ParentChild+® Core Model

Last updated: May 2019

Effects Shown in Research & Outcome Measure Details

Child Development and School Readiness

Outcomes Rated High

ParentChild+® Core Model
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type
Day Night Task
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months ParentChild+ vs. comparison, northeastern U.S., Study 2 full sample 136 children Not reported Not reported Not reported = 0.18 Not statistically significant, p = 0.29 Primary
Preschool Language Scale Fourth Edition (PLS-4) - Auditory
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months ParentChild+ vs. comparison, northeastern U.S., Study 2 full sample 133 children Not reported Not reported Not reported = 0.38 Statistically significant, p = 0.03 Primary
Preschool Language Scale Fourth Edition (PLS-4) - Total
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months ParentChild+ vs. comparison, northeastern U.S., Study 2 full sample 127 children Not reported Not reported Not reported = 0.37 Statistically significant, p = 0.04 Primary
Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Day Night Task

A measure of self-regulation and effortful control, child is shown a card with a day or night sky and asked to select opposite response of card shown. Children can earn 0-3 points per trial, and total score ranges from 0-30 for 10 trials.

Observed task

Not reported

Primary

Preschool Language Scale Fourth Edition (PLS-4) - Auditory

The PLS-4 is individually administered to assess language competence in children from birth to 6 years. The auditory comprehension subscale includes 48 items.

Standardized test

Internal reliability (r) = 0.86

Primary

Preschool Language Scale Fourth Edition (PLS-4) - Total

The PLS-4 is individually administered to assess language competence in children from birth to 6 years.

Standardized test

Internal reliability (r) = 0.93

Primary
ParentChild+® Core Model
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type Notes
Day Night Task (adjusted)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months ParentChild+ vs. comparison, northeastern U.S., Study 2 full sample 147 children Not reported Not reported Not reported Study reported = 0.23 Not statistically significant, p = 0.16 Primary

footnote449

Submitted by nwu on Fri, 04/12/2019 - 18:30

Effect size is a Cohen's d.

Tower Clean Up Task Duration (adjusted)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months ParentChild+ vs. comparison, northeastern U.S., Study 2 full sample 126 children Not reported Not reported Not reported = 0.08 Not statistically significant, p = 0.67 Primary

footnote449

Submitted by nwu on Fri, 04/12/2019 - 18:30

Effect size is a Cohen's d.

Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Day Night Task (adjusted)

A measure of self-regulation and effortful control, child is shown a card with a day or night sky and asked to select opposite response of card shown. Children can earn 0-3 points per trial, and total score ranges from 0-30 for 10 trials.

Observed task

Not reported

Primary

Preschool Language Scale Fourth Edition (PLS-4) - Auditory (adjusted)

The PLS-4 is individually administered to assess language competence in children from birth to 6 years. The auditory comprehension subscale includes 48 items.

Standardized test

Internal reliability (r) = 0.86

Primary

Preschool Language Scale Fourth Edition (PLS-4) - Total (adjusted)

The PLS-4 is individually administered to assess language competence in children from birth to 6 years.

Standardized test

Internal reliability (r) = 0.93

Primary

Tower Clean Up Task Duration (adjusted)

A measure of child compliance, child is asked to put 18 blocks into a bag and timed, with a goal of completion within two minutes.

Observed task

Not reported

Primary
ParentChild+® Core Model
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type
PPVT
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Post-program 1973 – 1975 cohorts 111 children Mean = 91.60 Mean = 91.28 Mean difference = 0.32 HomeVEE calculated = 0.05 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
PPVT
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Post-program 1973 – 1974 cohorts 82 children Mean = 89.48 Mean = 90.36 MD = -0.88 HomeVEE calculated = -0.06 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
Stanford-Binet
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Post-program 1973 – 1976 cohorts 166 children Mean = 104.05 Mean = 103.54 Mean difference = 0.51 HomeVEE calculated = 0.04 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

PPVT

ThePPVT assesses receptive vocabulary for Standard American English and verbal ability in young children.

Child assessment

Not reported by author

Primary

Stanford-Binet

The Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales assess intelligence and cognitive ability in areas including verbal reasoning, quantitative reasoning, abstract and visual reasoning, and short-term memory.

