40 Study reported = -0.14 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary

footnote61

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

In contrast to the study-reported results, HomVEE calculations showed this difference to be statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05). The HomVEE tests of statistical significance are based on the HomVEE calculated effect sizes, whereas authors may have used other techniques to determine statistical significance, such as regression models or analyses of variance (ANOVA).

Child was fully immunized
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Three-site sample 265 children % = 26.30 % = 19.00 = 7.30 Study reported = 0.17 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Child went to the emergency room
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Three-site sample 265 children % = 38.50 % = 50.60 = -12.10 Study reported = -0.24 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary

footnote61

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

In contrast to the study-reported results, HomVEE calculations showed this difference to be statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05). The HomVEE tests of statistical significance are based on the HomVEE calculated effect sizes, whereas authors may have used other techniques to determine statistical significance, such as regression models or analyses of variance (ANOVA).

Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Child saw doctor for well-child care in past 6 months

Percentage of children who had seen a doctor for well-child care during the past 6 months Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Child was fully immunized

Percentage of children who were fully immunized for their age Review of immunization records for families who could produce them

Not applicable

Primary

Child went to the emergency room

Percentage of children who went to the emergency room during the past year Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
Parents as Teachers (PAT)®
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type Notes
Child had a regular source of medical care
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
1 year Teen mothers sample 232 children % = 92.00 % = 94.10 = -2.10 HomeVEE calculated = -0.20 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Child had a regular source of medical care
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Teen mothers sample 192 children % = 90.30 % = 92.90 = -2.60 HomeVEE calculated = -0.21 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Child saw a doctor for well-baby care in past 6 months
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
1 year Teen mothers sample 232 children % = 97.40 % = 95.80 = 1.60 HomeVEE calculated = 0.30 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary

footnote61

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

In contrast to the study-reported results, HomVEE calculations showed this difference to be statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05). The HomVEE tests of statistical significance are based on the HomVEE calculated effect sizes, whereas authors may have used other techniques to determine statistical significance, such as regression models or analyses of variance (ANOVA).

Child saw a doctor for well-baby care in past 6 months
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Teen mothers sample 194 children % = 87.10 % = 92.10 = -5.00 HomeVEE calculated = -0.33 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary

footnote61

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

In contrast to the study-reported results, HomVEE calculations showed this difference to be statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05). The HomVEE tests of statistical significance are based on the HomVEE calculated effect sizes, whereas authors may have used other techniques to determine statistical significance, such as regression models or analyses of variance (ANOVA).

Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Child had a regular source of medical care

Percentage of children who had a regular source of medical care Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Child saw a doctor for well-baby care in past 6 months

Percentage of children who had seen a doctor for well-child care during the past 6 months Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
PAT Parents as First Teachers (New Zealand)
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type Notes
Incidence of ear infections
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.70 Unadjusted % = 0.79 Mean difference = -0.09 HomeVEE calculated = -0.29 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Incidence of hearing problems
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.08 Unadjusted % = 0.07 Mean difference = 0.01 HomeVEE calculated = 0.09 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Number of health problems children had experienced
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 208 mothers Unadjusted mean = 4.85 Unadjusted mean = 4.91 Mean difference = -0.06 HomeVEE calculated = -0.03 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary

footnote165

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Authors report that significantly more program children experienced bronchitis attacks.

Number of hospital admissions
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.33 Unadjusted % = 0.30 Mean difference = 0.03 HomeVEE calculated = 0.08 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Number of hospital visits
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.64 Unadjusted % = 0.72 Mean difference = -0.08 HomeVEE calculated = -0.22 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Number of times children visited a hospital clinic
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.42 Unadjusted % = 0.51 Mean difference = -0.09 HomeVEE calculated = -0.22 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Number of times children visited general practitioner
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.00 Unadjusted % = 0.00 Mean difference = 0.00 Not available Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Number of times children visited health specialist
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.54 Unadjusted % = 0.51 Mean difference = 0.03 HomeVEE calculated = 0.07 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Number of times children visited other professional health service
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.18 Unadjusted % = 0.15 Mean difference = 0.03 HomeVEE calculated = 0.13 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Total number of injuries
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.42 Unadjusted % = 0.38 Mean difference = 0.04 HomeVEE calculated = 0.10 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Incidence of ear infections

Number/percentage of children who experienced an ear infection

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Incidence of hearing problems

Number/percentage of children who experienced a hearing problem

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Number of health problems children had experienced

Mean number of health problems children experienced

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Number of hospital admissions

Number of hospital admissions children experienced

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Number of hospital visits

Number of hospital visits children experienced

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Number of times children visited a hospital clinic

Number of times children visited a hospital clinic

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Number of times children visited general practitioner

Number of times children visited a general practitioner

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Number of times children visited health specialist

Number of times children visited a health specialist

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Number of times children visited other professional health service

Number of times children visited another professional health service

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Total number of injuries

Total number of injuries children experienced

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
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Maternal Health

Outcomes Rated High

Parents as Teachers (PAT)®
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type Notes
Mother had additional births
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 371 mothers % = 14.80 % = 16.30 = -1.50 HomeVEE calculated = -0.07 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Mother had additional births
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 343 mothers = % = 27.50 = -6.70 HomeVEE calculated = -0.22 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary

footnote61

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

In contrast to the study-reported results, HomVEE calculations showed this difference to be statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05). The HomVEE tests of statistical significance are based on the HomVEE calculated effect sizes, whereas authors may have used other techniques to determine statistical significance, such as regression models or analyses of variance (ANOVA).

Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Mother had additional births

Percentage of mothers who experienced additional births after entering Parents as Teachers Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Outcomes Rated Moderate

PAT Parents as First Teachers (New Zealand)
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type
Maternal Social Support Index (MSSI),Overall
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 207 mothers Not available Not available Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Maternal Social Support Index (MSSI),Overall

Mean overall results on the Maternal Social Support Index

Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by authors

Secondary
View Revisions

Child Development and School Readiness

Outcomes Rated High

Parents as Teachers (PAT)®
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type Notes
BSID Mental Development Index (in normal range)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 184 children % = 67.60 % = 69.60 = -2.00 Study reported = -0.04 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
BSID Mental Development Index (mean)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 184 children Mean = 91.00 Mean = 92.20 Mean difference = -1.20 Study reported = -0.07 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
BSID Physical Development Index (in normal range)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 184 children % = 85.70 % = 79.80 = 5.90 Study reported = 0.16 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
BSID Physical Development Index (mean)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 184 children Mean = 99.80 Mean = 98.40 Mean difference = 1.40 Study reported = 0.12 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
DPII Cognitive Development Scale (at or above chronological age)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 375 children % = 68.60 % = 67.70 = 0.90 Study reported = 0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
DPII Cognitive Development Scale (at or above chronological age)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 363 children % = 44.80 % = 41.20 = 3.60 Study reported = 0.07 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
DPII Cognitive Development Scale (mean months differential)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 375 children Mean = 1.80 Mean = 1.80 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = 0.00 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
DPII Cognitive Development Scale (mean months differential)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 363 children Mean = -0.50 Mean = -1.10 Mean difference = 0.60 Study reported = 0.10 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
DPII Communication Development Scale (at or above chronological age)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 375 children % = 82.70 % = 74.80 = 7.90 Study reported = -0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary

footnote61

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

In contrast to the study-reported results, HomVEE calculations showed this difference to be statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05). The HomVEE tests of statistical significance are based on the HomVEE calculated effect sizes, whereas authors may have used other techniques to determine statistical significance, such as regression models or analyses of variance (ANOVA).

