Early Start (New Zealand) Meets HHS Criteria

Model effectiveness research report last updated: 2011

Effects shown in research & outcome measure details

Child development and school readiness

Findings rated moderate

Early Start (New Zealand)
Show findings details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up timing Sample Sample size Intervention group Comparison group Group difference Effect size Statistical significance Notes
Duration of attendance (months)
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months Christchurch sample 388 children Unadjusted mean = 16.40 Unadjusted mean = 13.60 Mean difference = 2.80 Study reported = 0.22 Statistically significant, p < 0.05
Percent ever attended early childhood education
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months Christchurch sample 388 children % = 90.80 % = 84.50 = 6.30 Study reported = 0.19 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Performance IQ
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months Christchurch sample 367 children Unadjusted mean = 98.10 Unadjusted mean = 96.80 Mean difference = 1.30 Study reported = 0.08 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Total IQ
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months Christchurch sample 367 children Unadjusted mean = 97.70 Unadjusted mean = 96.50 Mean difference = 1.20 Study reported = 0.07 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Total behavior score
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months Christchurch sample 391 children Unadjusted mean = 9.87 Unadjusted mean = 10.11 Mean difference = -0.24 Study reported = 0.24 Statistically significant, p < 0.05

footnote150

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

High score equals unfavorable.

Total externalizing score
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months Christchurch sample 391 children Unadjusted mean = 9.90 Unadjusted mean = 10.09 Mean difference = -0.19 Study reported = 0.19 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05

footnote150

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

High score equals unfavorable.

Total internalizing score
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months Christchurch sample 391 children Unadjusted mean = 9.86 Unadjusted mean = 10.12 Mean difference = -0.26 Study reported = 0.26 Statistically significant, p < 0.05

footnote150

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

High score equals unfavorable.

Verbal IQ
FavorableUnfavorable or ambiguousNo Effect
36 months Christchurch sample 367 children Unadjusted mean = 97.70 Unadjusted mean = 97.00 Mean difference = 0.70 Study reported = 0.04 Not statistically significant, p ≥ 0.05
Show outcome measure summary
Outcome measure Outcome measure description Collection method Properties

Duration of attendance (months)

Duration of attendance in early childhood education (in months)

Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Percent ever attended early childhood education

Percentage of children who ever attended early childhood education Parent/caregiver report

Not applicable

Performance IQ

The Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) was used to assess intelligence at age three. The authors obtained a verbal IQ score, a performance IQ score , and full score IQ Child assessment

Cronbach's α = 0.86 for the performance subscale, 0.93 for the verbal subscale, and .0.94 for the total scale.

Total IQ

The Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) was used to assess intelligence at age three. The authors obtained a verbal IQ score, a performance IQ score , and full score IQ . Child assessment

Cronbach's α = 0.86 for the performance subscale, 0.93 for the verbal subscale, and .0.94 for the total scale.

Total internalizing/Total externalizing score

Child social-emotional /behavioral problems were assessed using 50 items from the Infant-Toddler Social and Emotional Assessment (ITSEA). The following dimensions of behavior combine to form the Externalizing score: activity, aggression/defiance, peer aggression, and emotional negativity. The dimensions of inhibition/separation problems and depression/withdrawal comprise the Internalizing score. Items are rated on a 3-point scale from not true (1), rarely to very true (2), and often (3).

Parent/caregiver report

Cronbach’s α ranged from 0.47 to 0.85, with a median of 0.75.

Verbal IQ

The Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI) was used to assess intelligence at age three. The authors obtained a verbal IQ score, a performance IQ score , and full score IQ. Child assessment

Cronbach's α = 0.86 for the performance subscale, 0.93 for the verbal subscale, and .0.94 for the total scale.

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