Child assessment

Not reported by author

Primary

Outcomes Rated Moderate

ParentChild+® Core Model
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type Notes
Ages and Stages Questionnaire: Social-Emotional (ASQ: SE) (unadjusted)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months ParentChild+ vs. comparison, northeastern U.S., Study 2 full sample 112 children Unadjusted mean = -0.11 Unadjusted mean = 0.00 MD = -0.11 = -0.11 Not statistically significant, p = 0.56 Primary
Day Night Task (unadjusted)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months ParentChild+ vs. comparison, northeastern U.S., Study 2 full sample 149 children Unadjusted mean = 12.16 Unadjusted mean = 10.58 MD = 1.58 HomeVEE calculated = 0.18 Not statistically significant, p = 0.29 Primary
Preschool Language Scale Fourth Edition (PLS-4) - Auditory (unadjusted)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months ParentChild+ vs. comparison, northeastern U.S., Study 2 full sample 144 children Unadjusted mean = 95.27 Unadjusted mean = 91.80 MD = 3.47 HomeVEE calculated = 0.29 Not statistically significant, p = 0.09 Primary
Preschool Language Scale Fourth Edition (PLS-4) - Expressive (unadjusted)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months ParentChild+ vs. comparison, northeastern U.S., Study 2 full sample 144 children Unadjusted mean = 98.39 Unadjusted mean = 95.13 MD = 3.26 = 0.21 Not statistically significant, p = 0.21 Primary
Preschool Language Scale Fourth Edition (PLS-4) - Total (unadjusted)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months ParentChild+ vs. comparison, northeastern U.S., Study 2 full sample 141 children Unadjusted mean = 96.89 Unadjusted mean = 92.46 MD = 4.43 HomeVEE calculated = 0.32 Not statistically significant, p = 0.06 Primary
Tower Clean Up Task Duration (unadjusted)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months ParentChild+ vs. comparison, northeastern U.S., Study 2 full sample 127 children Unadjusted mean = 57.66 Unadjusted mean = 51.89 MD = 5.77 HomeVEE calculated = 0.20 Not statistically significant, p = 0.27 Primary
Tower Clean Up Task Time to Start (unadjusted)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months ParentChild+ vs. comparison, northeastern U.S., Study 2 full sample 142 children Unadjusted mean = 14.92 Unadjusted mean = 14.62 MD = 0.30 = 0.01 Not statistically significant, p = 0.95 Primary
Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Ages and Stages Questionnaire: Social-Emotional (ASQ: SE) (unadjusted)

A 30-item assessment for children aged 30 to 65 months. Measured domains include self-regulation, compliance, communication, adaptive functioning, autonomy, affect, and interaction with people.

Parent report

Cronbach's alpha = 0.78 (36-month) and 0.80 (48 month)

Primary

Day Night Task (unadjusted)

A measure of self-regulation and effortful control, child is shown a card with a day or night sky and asked to select opposite response of card shown. Children can earn 0-3 points per trial, and total score ranges from 0-30 for 10 trials.

Observed task

Not reported

Primary

Preschool Language Scale Fourth Edition (PLS-4) - Auditory (unadjusted)

The PLS-4 is individually administered to assess language competence in children from birth to 6 years. The auditory comprehension subscale includes 48 items.

Standardized test

Internal reliability (r) = 0.86

Primary

Preschool Language Scale Fourth Edition (PLS-4) - Expressive (unadjusted)

The PLS-4 is individually administered to assess language competence in children from birth to 6 years. The expressive communication subscale includes 48 items.

Standardized test

Internal reliability (r) = 0.91

Primary

Preschool Language Scale Fourth Edition (PLS-4) - Total (unadjusted)

The PLS-4 is individually administered to assess language competence in children from birth to 6 years.

Standardized test

Internal reliability (r) = 0.93

Primary

Tower Clean Up Task Duration (unadjusted)

A measure of child compliance, child is asked to put 18 blocks into a bag and timed, with a goal of completion within two minutes.

Observed task

Not reported

Primary

Tower Clean Up Task Time to Start (unadjusted)

A measure of child compliance, child is asked to put 18 blocks into a bag and timed.

Observed task

Not reported

Primary
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Positive Parenting Practices

Outcomes Rated High

ParentChild+® Core Model
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type
Parent as a Teacher Inventory (PAAT) - Total
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months ParentChild+ vs. comparison, northeastern U.S., Study 2 full sample 144 parents Not reported Not reported Not reported = 0.08 Not statistically significant, p = 0.64 Secondary
Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Parent as a Teacher Inventory (PAAT) - Total

A 50-item questionnaire assessing parents' expectation of their child and attitudes about appropriate behavior.

Parent questionnaire

Cronbach's alpha = 0.60 and 0.70

Secondary
ParentChild+® Core Model
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type
Maternal Interactive Behavior
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
Post-program 1973 – 1976 cohorts 114 mothers Mean = 282.38 Mean = 185.95 Mean difference = 96.43 HomeVEE calculated = 0.96 Statistically significant, p < 0.05 Primary
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Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Maternal Interactive Behavior

Frequencies of occurrence of 10 categories of behavior were tallied in four viewings of videotaped parent-child interaction. The categories were: labeling, use of color names, verbalization of actions, verbalization of number and shape, solicitation of information from the child, verbal praise, encouragement of divergent use of a toy, nonverbal indication of warmth, reply to child's vocalization, and failure to reply to child's vocalization.

Video recording of parent-child interaction

Pearson's r = 0.48 to 0.74 Cronbach's α = 0.82

Primary

Outcomes Rated Moderate

ParentChild+® Core Model
Show Findings Details
Outcome Measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Intervention Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect Size Statistical Significance Outcome Type Notes
Parent as a Teacher Total (PAAT) (unadjusted)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
24 months ParentChild+ vs. comparison, northeastern U.S., Study 2 full sample 150 parents Unadjusted mean = 137.71 Unadjusted mean = 136.97 MD = 0.74 HomeVEE calculated = 0.09 Not statistically significant, p = 0.58 Secondary
Show Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection Method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Parent as a Teacher Total (PAAT) (unadjusted)

A 50-item questionnaire assessing parents' expectation of their child and attitudes about appropriate behavior.

Parent questionnaire

Cronbach's alpha = 0.60 and 0.70

Secondary
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