DPII Communication Development Scale (at or above chronological age)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 363 children % = 78.60 % = 77.10 = 1.50 Study reported = 0.03 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
DPII Communication Development Scale (mean months differential)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 375 children Mean = 4.30 Mean = 4.40 Mean difference = -0.10 Study reported = -0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
DPII Communication Development Scale (mean months differential)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 363 children Mean = 5.40 Mean = 5.30 Mean difference = 0.10 Study reported = 0.01 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
DPII Physical Development Scale (at or above chronological age)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 375 children % = 86.40 % = 85.20 = 1.20 Study reported = 0.03 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
DPII Physical Development Scale (at or above chronological age)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 363 children % = 78.10 % = 79.10 = -1.00 Study reported = -0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
DPII Physical Development Scale (mean months differential)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 375 children Mean = 4.60 Mean = 4.60 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = 0.01 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
DPII Physical Development Scale (mean months differential)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 363 children Mean = 3.90 Mean = 3.70 Mean difference = 0.20 Study reported = 0.04 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
DPII Self-Help Development Scale (at or above chronological age)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 375 children % = 96.40 % = 95.50 = 0.90 Study reported = 0.04 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
DPII Self-Help Development Scale (at or above chronological age)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 363 children % = 92.90 % = 90.80 = 2.10 Study reported = 0.07 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
DPII Self-Help Development Scale (mean months differential)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 375 children Mean = 7.30 Mean = 7.40 Mean difference = -0.10 Study reported = -0.01 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
DPII Self-Help Development Scale (mean months differential)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 363 children Mean = 13.00 Mean = 10.80 Mean difference = 2.20 Study reported = 0.25 Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
Primary
DPII Social Development Scale (at or above chronological age)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 375 children % = 91.60 % = 93.20 = -1.60 Study reported = 0.06 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
DPII Social Development Scale (at or above chronological age)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 363 children % = 83.30 % = 73.90 = 9.40 Study reported = 0.23 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary

footnote61

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

In contrast to the study-reported results, HomVEE calculations showed this difference to be statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05). The HomVEE tests of statistical significance are based on the HomVEE calculated effect sizes, whereas authors may have used other techniques to determine statistical significance, such as regression models or analyses of variance (ANOVA).

DPII Social Development Scale (mean months differential)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 375 children Mean = 4.70 Mean = 5.80 Mean difference = -1.10 Study reported = -0.24 Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
Primary
DPII Social Development Scale (mean months differential)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 363 children Mean = 7.40 Mean = 5.90 Mean difference = 1.50 Study reported = 0.17 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
PPVT ator above chronological age
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 320 children % = 50.00 % = 49.20 = 0.80 Study reported = 0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
PPVT mean months differential
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 320 children Mean = 0.30 Mean = -0.20 Mean difference = 0.50 Study reported = 0.06 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

BSID:

  • Physical Development Index
  • Mental Development Index
The BSID tests the mental, motor, and behavioral development and abilities of young children. The researchers examined both the mental development and physical development scales. The scores were presented as (1) average scores, and (2) the proportion of the sample that were within the normal range (scores of 86 or above). Child assessment

Not reported by author

Primary

DPII:

  • Physical Development Scale
  • Cognitive Development Scale
  • Communication Development Scale
  • Self-Help Development Scale
  • Social Development Scale
The subscales of the DPII assess the physical, communication, self-help, social, and cognitive development of young children. The scores were presented as (1) the difference in months between a child’s chronological age and the age that corresponds to the skill level assessed, and (2) the proportion of the sample assessed as at or above their chronological age in the area assessed. Child assessment

Not reported by author

Primary

PPVT

The PPVT assesses receptive language in young children. Scores were presented as (1) the number of months difference between the chronological age of the child and his/her receptive language developmental age, and (2) the proportion of the sample assessed as at or above their chronological age. Child assessment

Not reported by author

Primary
Parents as Teachers (PAT)®
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type Notes
BSID Behavioral Rating Scale
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 month Ohio sample 354 children Mean = 109.63 Mean = 109.20 Mean difference = 0.43 Study reported = 0.06 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.56
Primary

footnote74

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

<abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr> reversed the sign of this effect size because the treatment group mean was less than the control group mean.

BSID Mental Development Scale
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 month Ohio sample 344 children Mean = 96.97 Mean = 97.75 Mean difference = -0.78 Study reported = -0.05 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.67
Primary

footnote74

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

<abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr> reversed the sign of this effect size because the treatment group mean was less than the control group mean.

BSID, Behavioral Rating Scale
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 month Ohio sample 342 children Mean = 111.84 Mean = 113.48 Mean difference = -1.64 Study reported = -0.14 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.20
Primary

footnote74

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

<abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr> reversed the sign of this effect size because the treatment group mean was less than the control group mean.

CBRS, Engagement Score
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 month Ohio sample 336 children Mean = 2.81 Mean = 2.98 Mean difference = -0.17 Study reported = -0.17 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.11
Primary

footnote65

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Information on outcomes was received through communication with the authors.

,

footnote74

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

<abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr> reversed the sign of this effect size because the treatment group mean was less than the control group mean.

CBRS, Negative Affect Score
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 month Ohio sample 336 children Mean = 4.93 Mean = 4.93 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = 0.00 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.97
Primary

footnote65

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Information on outcomes was received through communication with the authors.

CBRS, Positive Affect Score
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 month Ohio sample 336 children Mean = 2.43 Mean = 2.44 Mean difference = -0.01 Study reported = -0.01 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.96
Primary

footnote65

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Information on outcomes was received through communication with the authors.

,

footnote74

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

<abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr> reversed the sign of this effect size because the treatment group mean was less than the control group mean.

CBRS: Involvement Score
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 month Ohio sample 330 children Mean = 4.13 Mean = 4.18 Mean difference = -0.05 Study reported = -0.05 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.73
Primary

footnote65

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Information on outcomes was received through communication with the authors.

,

footnote74

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

<abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr> reversed the sign of this effect size because the treatment group mean was less than the control group mean.

KABC Simultaneous Processing Standard Score
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 month Ohio sample 331 children Mean = 107.77 Mean = 109.29 Mean difference = -1.52 Study reported = -0.11 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.30
Primary
SSRS Parent Report
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 month Ohio sample 336 children Mean = 103.07 Mean = 100.37 Mean difference = 2.70 Study reported = 0.18 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.09
Primary
TERA-2
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 month Ohio sample 333 children Mean = 106.12 Mean = 105.58 Mean difference = 0.54 Study reported = 0.04 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.72
Primary
Bracken Basic Concept Scale composite
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 month Ohio sample 336 children Mean = 113.47 Mean = 112.23 Mean difference = 1.24 Study reported = 0.07 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.51
Primary
Mastery Motivation – Task Competence
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 month Ohio sample 319 children Mean = 847.98 Mean = 841.74 Mean difference = 6.24 Study reported = 0.20 Statistically significant,
p = 0.05
Primary
Mastery Motivation – Task Persistence
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 month Ohio sample 318 children Mean = 17.30 Mean = 16.49 Mean difference = 0.81 Study reported = 0.20 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.07
Primary
Mastery Motivation – Task Pleasure
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 month Ohio sample 319 children Mean = 0.51 Mean = 0.52 Mean difference = -0.01 Study reported = -0.03 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.71
Primary

footnote74

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

<abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr> reversed the sign of this effect size because the treatment group mean was less than the control group mean.

Q-Sort Security of Attachment
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
18 month Ohio sample 364 children Mean = 34.43 Mean = 35.46 Mean difference = -1.03 Study reported = -0.05 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.64
Primary

footnote65

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Information on outcomes was received through communication with the authors.

,

footnote74

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

<abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr> reversed the sign of this effect size because the treatment group mean was less than the control group mean.

Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

BSID:

  • Mental Development Scale
  • Behavioral Rating Scale
The BSID tests the mental, motor, and behavioral development and abilities of young children. The researchers examined both the mental development and behavioral subscales. Child assessment

Not reported by author

Primary

BBCS-R

The BBCS-R assesses knowledge of basic concepts and receptive language skills in young children. Child assessment

Not reported by author

Primary

CBRS:

  • Engagement score
  • Positive Affect score
  • Negative Affect score,
  • Involvement score
The CBRS assesses behavioral problems in young children. The researchers examined scores related to engagement, involvement, and positive and negative affect. Observation

Interrater reliability = 0.81 to 0.90

Primary

KABC: Simultaneous Processing Standard score

The KABC assesses achievement and intelligence in young children. Child assessment

Not reported by author

Primary

SSRS

The SSRS assesses social skills, academic competence, and problem behaviors in young children. Parent/caregiver and teacher report

Not reported by author

Primary

TERA-2

The TERA-2 assesses early reading skills in young children. Child assessment

Not reported by author

Primary

Attachment Q-Sort scale

The Attachment Q-Sort assesses security of attachment and dependency in young children. Observation

