Early Head Start–Home-Based Option (EHS-HBO) Meets HHS Criteria

Last updated: July 2016

Effects Shown in Research & Outcome Measure Details

Child Development and School Readiness

Outcomes Rated High

Early Head Start–Home-Based Option (EHS-HBO)
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type Notes
CBCL Aggressive behavior
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Age 5 Home-based program approach Not reported Not reported Not reported Study reported = -0.09 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary

footnote238

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value favors the intervention.

FACES positive approaches to learning
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Age 5 Home-based program approach Not reported Not reported Not reported Study reported = 0.18 Statistically significant, p < 0.01 Secondary
FACES Social Behavior Problems
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Age 5 Home-based program approach Not reported Not reported Not reported Study reported = -0.13 Statistically significant, p < 0.05 Secondary

footnote238

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value favors the intervention.

Child has an individualized education plan
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Age 5 Home-based program approach Not reported Not reported Not reported Study reported = -0.02 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary

footnote238

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value favors the intervention.

Engagement during play
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Age 5 Home-based program approach Not reported Not reported Not reported Study reported = 0.04 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
English receptive vocabulary (PPVT)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Age 5 Home-based program approach Not reported Not reported Not reported Study reported = 0.05 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
Leiter attention sustained
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Age 5 Home-based program approach Not reported Not reported Not reported Study reported = 0.09 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
Negativity toward parent during play
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Age 5 Home-based program approach Not reported Not reported Not reported Study reported = -0.01 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary

footnote238

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value favors the intervention.

Observed attention
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Age 5 Home-based program approach Not reported Not reported Not reported Study reported = 0.07 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
Observed Leiter emotion regulation
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Age 5 Home-based program approach Not reported Not reported Not reported Study reported = 0.02 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
Speech problems
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Age 5 Home-based program approach Not reported Not reported Not reported Study reported = -0.10 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Secondary

footnote238

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Negative value favors the intervention.

Woodcock Johnson Applied Problems
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Age 5 Home-based program approach Not reported Not reported Not reported Study reported = 0.08 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
Woodcock Johnson Letter-Word identification (English)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Age 5 Home-based program approach Not reported Not reported Not reported Study reported = 0.03 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

CBCL Aggressive behavior

The Child Behavior Checklist is a questionnaire that assesses behavioral problems in young children. Parent survey

Internal consistency= 0.89

Primary

FACES positive approaches to learning

Subscales from Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES) assessed child social-emotional functioning, social skills, and positive approaches to learning. Parent survey

Internal consistency= 0.64

Secondary

FACES Social Behavior Problems

Subscales from Family and Child Experiences Survey (FACES) assessed child social-emotional functioning, social skills, and positive approaches to learning. Parent survey

Internal consistency= 0.76

Secondary

Child has an individualized education plan

Percent of parents who report that their child has an individualized education plan. Parent survey

Not reported by author

Secondary

Engagement during play

Assessment of parent-child semistructured play evaluated children’s engagement with parent and negativity toward parents. The free play tasks and coding scheme used were adapted from the National Institute of Child Health and Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care. Videotape observation

Intercoder reliability= 96%

Primary

English receptive vocabulary (PPVT)

The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT)-III assesses receptive vocabulary for Standard American English in young children. Child assessment

Internal consistency= 0.96

Primary

Leiter attention sustained

The Leiter-R Sustained Attention test assesses skills in memory or attention in children. Child assessment

Internal consistency= 0.75

Primary

Negativity toward parent during play

The child’s behavior during a play task was coded. Child engagement with parent was measured as the extent to which the child interacted with the parent and communicated positive feelings. Child negativity toward parent measured displays of anger, rejection, or a negative reaction to parent’s behavior. Child sustained attention with objects was measured as the duration of the child’s focus on an object or set of objects. Videotape observation

Intercoder reliability= 99%

Primary

Observed attention

The Leiter-R Sustained Attention test assesses skills in memory or attention in children. Child assessment

Internal consistency= 0.93

Primary

Observed Leiter emotion regulation

The Leiter-R Sustained Attention test assesses skills in memory or attention in children. Child assessment

Internal consistency= 0.93

Primary

Speech problems

Parent survey response. Parent survey

Not reported by author

Secondary

Woodcock Johnson Applied Problems

The Woodcock-Johnson-Revised Test (WJ-R) assesses scholastic ability and intelligence in children. The Applied Problems subscale measures symbolic representation, counting, and simple addition and subtraction. Child assessment

Internal consistency= 0.91

Primary

Woodcock Johnson Letter-Word identification (English)

The Woodcock-Johnson-Revised Test (WJ-R) assesses scholastic ability and intelligence in children. The Letter-Word Identification subscale measures recognition of letters and words. Child assessment

Internal consistency= 0.84

Primary
Early Head Start–Home-Based Option (EHS-HBO)
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type Notes
Child aggression (24 months)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
24 months one site from larger EHS evaluation Not reported Not reported coeff = 0.06 Not available Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary

footnote152

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Higher score equals unfavorable; Note that this outcome controls for physical punishment at 24 months

Child aggression (36 months)
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
36 months one site from larger EHS evaluation Not reported Not reported coeff = 0.07 Not available Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Primary

footnote153

Submitted by user on Fri, 03/15/2019 - 14:29

Higher score equals unfavorable; Note that this outcome measures the incremental impact between 24 months and 36 months and also controls for aggression at 24 months)

