Maternal Infant Health Outreach Worker (MIHOW)®

Model effectiveness research report last updated: 2018

Effects shown in research & outcome measure details

Child health

Findings rated high

Maternal Infant Health Outreach Worker (MIHOW)®
Show findings details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up timing Sample Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance Notes
Breastfeeding exclusively
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
6 months postpartum Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials Unadjusted proportion = 0.02 Unadjusted proportion = 0.01 Mean difference = 0.01 HomeVEE calculated = 0.37 Statistically significant, p = 0.01

footnote379

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Proportions indicate the percentages of women who selected this response to a closed-ended question on duration of exclusive breastfeeding that included four possible responses. Authors analyzed all four responses collectively using a Mann-Whitney test; we report a <abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr>-calculated effect size and p-value associated with the individual response.

Child given cereal
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
6 months postpartum Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials Unadjusted proportion = 0.15 Unadjusted proportion = 0.17 Mean difference = -0.02 HomeVEE calculated = -0.08 Not statistically significant, p = 0.60
Child given other food
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 weeks postpartum Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials Unadjusted proportion = 0.02 Unadjusted proportion = 0.01 Mean difference = 0.01 HomeVEE calculated = 0.37 Statistically significant, p = 0.01

footnote383

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative effect size is favorable to the intervention.

Child given other food
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
6 months postpartum Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials Unadjusted proportion = 0.91 Unadjusted proportion = 0.92 Mean difference = -0.01 HomeVEE calculated = -0.06 Not statistically significant, p = 0.68
Child given other liquid
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 months postpartum Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials Unadjusted proportion = 0.01 Unadjusted proportion = 0.06 Mean difference = -0.05 HomeVEE calculated = -1.03 Statistically significant, p = 0.00

footnote383

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative effect size is favorable to the intervention.

Child given other liquid
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
6 months postpartum Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials Unadjusted proportion = 0.90 Unadjusted proportion = 0.91 Mean difference = -0.01 HomeVEE calculated = -0.05 Not statistically significant, p = 0.74

footnote383

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative effect size is favorable to the intervention.

Ever breastfed child
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
6 months postpartum Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials Unadjusted proportion = 0.86 Unadjusted proportion = 0.83 Mean difference = 0.03 HomeVEE calculated = 0.14 Not statistically significant, p = 0.57
Median duration of exclusive breastfeeding, in weeks
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
6 months postpartum Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials Unadjusted median = 1.40 Unadjusted median = 0.30 Median difference = 1.10 Not available Statistically significant, p = 0.01

footnote382

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance is based on the authors&rsquo; analysis using a Mann-Whitney test.

Median number of weeks to first food
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
6 months postpartum Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials Unadjusted median = 21.00 Unadjusted median = 20.00 Median difference = 1.00 Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.20

footnote382

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance is based on the authors&rsquo; analysis using a Mann-Whitney test.

Median number of weeks to first other liquid
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
6 months postpartum Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials Unadjusted median = 20.00 Unadjusted median = 20.00 Median difference = 0.00 Not available Statistically significant, p < 0.001

footnote382

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Statistical significance is based on the authors&rsquo; analysis using a Mann-Whitney test.

Median score on the breastfeeding self-efficacy scale (BSES)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 months postpartum Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials Unadjusted median = 62.00 Unadjusted median = 51.00 Median difference = 11.00 Not available Not reported
Never breastfed
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
6 months postpartum Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials Unadjusted proportion = 0.14 Unadjusted proportion = 0.18 Mean difference = -0.03 HomeVEE calculated = -0.14 Not statistically significant, p = 0.34

footnote378

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Proportions indicate the percentages of women who selected this response to a closed-ended question on duration of breastfeeding practices that included five possible responses. Authors analyzed all five responses collectively using a Mann-Whitney test; we report a <abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr>-calculated effect size and p-value associated with the individual response. Negative effect size is favorable to the intervention.

Never breastfed exclusively
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
6 months postpartum Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials Unadjusted proportion = 0.56 Unadjusted proportion = 0.79 Mean difference = -0.24 HomeVEE calculated = -0.67 Statistically significant, p = 0.00

footnote380

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Proportions indicate the percentages of women who selected this response to a closed-ended question on duration of exclusive breastfeeding that included four possible responses. Authors analyzed all four responses collectively using a Mann-Whitney test; we report a <abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr>-calculated effect size and p-value associated with the individual response. Negative veffect size is favorable to the intervention.

Still breastfeeding
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
6 months postpartum Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials Unadjusted proportion = 0.50 Unadjusted proportion = 0.49 Mean difference = 0.01 HomeVEE calculated = 0.01 Not statistically significant, p = 0.92

footnote377

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Proportions indicate the percentages of women who selected this response to a closed-ended question on duration of breastfeeding practices that included five possible responses. Authors analyzed all five responses collectively using a Mann-Whitney test; we report a <abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr>-calculated effect size and p-value associated with the individual response.