Interrater reliability = 0.90

Primary

Mastery Motivation – Task Persistence, Task Pleasure, Task Competence

Children were introduced to various toys and were evaluated based upon persistence, pleasure, and competence in problem solving for up to 4 minutes. Observation

Interrater reliability = 0.78 to 0.91

Primary

Outcomes Rated Moderate

Parents as Teachers (PAT)®
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type
Achievement-Kaufman ABC
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
4-5 years Binghamton, NY 24 children Unadjusted mean = 97.00 Unadjusted mean = 94.00 Mean difference = 3.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.25 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
Achievement-Kaufman ABC, % Below 90
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
4-5 years Binghamton, NY 24 children Unadjusted mean = 0.25 Unadjusted mean = 0.20 Mean difference = 0.05 HomeVEE calculated = 0.17 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
Fine Motor Delays-Denver Developmental Screening Test
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
4-5 years Binghamton, NY 40 children Unadjusted mean = 0.30 Unadjusted mean = 0.50 Mean difference = -0.20 HomeVEE calculated = -0.30 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
Fine Motor Delays-Denver Developmental Screening Test, % Below Age Level
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
4-5 years Binghamton, NY 40 children Unadjusted mean = 0.25 Unadjusted mean = 0.40 Mean difference = -0.15 HomeVEE calculated = -0.41 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
Gross Motor Delays-Denver Developmental Screening Test
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
4-5 years Binghamton, NY 40 children Unadjusted mean = 0.10 Unadjusted mean = 0.90 Mean difference = -0.80 HomeVEE calculated = -0.77 Statistically significant, p < 0.05 Primary
Gross Motor Delays-Denver Developmental Screening Test, % Below Age Level
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
4-5 years Binghamton, NY 40 children Unadjusted mean = 0.10 Unadjusted mean = 0.45 Mean difference = -0.35 HomeVEE calculated = 1.05 Statistically significant, p < 0.05 Primary
Language Acquisition Quotient-Zimmerman Preschool Language Scale
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
4-5 years Binghamton, NY 40 children Unadjusted mean = 107.00 Unadjusted mean = 100.00 Mean difference = 7.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.57 Statistically significant, p < 0.05 Primary
Language Acquisition Quotient-Zimmerman Preschool Language Scale, % Below Age Level
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
4-5 years Binghamton, NY 40 children Unadjusted mean = 0.30 Unadjusted mean = 0.65 Mean difference = -0.35 HomeVEE calculated = -0.80 Statistically significant, p < 0.05 Primary
Mental Processing-Kaufman ABC
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
4-5 years Binghamton, NY 24 children Unadjusted mean = 102.00 Unadjusted mean = 94.00 Mean difference = 8.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.62 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
Mental Processing-Kaufman ABC, % Below 90
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
4-5 years Binghamton, NY 24 children Unadjusted mean = 0.05 Unadjusted mean = 0.25 Mean difference = -0.20 HomeVEE calculated = -1.27 Statistically significant, p < 0.05 Primary
Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Achievement-Kaufman ABC

Mean score on achievement portion of Kaufman Assessment Battery for children (K- ABC) Child assessment

Not reported by authors

Primary

Achievement-Kaufman ABC, % Below 90

Percentage of children who scored below 90 on achievement portion of Kaufman Assessment Battery for children (K- ABC) Child assessment

Not reported by authors

Primary

Fine Motor Delays-Denver Developmental Screening Test

Mean number of fine motor delays (definite delays) and cautions (questionable delays) on the Denver Developmental Screening Test Child assessment

Not reported by authors

Primary

Fine Motor Delays-Denver Developmental Screening Test, % Below Age Level

Percentage of children who scored below age level for fine motor delays (definite delays) and cautions (questionable delays) on the Denver Developmental Screening Test Child assessment

Not reported by authors

Primary

Gross Motor Delays-Denver Developmental Screening Test

Mean number of gross motor delays (definite delays) and cautions (questionable delays) on the Denver Developmental Screening Test Child assessment

Not reported by authors

Primary

Gross Motor Delays-Denver Developmental Screening Test, % Below Age Level

Percentage of children who scored below age level for gross motor delays (definite delays) and cautions (questionable delays) on the Denver Developmental Screening Test Child assessment

Not reported by authors

Primary

Language Acquisition Quotient-Zimmerman Preschool Language Scale

Mean language age quotient on Zimmerman Preschool Language Scale, calculated by comparing the child's language development with his/her chronical age to measure language development. Child assessment

Not reported by authors

Primary

Language Acquisition Quotient-Zimmerman Preschool Language Scale, % Below Age Level

Percentage of children whose language age quotient was below 100 on the Zimmerman Preschool Language Scale, indicating their language development was below their cronical age. Child assessment

Not reported by authors

Primary

Mental Processing-Kaufman ABC

Mean score on mental processing portion of Kaufman Assessment Battery for children (K- ABC) Child assessment

Not reported by authors

Primary

Mental Processing-Kaufman ABC, % Below 90

Percentage of children who scored below 90 on mental processing portion of Kaufman Assessment Battery for children (K- ABC) Child assessment

Not reported by authors

Primary
Parents as Teachers (PAT)®
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type
DPII average months differential: cognitive development
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2-year assessment Three-site sample 266 children Mean = 2.20 Mean = 2.40 Mean difference = -0.20 Study reported = -0.04 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
DPII average months differential: communication development
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2-year assessment Three-site sample 266 children Mean = 4.90 Mean = 4.50 Mean difference = 0.40 Study reported = 0.08 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
DPII average months differential: physical development
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2-year assessment Three-site sample 266 children Mean = 2.90 Mean = 3.00 Mean difference = -0.10 Study reported = -0.01 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
DPII average months differential: self-help development
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2-year assessment Three-site sample 266 children Mean = 6.10 Mean = 6.00 Mean difference = 0.10 Study reported = 0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
DPII average months differential: social development
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2-year assessment Three-site sample 266 children Mean = 4.90 Mean = 4.90 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = -0.01 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
ASBI score
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2-year assessment Three-site sample 259 children Mean = 72.30 Mean = 70.80 Mean difference = 1.50 Study reported = 0.21 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links
DPII:
  • Physical Development Scale
  • Cognitive Development Scale
  • Communication Development Scale
  • Self-Help Development Scale
  • Social Development Scale

The subscales of the DPII assess the physical, communication, self-help, social, and cognitive development of young children. The scores were presented as the difference in months between a child’s chronological age and the age that corresponds to the skill level assessed.

Child assessment

Child assessment

Secondary

ASBI: Total score

The ASBI assesses the social development and prosocial/antisocial behaviors of young children. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Secondary
Parents as Teachers (PAT)®
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type
DPII average months differential: cognitive development
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
1 year Teen mothers sample 236 children Mean = 3.90 Mean = 3.60 Mean difference = 0.30 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
DPII average months differential: cognitive development
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Teen mothers sample 196 children Mean = 2.60 Mean = 2.20 Mean difference = 0.40 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
DPII average months differential: communication development
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
1 year Teen mothers sample 236 children Mean = 2.60 Mean = 2.30 Mean difference = 0.30 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
DPII average months differential: communication development
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Teen mothers sample 196 children Mean = 3.50 Mean = 3.20 Mean difference = 0.30 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
DPII average months differential: physical development
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
1 year Teen mothers sample 236 children Mean = 3.60 Mean = 3.80 Mean difference = -0.20 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
DPII average months differential: physical development
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Teen mothers sample 196 children Mean = 5.60 Mean = 5.60 Mean difference = 0.00 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
DPII average months differential: self-help
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
1 year Teen mothers sample 236 children Mean = 2.70 Mean = 2.60 Mean difference = 0.10 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
DPII average months differential: self-help
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Teen mothers sample 196 children Mean = 9.00 Mean = 9.40 Mean difference = -0.40 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
DPII average months differential: social development
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
1 year Teen mothers sample 236 children Mean = 6.10 Mean = 6.60 Mean difference = -0.50 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
DPII average months differential: social development
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Teen mothers sample 196 children Mean = 7.80 Mean = 6.80 Mean difference = 1.00 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

DPII:

  • Physical Development Scale
  • Cognitive Development Scale
  • Communication Development Scale
  • Self-Help Development Scale
  • Social Development Scale
The subscales of the DPII assess the physical, communication, self-help, social, and cognitive development of young children. The scores were presented as the difference in months between a child’s chronological age and the age that corresponds to the skill level assessed. Child assessment

Not reported by author

Primary
PAT Parents as First Teachers (New Zealand)
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type
Age in months when child first walked 6 steps unaided
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 206 mothers Unadjusted mean = 12.90 Unadjusted mean = 12.37 Mean difference = 0.53 HomeVEE calculated = 0.24 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Behaviour Checklist
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 208 mothers Not available Not available Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Denver II Assessment, Fine Motor Delay
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 206 mothers Not available Not available Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
Denver II Assessment, Gross Motor Delay
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 206 mothers Not available Not available Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
Denver II Assessment, Language Delay
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 206 mothers Not available Not available Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
Denver II Assessment, Personal Social Items
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 206 mothers Not available Not available Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Mental Processing Composite
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 158 mothers Unadjusted mean = 59.44 Unadjusted mean = 60.34 Mean difference = -0.90 HomeVEE calculated = -0.09 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Sequential Processing
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 158 mothers Unadjusted mean = 22.14 Unadjusted mean = 23.00 Mean difference = -0.86 HomeVEE calculated = -0.16 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Age in months when child first walked 6 steps unaided

Mean age in months when child first walked 6 steps unaided

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Behaviour Checklist

Number/percentage of parents who responded whether each of 14 listed behavior and emotional problems (e.g. poor appetite, difficulty sleeping at night, overactive, etc.) apply, somewhat apply, or do not apply to their children.

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Denver II Assessment, Fine Motor Delay

Number/percentage of children whose performance on the Denver II Assessment of fine motor delay was categorized as advanced, delayed, or cautions. The Denver II Assessment was designed to detect potential developmental problems.

Child assessment

Not reported by authors

Primary

Denver II Assessment, Language Delay

Number/percentage of children whose performance on the Denver II Assessment of language delay was categorized as advanced, delayed, or cautions. The Denver II Assessment was designed to detect potential developmental problems.

Child assessment

Not reported by authors

Primary

Denver II Assessment, Personal Social Items

Number/percentage of children whose performance on the Denver II Assessment of personal social items was categorized as advanced, delayed, or cautions. The Denver II Assessment was designed to detect potential developmental problems.

Child assessment

Not reported by authors

Primary

Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Mental Processing Composite

Mean mental processing composite score on the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children. The mental processing composite includes measures of sequential and simultaneous processing, designed to elicit problem-solving and information processing styles while minimizing the role of language and verbal skills.

Child assessment

Not reported by authors

Primary

Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Sequential Processing

Mean sequential processing score on the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children

Child assessment

Not reported by authors

Primary
PAT Parents as First Teachers (New Zealand)
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type
Positive child behaviors - imaginative play episode, attending to help
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 years Whangarei 163 mothers Unadjusted mean = 2.00 Unadjusted mean = 2.45 Mean difference = -0.45 HomeVEE calculated = -0.13 Not statistically significant, p = 0.41 Secondary
Positive child behaviors - imaginative play episode, using information
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 years Whangarei 163 mothers Unadjusted mean = 1.99 Unadjusted mean = 2.18 Mean difference = -0.19 HomeVEE calculated = -0.09 Not statistically significant, p = 0.58 Secondary
Positive child behaviors - problem solving task, total
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 years Whangarei 129 mothers Unadjusted mean = 12.09 Unadjusted mean = 11.31 Mean difference = 0.78 HomeVEE calculated = 0.11 Not statistically significant, p = 0.52 Secondary
Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Positive child behaviors - imaginative play episode, attending to help

Mean number of times child attended to help offered by caregiver during interactive play

Videotaped observation

Not applicable

Secondary

Positive child behaviors - imaginative play episode, using information

Mean number of times child used information that caregiver offered during interactive play

Videotaped observation

Not applicable

Secondary

Positive child behaviors - problem solving task, total

Mean total positive child behavior score on a problem-solving task (opening a puzzle box), with scores recorded as the number of times a child exhibited each of six positive behaviors (asking questions, exploration, verbalization, trying keys, attending to help offered, and using information offered).

Videotaped observation

Not applicable

Secondary
Bureau of Indian Affairs’ Baby Family and Child Education Program (Baby FACE)
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type Notes

Boehm Test of Basic Concepts -3 Preschool, Total Score

FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect

3 years

RCT: BabyFACE vs. comparision

67 families Adjusted mean = 26.84 Adjusted mean = 23.86 MD = 2.98 = 0.34

Not statistically significant, p = 0.09

Primary

Boehm Test of Basic Concepts-3 Preschool - Total Score

FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect

3 years

RCT: BabyFACE vs. comparision

67 families Not reported Not reported Not reported Not available

Not statistically significant, p=0.050

Primary

Although authors do not report the effect size, they indicate the finding is significant and favorable. Covariates included child's birth, household poverty, intergenerational living arrangement, and frequency of English spoken to children.

Devereux Early Childhood Assessment (DECA) - Attachment

FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect

2 years

RCT: BabyFACE vs. comparision

66 families Adjusted mean = 26.63 Adjusted mean = 26.47 MD = 0.16 = 0.07

Not statistically significant, p = 0.69

Primary

Devereux Early Childhood Assessment (DECA) - Attachment

FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect

3 years

RCT: BabyFACE vs. comparision

68 families Adjusted mean = 26.37 Adjusted mean = 25.90 MD = 0.47 = 0.15

Not statistically significant, p = 0.26

Primary

Devereux Early Childhood Assessment (DECA) - Behavioral concerns

FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect

2 years

RCT: BabyFACE vs. comparision

66 families Adjusted mean = 11.06 Adjusted mean = 11.83 MD = -0.77 = -0.19

Not statistically significant, p = 0.22

Primary

Devereux Early Childhood Assessment (DECA) - Behavioral concerns

FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect

3 years

RCT: BabyFACE vs. comparision

68 families Not reported Not reported Not reported Not available

Statistically significant, p = 0.03

Primary

Although authors do not report the effect size, they indicate the finding is significant and favorable. Covariates included child's birth, household poverty, intergenerational living arrangement, and frequency of English spoken to children.

Devereux Early Childhood Assessment (DECA) - Behavioral concerns

FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect

3 years

RCT: BabyFACE vs. comparision

68 families Adjusted mean = 10.73 Adjusted mean = 13.00 MD = -2.27 = -0.47

Not statistically significant, p = 0.56

Primary

Devereux Early Childhood Assessment (DECA) - Initiative

FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect

2 years

RCT: BabyFACE vs. comparision

66 families Adjusted mean = 32.03 Adjusted mean = 30.37 MD = 1.66 = 0.27

Not statistically significant, p = 0.56

Primary

Devereux Early Childhood Assessment (DECA) - Initiative

FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect

3 years

RCT: BabyFACE vs. comparision

68 families Adjusted mean = 32.35 Adjusted mean = 30.58 MD = 1.77 = 1.04

Not statistically significant, p = 0.19

Primary

Devereux Early Childhood Assessment (DECA) - Self-control

FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect

2 years

RCT: BabyFACE vs. comparision

66 families Adjusted mean = 20.26 Adjusted mean = 20.53 MD = -0.27 = -0.38

Not statistically significant, p = 0.82

Primary

Devereux Early Childhood Assessment (DECA) - Self-control

FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect

3 years

RCT: BabyFACE vs. comparision

68 families Adjusted mean = 20.42 Adjusted mean = 20.00 MD = 0.42 = 0.10

Not statistically significant, p = 0.35

Primary
Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Boehm Test of Basic Concepts-3

Assesses 26 basic concepts relevant to children ages 3 to 5

Child assessment

Internal consistency and test reliability range from .85 to .92.

Primary

Devereux Early Childhood Assessment (DECA) - Attachment

A standarized behavior rating scale with initiative, self-control, attachment and behavior concerns scales.

Parent report

Cronbach's alpha is .81 and median test-retest reliability is .64.

Primary

Devereux Early Childhood Assessment (DECA) - Initiative

A standarized behavior rating scale with initiative, self-control, attachment and behavior concerns scales.

Parent report

Cronbach's alpha is .86 and median test-retest reliability is .64.

Primary

Devereux Early Childhood Assessment (DECA) - Self-control

A standarized behavior rating scale with initiative, self-control, attachment and behavior concerns scales.