Stopped breastfeeding
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 months postpartum Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials Unadjusted proportion = 0.16 Unadjusted proportion = 0.09 Mean difference = 0.06 HomeVEE calculated = 0.35 Statistically significant, p = 0.02

footnote378

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Proportions indicate the percentages of women who selected this response to a closed-ended question on duration of breastfeeding practices that included five possible responses. Authors analyzed all five responses collectively using a Mann-Whitney test; we report a <abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr>-calculated effect size and p-value associated with the individual response. Negative effect size is favorable to the intervention.

Stopped breastfeeding
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 weeks postpartum Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials Unadjusted proportion = 0.02 Unadjusted proportion = 0.02 Mean difference = 0.00 HomeVEE calculated = -0.05 Not statistically significant, p = 0.72

footnote378

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Proportions indicate the percentages of women who selected this response to a closed-ended question on duration of breastfeeding practices that included five possible responses. Authors analyzed all five responses collectively using a Mann-Whitney test; we report a <abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr>-calculated effect size and p-value associated with the individual response. Negative effect size is favorable to the intervention.

Stopped breastfeeding
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
6 months postpartum Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials Unadjusted proportion = 0.18 Unadjusted proportion = 0.21 Mean difference = -0.03 HomeVEE calculated = -0.13 Not statistically significant, p = 0.39

footnote378

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Proportions indicate the percentages of women who selected this response to a closed-ended question on duration of breastfeeding practices that included five possible responses. Authors analyzed all five responses collectively using a Mann-Whitney test; we report a <abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr>-calculated effect size and p-value associated with the individual response. Negative effect size is favorable to the intervention.

Stopped breastfeeding exclusively
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 months postpartum Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials Unadjusted proportion = 0.19 Unadjusted proportion = 0.08 Mean difference = 0.11 HomeVEE calculated = 0.59 Statistically significant, p = 0.00

footnote381

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Proportions indicate the percentages of women who selected this response to a closed-ended question on duration of exclusive breastfeeding that included four possible responses. Authors analyzed all four responses collectively using a Mann-Whitney test; we report a <abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr>-calculated effect size and p-value associated with the individual response. Negative effect size is favorable to the intervention.

Stopped breastfeeding exclusively
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 weeks postpartum Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials Unadjusted proportion = 0.23 Unadjusted proportion = 0.12 Mean difference = 0.12 HomeVEE calculated = 0.51 Statistically significant, p = 0.00

footnote381

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Proportions indicate the percentages of women who selected this response to a closed-ended question on duration of exclusive breastfeeding that included four possible responses. Authors analyzed all four responses collectively using a Mann-Whitney test; we report a <abbr title="Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness">HomVEE</abbr>-calculated effect size and p-value associated with the individual response. Negative effect size is favorable to the intervention.

Show outcome measure summary
Outcome measure Outcome measure description Collection method Properties

Breastfeeding exclusively

Question from the National Survey of Children’s Health Mother report

Not reported by author

Child given cereal

Question from the Infant Feeding Practices Study II Mother report

Not reported by author

Child given other food

Question from the Perinatal Risk Assessment Monitory System Survey Mother report

Not reported by author

Child given other liquid

Question from the National Survey of Children’s Health Mother report

Not reported by author

Ever breastfed the child

Question from the Perinatal Risk Assessment Monitory System Survey Mother report

Not reported by author

Median duration of exclusive breastfeeding, in weeks

Question from the National Survey of Children’s Health Mother report

Not reported by author

Median number of weeks to first food

Question from the Perinatal Risk Assessment Monitory System Survey Mother report

Not reported by author

Median number of weeks to first other liquid

Question from the National Survey of Children’s Health Mother report

Not reported by author

Median score on the breastfeeding self-efficacy scale (BSES)

The BSES Short Form uses a 5-point scale on 14 questions to assess a mother's confidence breastfeeding her child. Mother report

Cronbach’s alpha of 0.93–0.95

Never breastfed

Question from the Perinatal Risk Assessment Monitory System Survey Mother report

Not reported by author

Never breastfed exclusively

Question from the National Survey of Children’s Health Mother report

Not reported by author

Still breastfeeding

Question from the Perinatal Risk Assessment Monitory System Survey Mother report

Not reported by author

Stopped breastfeeding

Question from the National Survey of Children’s Health Mother report

Not reported by author

Stopped breastfeeding exclusively

Question from the National Survey of Children’s Health Mother report

Not reported by author

Findings rated moderate

Maternal Infant Health Outreach Worker (MIHOW)®
Show findings details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up timing Sample Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance Notes
Child given other liquid
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
2 weeks postpartum Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials Unadjusted proportion = 0.00 Unadjusted proportion = 0.04 Mean difference = -0.04 HomeVEE calculated = -6.34 Statistically significant, p = 0.00

footnote383

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative effect size is favorable to the intervention.

Show outcome measure summary
Outcome measure Outcome measure description Collection method Properties

Child given other liquid

Question from the National Survey of Children’s Health Mother report

Not reported by author

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