Parent report

Cronbach's alpha is .83 and median test-retest reliability is .64.

Primary
View Revisions

Reductions in Child Maltreatment

Outcomes Rated High

Parents as Teachers (PAT)®
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type Notes
Child treated for injury in the past year
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 365 children % = 12.00 % = 14.90 = -2.90 Study reported = -0.08 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Child treated for injury in the past year
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 352 children % = 8.10 % = 11.90 = -3.80 Study reported = -0.12 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary

footnote61

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

In contrast to the study-reported results, HomVEE calculations showed this difference to be statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05). The HomVEE tests of statistical significance are based on the HomVEE calculated effect sizes, whereas authors may have used other techniques to determine statistical significance, such as regression models or analyses of variance (ANOVA).

Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Child treated for injury in the past year

Percentage of children who were treated for an injury during the past year

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Outcomes Rated Moderate

Parents as Teachers (PAT)®
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type
Abuse and/or Neglect-DSS and School Records, Confirmed Cases 1987-1992
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
4-5 years Binghamton, NY 40 children Unadjusted mean = 0.25 Unadjusted mean = 0.25 Mean difference = 0.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.00 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Abuse and/or Neglect-DSS and School Records, Confirmed Cases 1987-1992

Percentage of children who had confirmed cases of abuse and/or neglect Department of Social Services records, school records

Not applicable

Primary
Parents as Teachers (PAT)®
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type Notes
Child treated for injury in the past year
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Three-site sample 265 children % = 5.50 % = 11.00 = -5.50 Study reported = -0.20 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary

footnote61

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

In contrast to the study-reported results, HomVEE calculations showed this difference to be statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05). The HomVEE tests of statistical significance are based on the HomVEE calculated effect sizes, whereas authors may have used other techniques to determine statistical significance, such as regression models or analyses of variance (ANOVA).

Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Child treated for injury in the past year

Percentage of children who were treated for an injury during the past year

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary
View Revisions

Positive Parenting Practices

Outcomes Rated High

Parents as Teachers (PAT)®
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type
HOME acceptance of child’s behavior subscale
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 335 mothers Mean = 6.40 Mean = 6.70 Mean difference = -0.30 Study reported = -0.28 Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
Primary
HOME involvement with child subscale
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 350 mothers Mean = 4.60 Mean = 4.60 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = -0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME involvement with child subscale
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 335 mothers Mean = 4.00 Mean = 4.00 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = 0.01 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME opportunities for stimulation subscale
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 335 mothers Mean = 3.40 Mean = 3.50 Mean difference = -0.10 Study reported = -0.07 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME acceptance of child’s behavior subscale
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 350 mothers Mean = 6.40 Mean = 6.70 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = -0.32 Statistically significant,
p < 0.001
Primary
HOME appropriate play materials subscale
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 350 mothers Mean = 6.60 Mean = 6.50 Mean difference = 0.10 Study reported = 0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME appropriate play materials subscale
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 335 mothers Mean = 6.70 Mean = 6.70 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = 0.00 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME language- and literacy-promoting behaviors
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 335 mothers Mean = 5.80 Mean = 5.80 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = 0.00 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME opportunities for stimulation subscale
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 350 mothers Mean = 3.50 Mean = 3.60 Mean difference = -0.10 Study reported = -0.13 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME organization of the environment subscale
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 350 mothers Mean = 5.70 Mean = 5.70 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = 0.05 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME organization of the environment subscale
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 335 mothers Mean = 5.70 Mean = 5.70 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = 0.08 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME parental responsivity subscale
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 350 mothers Mean = 10.00 Mean = 10.00 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = 0.00 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME parental responsivity subscale
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 335 mothers Mean = 9.90 Mean = 9.80 Mean difference = 0.10 Study reported = 0.04 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME total scale
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 350 mothers Mean = 36.60 Mean = 37.20 Mean difference = -0.60 Study reported = -0.09 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME total scale
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 335 mothers Mean = 36.20 Mean = 36.40 Mean difference = -0.20 Study reported = -0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
KIDI
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 367 mothers Mean = 0.65 Mean = 0.65 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = -0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
KIDI
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 350 mothers Mean = 0.66 Mean = 0.69 Mean difference = -0.02 Study reported = -0.18 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
PSOC parenting efficacy subscale
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 357 mothers Mean = 27.20 Mean = 27.00 Mean difference = 0.02 Study reported = 0.05 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
PSOC parenting efficacy subscale
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 341 mothers Mean = 27.10 Mean = 26.60 Mean difference = 0.50 Study reported = 0.15 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
PSOC parenting satisfaction subscale
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 357 mothers Mean = 24.60 Mean = 25.20 Mean difference = -0.06 Study reported = -0.09 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
PSOC parenting satisfaction subscale
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 341 mothers Mean = 25.40 Mean = 26.40 Mean difference = -1.00 Study reported = -0.18 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
PSOC total score
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 357 mothers Mean = 51.80 Mean = 52.20 Mean difference = -0.40 Study reported = -0.05 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
PSOC total score
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 341 mothers Mean = 52.40 Mean = 52.90 Mean difference = -0.50 Study reported = -0.06 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Discipline (from HOME items)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 335 mothers Mean = 5.70 Mean = 5.90 Mean difference = -0.20 Study reported = -0.27 Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
Primary
Home mother-child interaction
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 335 mothers Mean = 5.20 Mean = 5.20 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = -0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

KIDI

The KIDI measures the parent’s knowledge of childrearing practices and developmental processes. The researchers measured the percentage of items that were answered correctly on the 57-item assessment. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Secondary

PSOC Scale: Total score, Parenting satisfaction subscale, Parenting efficacy subscale

The PSOC measures parent attitudes and self-efficacy. The researchers examined the total score and two subscale scores regarding parental, efficacy and satisfaction. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Secondary

HOME:

  • Total score
  • Parental responsivity subscale
  • Acceptance of child’s behavior subscale
  • Organization of the environment subscale
  • Appropriate play materials subscale
  • Involvement with child subscale
  • Opportunities for stimulation subscale
  • Parental responsivity subscale
  • Language- and literacy-promoting behaviors
  • Mother-child interaction
  • Discipline
The HOME assesses parenting practices and aspects of the home environment. The researchers examined the total score, as well as the following subscales: acceptance of child’s behavior, opportunity for stimulation, organization of the environment, parental involvement, parental responsivity, appropriate play materials, language promoting behaviors, mother-child interaction, and discipline. Parent/caregiver interview and observational assessment

Not reported by author

Primary

Outcomes Rated Moderate

Parents as Teachers (PAT)®
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type
AAPI average child maltreatment precursor scale (range = 6 to 24)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
1-year assessment Three-site sample 344 mothers Mean = 19.10 Mean = 19.10 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = 0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
AAPI average child maltreatment precursor scale (range = 6 to 24)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2-year assessment Three-site sample 267 mothers Mean = 18.30 Mean = 18.30 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = 0.01 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME acceptance of child’s behavior subscale
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
1-year assessment Three-site sample 343 mothers Mean = 6.00 Mean = 6.20 Mean difference = -0.20 Study reported = -0.12 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME acceptance of child’s behavior subscale
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2-year assessment Three-site sample 254 mothers Mean = 6.00 Mean = 5.70 Mean difference = 0.30 Study reported = 0.22 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME appropriate play materials subscale
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2-year assessment Three-site sample 254 mothers Mean = 7.90 Mean = 7.40 Mean difference = 0.30 Study reported = 0.26 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME involvement with child subscale
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
1-year assessment Three-site sample 343 mothers Mean = 4.10 Mean = 4.10 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = -0.01 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME involvement with child subscale
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2-year assessment Three-site sample 254 mothers Mean = 5.00 Mean = 4.90 Mean difference = 0.10 Study reported = 0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME opportunities for stimulation subscale
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
1-year assessment Three-site sample 343 mothers Mean = 3.40 Mean = 3.40 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = -0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME opportunities for stimulation subscale
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2-year assessment Three-site sample 254 mothers Mean = 3.70 Mean = 3.50 Mean difference = 0.20 Study reported = 0.20 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME organization of the environment subscale
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
1-year assessment Three-site sample 343 mothers Mean = 5.30 Mean = 5.30 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = 0.03 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME appropriate play materials subscale
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
1-year assessment Three-site sample 343 mothers Mean = 6.80 Mean = 6.70 Mean difference = 0.10 Study reported = 0.06 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME organization of the environment subscale
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2-year assessment Three-site sample 254 mothers Mean = 5.70 Mean = 5.60 Mean difference = 0.10 Study reported = 0.17 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME parental responsivity subcale
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2-year assessment Three-site sample 254 mothers Mean = 9.40 Mean = 9.30 Mean difference = 0.10 Study reported = 0.09 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME subscale related to language- and literacy-promoting behaviors (range = 0 to 8)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
1-year assessment Three-site sample 343 mothers Mean = 5.50 Mean = 5.30 Mean difference = 0.20 Study reported = 0.08 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME subscale related to language- and literacy-promoting behaviors (range = 0 to 8)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2-year assessment Three-site sample 266 mothers Mean = 6.50 Mean = 6.10 Mean difference = 0.40 Study reported = 0.31 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME subscale: parental responsivity
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
1-year assessment Three-site sample 343 mothers Mean = 8.50 Mean = 8.50 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = -0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME total scale (range = 0 to 45)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
1-year assessment Three-site sample 343 mothers Mean = 34.10 Mean = 34.20 Mean difference = -0.10 Study reported = -0.01 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.93
Primary
HOME total scale (range = 0 to 45)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2-year assessment Three-site sample 254 mothers Mean = 37.70 Mean = 36.40 Mean difference = 1.30 Study reported = 0.22 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
NCAST, total scale score
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2-year assessment Three-site sample 254 mothers Mean = 52.60 Mean = 52.90 Mean difference = -0.30 Study reported = -0.09 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.41
Primary
PSOC parenting efficacy subscale (range = 8 to 32)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
1-year assessment Three-site sample 344 mothers Mean = 28.60 Mean = 28.80 Mean difference = -0.20 Study reported = -0.10 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
PSOC parenting efficacy subscale (range = 8 to 32)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2-year assessment Three-site sample 267 mothers Mean = 28.70 Mean = 28.70 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = 0.01 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
PSOC satisfaction subscale (range = 9 to 36)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
1-year assessment Three-site sample 344 mothers Mean = 25.90 Mean = 26.80 Mean difference = -0.90 Study reported = -0.20 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
PSOC satisfaction subscale (range = 9 to 36)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2-year assessment Three-site sample 267 mothers Mean = 25.50 Mean = 25.70 Mean difference = -0.20 Study reported = -0.05 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
PSOC total scale (range = 17 to 68)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
1-year assessment Three-site sample 344 mothers Mean = 54.40 Mean = 55.60 Mean difference = -1.20 Study reported = -0.20 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
PSOC total scale (range = 17 to 68)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2-year assessment Three-site sample 267 mothers Mean = 54.20 Mean = 54.40 Mean difference = -0.20 Study reported = -0.04 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Language literacy numeracy promotion scale (range = 6 to 24)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
1-year assessment Three-site sample 343 mothers Mean = 19.00 Mean = 18.50 Mean difference = 0.50 Study reported = 0.12 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Language literacy numeracy promotion scale (range = 6 to 24)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2-year assessment Three-site sample 266 mothers Mean = 20.00 Mean = 19.70 Mean difference = 0.30 Study reported = 0.09 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Parent Observation Scale (range 1 to 4; 4 = more observant)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
1-year assessment Three-site sample 340 mothers Mean = 3.70 Mean = 3.80 Mean difference = -0.10 Study reported = -0.21 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Parent Observation Scale (range 1 to 4; 4 = more observant)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2-year assessment Three-site sample 267 mothers Mean = 3.80 Mean = 3.80 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = 0.01 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Parent reads books with child
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
1-year assessment Three-site sample 327 mothers Mean = 3.00 Mean = 3.00 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = 0.07 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Parent reads books with child
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2-year assessment Three-site sample 261 mothers Mean = 3.20 Mean = 3.20 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = 0.05 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Parent talks to/asks child questions during reading
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
1-year assessment Three-site sample 327 mothers Mean = 3.30 Mean = 3.10 Mean difference = 0.20 Study reported = 0.20 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Parent talks to/asks child questions during reading
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2-year assessment Three-site sample 261 mothers Mean = 3.60 Mean = 3.60 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = -0.04 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Parent tell stories sings with child
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
1-year assessment Three-site sample 343 mothers Mean = 3.40 Mean = 3.50 Mean difference = -0.10 Study reported = -0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Parent tell stories sings with child
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2-year assessment Three-site sample 266 mothers Mean = 3.40 Mean = 3.20 Mean difference = 0.20 Study reported = 0.19 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Parental knowledge all items (percentage answered correctly)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
1-year assessment Three-site sample 344 mothers Mean % = 78.80 Mean % = 80.00 Mean difference = -0.20 Study reported = -0.20 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Parental knowledge all items (percentage answered correctly)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2-year assessment Three-site sample 268 mothers Mean % = 77.70 Mean % = 75.90 Mean difference = 1.80 Study reported = 0.14 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Parental knowledge child care and safety (percentage answered correctly)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
1-year assessment Three-site sample 344 mothers Mean % = 84.00 Mean % = 85.50 Mean difference = -1.50 Study reported = -0.09 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Parental knowledge child care and safety (percentage answered correctly)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2-year assessment Three-site sample 268 mothers Mean % = 74.30 Mean % = 74.60 Mean difference = -0.30 Study reported = -0.01 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Parental knowledge discipline (percentage answered correctly)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
1-year assessment Three-site sample 344 mothers Mean % = 84.80 Mean % = 85.20 Mean difference = -0.40 Study reported = -0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Parental knowledge discipline (percentage answered correctly)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2-year assessment Three-site sample 268 mothers Mean % = 75.40 Mean % = 75.80 Mean difference = -0.40 Study reported = -0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Parental knowledge emotional development (percentage answered correctly)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
1-year assessment Three-site sample 344 mothers Mean % = 75.50 Mean % = 77.90 Mean difference = -2.40 Study reported = -0.12 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Parental knowledge emotional development (percentage answered correctly)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2-year assessment Three-site sample 268 mothers Mean % = 79.80 Mean % = 75.10 Mean difference = 4.70 Study reported = 0.24 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Parental knowledge general child development (percentage answered correctly)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
1-year assessment Three-site sample 344 mothers Mean % = 82.40 Mean % = 80.30 Mean difference = 2.10 Study reported = 0.14 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Parental knowledge general child development (percentage answered correctly)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2-year assessment Three-site sample 268 mothers Mean % = 74.00 Mean % = 71.90 Mean difference = 2.10 Study reported = 0.13 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Parental knowledge language/cognitive development (percentage answered correctly)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
1-year assessment Three-site sample 344 mothers Mean % = 70.70 Mean % = 73.90 Mean difference = -3.20 Study reported = -0.20 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Parental knowledge language/cognitive development (percentage answered correctly)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2-year assessment Three-site sample 268 mothers Mean % = 79.90 Mean % = 78.70 Mean difference = 1.20 Study reported = 0.07 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
While doing everyday things parent counts things or uses numbers with child
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
1-year assessment Three-site sample 343 mothers Mean = 3.10 Mean = 3.20 Mean difference = -0.10 Study reported = -0.10 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
While doing everyday things parent counts things or uses numbers with child
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2-year assessment Three-site sample 266 mothers Mean = 3.40 Mean = 3.40 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = 0.04 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
While doing everyday things parent reads aloud to child
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
1-year assessment Three-site sample 343 mothers Mean = 2.80 Mean = 2.60 Mean difference = 0.20 Study reported = 0.13 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

KIDI:

  • All items
  • General child development
  • Language/cognitive development
  • Emotional development
  • Discipline
  • Child care and safety
The KIDI measures the parent’s knowledge of childrearing practices and developmental processes. In addition to the total score, the researchers examined subscales about general child development, language/cognitive development, emotional development, and discipline. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Secondary

NCAST: Total score

The NCAST assesses the quality of teaching interaction between caregivers and young children. Mothers were assessed while introducing a new toy to their child. Areas of assessment included cue-giving and responsiveness to cues of both the parents and children. Observation

Not reported by author

Primary

PSOC: Total score, Parenting efficacy, Satisfaction

The PSOC measures parent attitudes and self-efficacy. The researchers analyzed the total score and scores on the two subscales: parent satisfaction and parent efficacy. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Secondary

AAPI: Average CMPS score

The CMPS from the AAPI assesses attitudes toward disciplining children that have been shown to, correlate with later abusive behaviors toward them. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Primary

HOME:

  • Language- and literacy-promoting behaviors
  • Total score
  • Parental responsivity
  • Acceptance of child’s behavior
  • Organization of the environment
  • Appropriate play materials
  • Involvement
  • Opportunities for stimulation
The HOME assesses parenting practices and aspects of the home environment. The researchers examined the total score, as well as subscales related to parental responsivity, acceptance of child's behavior, provision of appropriate play materials,, organization of the child’s environment, parental involvement with children, and the opportunities provided for daily stimulation. Parent/caregiver interview and observational assessment

Not reported by author

Primary

Language, literacy, numeracy promotion scale

  • While doing everyday things, parent talks to/asks child questions
  • While doing everyday things, parent reads aloud to child
  • While doing everyday things, parent counts things or uses numbers with child
  • Parent tells stories, sings with child
  • Parent reads books with child
  • Parent talks to/asks child questions during reading
A 6-item measure of direct parent-child verbal interactions that encourage children’s language development, literacy, and numeracy. Each question was answered on a 4-point scale, with 4 being the most positive response. An overall scale was formed by summing the values on these six items. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Secondary

Parent Observation Scale

A scale of parent observations skills ranging from 1 to 4, with 4 being the most observant Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Secondary
Parents as Teachers (PAT)®
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type
HOME appropriate play materials subscale
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
1 year Teen mothers sample 236 mothers Mean = 7.60 Mean = 7.20 Mean difference = 0.40 Not available Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
Primary
HOME appropriate play materials subscale
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Teen mothers sample 195 mothers Mean = 7.60 Mean = 8.00 Mean difference = -0.40 Not available Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
Primary
HOME involvement with child subscale
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
1 year Teen mothers sample 236 mothers Mean = 5.00 Mean = 4.70 Mean difference = 0.30 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME involvement with child subscale
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Teen mothers sample 195 mothers Mean = 4.70 Mean = 4.90 Mean difference = -0.20 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME opportunities for stimulation subscale
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
1 year Teen mothers sample 236 mothers Mean = 3.50 Mean = 3.40 Mean difference = 0.10 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME opportunities for stimulation subscale
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Teen mothers sample 195 mothers Mean = 4.00 Mean = 3.70 Mean difference = 0.30 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME organization of the environment subscale
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
1 year Teen mothers sample 236 mothers Mean = 5.60 Mean = 5.60 Mean difference = 0.00 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME organization of the environment subscale
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Teen mothers sample 195 mothers Mean = 5.70 Mean = 5.70 Mean difference = 0.00 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME acceptance of child’s behavior subscale
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
1 year Teen mothers sample 236 mothers Mean = 6.10 Mean = 6.00 Mean difference = 0.10 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME acceptance of child’s behavior subscale
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Teen mothers sample 195 mothers Mean = 6.30 Mean = 6.30 Mean difference = 0.00 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME parental responsivity subscale
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
1 year Teen mothers sample 236 mothers Mean = 9.90 Mean = 9.40 Mean difference = 0.50 Not available Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
Primary
HOME parental responsivity subscale
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Teen mothers sample 195 mothers Mean = 9.80 Mean = 9.90 Mean difference = -0.10 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
HOME total scale
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
1 year Teen mothers sample 236 mothers Mean = 37.60 Mean = 36.20 Mean difference = 1.40 Not available Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
Primary
HOME total scale
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Teen mothers sample 195 mothers Mean = 38.00 Mean = 38.50 Mean difference = -0.50 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

HOME:

  • Total score
  • Parental responsivity subscale
  • Acceptance of child’s behavior subscale
  • Appropriate play materials subscale
  • Organization of the environment subscale
  • Involvement with child subscale
  • Opportunities for stimulation subscale
The HOME assesses parenting practices and aspects of the home environment. The researchers examined the total score, as well as subscales related to parental responsivity, acceptance of child's behavior, provision of appropriate play materials, organization of the child’s environment, parental involvement with children, and the opportunities provided for daily stimulation. Parent/caregiver interview and observational assessment

Not reported by author

Primary
PAT Parents as First Teachers (New Zealand)
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type Notes
HOME Questionnaire, Overall
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 207 mothers Not available Not available Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
Parental Concerns, Disruption of plans
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.04 Unadjusted % = 0.04 Mean difference = 0.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.00 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Parental Concerns, Disruption of relationship with partner
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.10 Unadjusted % = 0.15 Mean difference = -0.05 HomeVEE calculated = -0.28 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Parental Concerns, Significant Concern
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.18 Unadjusted % = 0.14 Mean difference = 0.04 HomeVEE calculated = 0.18 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Parental Concerns, Social Concern
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.21 Unadjusted % = 0.25 Mean difference = -0.04 HomeVEE calculated = -0.14 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Parents as Teachers Questionnaire, Overall
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 208 mothers Not available Not available Not reported Not available Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary

footnote167

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Authors report that significantly more program parents respond yes to the following item: Looking around his/her surroundings takes up much of a baby's day during the first month of life.

Total number of activities
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 208 mothers Unadjusted mean = 27.64 Unadjusted mean = 27.27 Mean difference = 0.37 HomeVEE calculated = 0.17 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary

footnote166

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Authors report that significantly more program children play fantasy games.

Total number of experiences
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 208 mothers Unadjusted mean = 18.93 Unadjusted mean = 18.79 Mean difference = 0.14 HomeVEE calculated = 0.04 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary
Video Session, Parent-Child Interaction
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 years Dunedin sample 155 mothers Unadjusted mean = 26.78 Unadjusted mean = 30.97 Mean difference = -4.19 HomeVEE calculated = -0.21 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary

footnote168

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Authors report significant differences on several items: &amp;#8220;Book chosen by,&amp;#8221; &amp;#8220;Motivation,&amp;#8221; &amp;#8220;Attention maintained,&amp;#8221;&nbsp;&amp;#8220;Attending to help,&amp;#8221;&nbsp;and&nbsp;&amp;#8220;Using information.&amp;#8221;

Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

HOME Questionnaire, Overall

The Home Observation forMeasurement of theEnvironment (HOME)Questionnaire was designed to rate family interaction/reactionary behaviors and non-interactive behaviors, especially between the main caregiver and the child.

Observational Assessment

Not reported by authors

Secondary

Parental Concerns, Disruption of plans

Number/percentage of parents who reported caring for their child had disrupted their personal plans

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Parental Concerns, Disruption of relationship with partner

Number/percentage of parents who reported caring for their child had disrupted their relationship with their partner

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Parental Concerns, Significant Concern

Number/percentage of parents who had a significant concern about caring for their child

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Parental Concerns, Social Concern

Number/percentage of parents who had a social concern about caring for their child

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Parents as Teachers Questionnaire, Overall

The Parents as Teachers Questionnaire was designed to assess parental knowledge of child health and development.

Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by authors

Secondary

Total number of activities

Mean total number of activities children experienced at home within six months prior to the parental interview

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Total number of experiences

Mean total number of children's experiences out of the home

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Video Session, Parent-Child Interaction

Parent-child interactions were video recorded and scored by researchers.

Videotaped observation

Not reported by authors

Secondary
PAT Parents as First Teachers (New Zealand)
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type
Positive caregiver behaviors - imaginative play episode, responding to child
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 years Whangarei 143 mothers Unadjusted mean = 3.75 Unadjusted mean = 4.29 Mean difference = -0.54 HomeVEE calculated = -0.19 Not statistically significant, p = 0.25 Secondary
Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Positive caregiver behaviors - imaginative play episode, responding to child

Mean number of times caregiver responded to their child's initiative during interactive play

Videotaped observation

Not applicable

Secondary
Bureau of Indian Affairs’ Baby Family and Child Education Program (Baby FACE)
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type

Frequency of home literacy activity

FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect

3 years

RCT: BabyFACE vs. comparision

67 families Adjusted mean = 60.08 Adjusted mean = 55.45 MD = 4.63 = 0.64

Statistically significant, p = 0.01

Secondary

Hours parent reads to child

FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect

3 years

RCT: BabyFACE vs. comparision

67 families Adjusted mean = 64.00 Adjusted mean = 33.73 MD = 30.27 = 0.49

Statistically significant, p = 0.04

Secondary

Protective Factors Survey - Nurturing and Attachment

FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect

2 years

RCT: BabyFACE vs. comparision

66 families Adjusted mean = 27.06 Adjusted mean = 26.87 MD = 0.19 = 0.08

Not statistically significant, p = 0.55

Secondary

Protective Factors Survey - Nurturing and Attachment

FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect

3 years

RCT: BabyFACE vs. comparision

68 families Adjusted mean = 26.87 Adjusted mean = 26.70 MD = 0.17 = 0.13

Not statistically significant, p = 0.56

Secondary

Protective Factors Survey - Parent's Child Development Knowledge

FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect

2 years

RCT: BabyFACE vs. comparision

66 families Adjusted mean = 30.43 Adjusted mean = 29.57 MD = 0.86 = 0.16

Not statistically significant, p = 0.21

Secondary

Protective Factors Survey - Parent's Child Development Knowledge

FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect

3 years

RCT: BabyFACE vs. comparision

68 families Adjusted mean = 31.11 Adjusted mean = 30.03 MD = 1.08 = 0.27

Not statistically significant, p = 0.13

Secondary
Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Frequency of home literacy activity

A list of 14 literacy activities rated on a 5-point scale from rarely/never to daily/several times a day

Parent report

Cronbach's alpha is .88

Secondary

Hours parent reads to child, RCT

Hours read to child

Parent report

Not applicable

Secondary

Protective Factors Survey - Nurturing and Attachment

The Protective Factors Survey is a self-administered survey with five subscales: family functioning/resiliency, social support, concrete support, nurturing and attachment, and child development knowledge.

Parent report

Cronbach's alpha is .78

Secondary

Protective Factors Survey - Parent's Child Development Knowledge

The Protective Factors Survey is a self-administered survey with five subscales: family functioning/resiliency, social support, concrete support, nurturing and attachment, and child development knowledge.

Parent report

Cronbach's alpha is .69

Secondary
View Revisions

Family Economic Self-Sufficiency

Outcomes Rated High

Parents as Teachers (PAT)®
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type Notes
Any postsecondary education
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 363 mothers % = 27.00 % = 33.10 = -6.10 HomeVEE calculated = -0.18 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Any postsecondary education
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 354 mothers % = 29.30 % = 38.80 = -9.50 HomeVEE calculated = -0.26 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary

footnote61

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

In contrast to the study-reported results, HomVEE calculations showed this difference to be statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05). The HomVEE tests of statistical significance are based on the HomVEE calculated effect sizes, whereas authors may have used other techniques to determine statistical significance, such as regression models or analyses of variance (ANOVA).

Attending school in the past year
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 363 mothers % = 27.70 % = 30.70 = -3.00 HomeVEE calculated = -0.09 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Attending school in the past year
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 354 mothers % = 25.80 % = 23.50 = 3.30 HomeVEE calculated = 0.08 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Average highest grade level
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 363 mothers Mean = 10.50 Mean = 11.20 Mean difference = -0.70 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Average highest grade level
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 354 mothers Mean = 10.80 Mean = 11.60 Mean difference = -0.80 Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
High school graduate
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 363 mothers % = 23.20 % = 22.70 = 0.50 HomeVEE calculated = 0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
High school graduate
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 354 mothers % = 24.50 % = 20.40 = 4.10 HomeVEE calculated = 0.14 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Household income $10000 - $29999
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 366 mothers % = 57.90 % = 44.90 = 13.00 HomeVEE calculated = 0.32 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary

footnote61

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

In contrast to the study-reported results, HomVEE calculations showed this difference to be statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05). The HomVEE tests of statistical significance are based on the HomVEE calculated effect sizes, whereas authors may have used other techniques to determine statistical significance, such as regression models or analyses of variance (ANOVA).

Household income $10000 - $29999
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 354 mothers % = 55.30 = = 7.90 HomeVEE calculated = 0.19 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Household income $30000 or more
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 366 mothers % = 22.60 % = 33.60 = -11.00 HomeVEE calculated = -0.33 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary

footnote61

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

In contrast to the study-reported results, HomVEE calculations showed this difference to be statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05). The HomVEE tests of statistical significance are based on the HomVEE calculated effect sizes, whereas authors may have used other techniques to determine statistical significance, such as regression models or analyses of variance (ANOVA).

Household income $30000 or more
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 354 mothers % = 25.30 % = 36.80 = -11.50 HomeVEE calculated = -0.33 Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
Secondary
Household income less than $10000
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 366 mothers % = 19.50 % = 21.50 = -2.00 HomeVEE calculated = -0.07 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Household income less than $10000
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 354 mothers % = 19.30 % = 15.80 = 3.50 HomeVEE calculated = 0.15 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Household receiving AFDC
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 366 mothers % = 16.10 % = 22.20 = -6.10 HomeVEE calculated = -0.24 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary

footnote61

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

In contrast to the study-reported results, HomVEE calculations showed this difference to be statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05). The HomVEE tests of statistical significance are based on the HomVEE calculated effect sizes, whereas authors may have used other techniques to determine statistical significance, such as regression models or analyses of variance (ANOVA).

Household receiving AFDC
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 354 mothers % = 15.40 % = 17.90 = -2.50 HomeVEE calculated = -0.11 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Household receiving Medi-Cal
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 366 mothers % = 39.90 % = 45.10 = -5.20 HomeVEE calculated = -0.13 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Household receiving Medi-Cal
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 354 mothers &#; = 37.00 % = 36.40 = 0.60 HomeVEE calculated = 0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Less than high school
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 363 mothers % = 49.80 % = 44.20 = 5.60 HomeVEE calculated = 0.14 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Less than high school
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 354 mothers % = 46.20 % = 40.80 = 5.40 HomeVEE calculated = 0.13 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Mother working/in job training
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Northern California sample 366 mothers % = 48.80 % = 36.20 = 12.60 HomeVEE calculated = 0.31 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary

footnote61

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

In contrast to the study-reported results, HomVEE calculations showed this difference to be statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05). The HomVEE tests of statistical significance are based on the HomVEE calculated effect sizes, whereas authors may have used other techniques to determine statistical significance, such as regression models or analyses of variance (ANOVA).

Mother working/in job training
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
3 year Northern California sample 354 mothers % = 55.40 % = 46.00 = 9.40 HomeVEE calculated = 0.23 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary

footnote61

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

In contrast to the study-reported results, HomVEE calculations showed this difference to be statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05). The HomVEE tests of statistical significance are based on the HomVEE calculated effect sizes, whereas authors may have used other techniques to determine statistical significance, such as regression models or analyses of variance (ANOVA).

Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Any postsecondary education

Percentage of mothers who had some postsecondary education Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Attending school in the past year

Percentage of mothers who attended school in the past year Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Average highest grade level

An average of the highest level of school that the mother had completed Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

High school graduate

Percentage of mothers who had completed high school Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Household income $10,000–$29,999

Percentage of households with incomes between $10,000 and $29,000 Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Household income $30,000 or more

Percentage of households with incomes of $30,000 or greater Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Household income less than $10,000

Percentage of households with incomes less than $10,000 Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Household receiving AFDC

Percentage of households that received AFDC Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Household receiving Medi-Cal

Percentage of households that received Medi-Cal Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Less than high school

Percentage of mothers who had less than a high school education Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Mother working/in job training

Percentage of mothers who were working or in job training Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary

Outcomes Rated Moderate

Parents as Teachers (PAT)®
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type
Change in AFDC Status
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
4-5 years Binghamton, NY 40 children Unadjusted mean = -0.10 Unadjusted mean = 0.20 Mean difference = -0.30 Not available Statistically significant, p < 0.05 Primary
Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Change in AFDC Status

Difference in percentage of families who received AFDC when children were age 1 and when children were age 4 or 5 Department of Social Services records

Not applicable

Primary
Parents as Teachers (PAT)®
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type
Child covered by health insurance
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 year Three-site sample 265 children % = 79.80 % = 84.80 = -4.60 Study reported = -0.13 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Child covered by health insurance

Percentage of children who were covered by health insurance

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Secondary