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Child aggression

For a 19-item subscale on aggression from the Child Behavior Checklist, the number of times a behavior was never true, true, or often true of the child Parent/caregiver report

Cronbach's α = 0.85

Primary
Early Head Start–Home-Based Option (EHS-HBO)
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type
FACES aggression
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Kindergarten entry EHS-HBO impact study 928 children Adjusted mean = 2.60 Adjusted mean = 2.70 Mean difference = -0.10 Study reported = -0.07 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

FACES: Aggression

Subscales from FACES assessed child social-emotional functioning, social skills, and positive approaches to learning. Child assessment

Cronbach’s α = 0.64

Secondary
Early Head Start–Home-Based Option (EHS-HBO)
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type
CBCL – Aggression
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Age 2 EHS-HBO impact study 966 children Adjusted mean = 10.40 Adjusted mean = 10.50 Mean difference = -0.10 Study reported = -0.01 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Average MacArthur CDI – Sentence Complexity
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Age 2 EHS-HBO impact study 966 children Adjusted mean = 8.50 Adjusted mean = 7.80 Mean difference = 0.70 Study reported = 0.08 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
MacArthur CDI – Vocabulary Production
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Age 2 EHS-HBO impact study 966 children Adjusted mean = 56.40 Adjusted mean = 53.50 Mean difference = 2.90 Study reported = 0.13 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Percentage MacArthur CDI combining words
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Age 2 EHS-HBO impact study 966 children Adjusted mean = 77.30 Adjusted mean = 75.60 Mean difference = 1.70 Study reported = 0.04 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Percentage with sentence complexity <2
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Age 2 EHS-HBO impact study 966 children Adjusted mean = 28.30 Adjusted mean = 30.20 Mean difference = -1.90 Study reported = -0.04 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Percentage with vocabulary production <25
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Age 2 EHS-HBO impact study 966 children Adjusted mean = 11.30 Adjusted mean = 11.20 Mean difference = 0.10 Study reported = 0.01 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

CBCL: Aggression

The CBCL is a questionnaire that assesses behavioral problems in young children. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Primary

MacArthur CDI – Vocabulary ProductionPercentage with vocabulary production < 25Percent MacArthur CDI combining wordsAverage MacArthur CDI – Sentence ComplexityPercentage with sentence complexity < 2

The CDI assesses language development in young children. Vocabulary production measured the number of words out of 100 the parent had heard the child say. Sentence production measured the extent to which the child used more grammatically complex sentences. Percentage combining words measured the Percentage of children who are using at least two-word phrases. The researchers also examined the percentage with vocabulary production < 85 and sentence complexity <2. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Primary

Outcomes Rated Moderate

Early Head Start–Home-Based Option (EHS-HBO)
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type
Bayley BRS: Orientation/Engagement
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Age 3 EHS-HBO impact study 744 children Adjusted mean = 3.90 Adjusted mean = 3.80 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = 3.40 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Bayley Behavioral Rating Scale(BRS): Emotional regulation
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Age 3 EHS-HBO impact study 744 children Adjusted mean = 4.00 Adjusted mean = 4.00 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = 2.10 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Bayley Mental DevelopmentIndex(MDI)Standard Score
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Age 3 EHS-HBO impact study 746 children Adjusted mean = 94.10 Adjusted mean = 92.80 Mean difference = 1.20 Study reported = 9.50 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Child behavior checklist - aggressive behavior
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Age 3 EHS-HBO impact study 746 children Adjusted mean = 11.20 Adjusted mean = 11.70 Mean difference = -0.50 Study reported = -7.80 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Secondary
Engagement of parent during parent-child puzzle challenge task
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Age 3 EHS-HBO impact study 744 children Adjusted mean = 5.10 Adjusted mean = 5.00 Mean difference = 0.10 Study reported = 5.60 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Engagement of parent during parent-child semistructured play
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Age 3 EHS-HBO impact study 744 children Adjusted mean = 4.80 Adjusted mean = 4.60 Mean difference = 0.20 Study reported = 19.20 Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
Primary
Frustration during parent-child puzzle challenge task
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Age 3 EHS-HBO impact study 744 children Adjusted mean = 2.70 Adjusted mean = 2.60 Mean difference = 0.10 Study reported = 5.90 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Negativity toward parent during parent-child semistructured play
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Age 3 EHS-HBO impact study 744 children Adjusted mean = 1.30 Adjusted mean = 1.30 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = -6.60 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT)-III Standard Score
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Age 3 EHS-HBO impact study 746 children Adjusted mean = 84.60 Adjusted mean = 83.10 Mean difference = 1.50 Study reported = 9.10 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Percentage with PPVT-III<85
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Age 3 EHS-HBO impact study 746 children % = 45.60 % = 48.60 = -3.00 Study reported = -6.10 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Percentage with MDI <85
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Age 3 EHS-HBO impact study 746 children % = 20.50 % = 22.00 = -1.40 Study reported = -3.10 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Persistence during parent-child puzzle challenge task
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Age 3 EHS-HBO impact study 744 children Adjusted mean = 4.70 Adjusted mean = 4.60 Mean difference = 0.10 Study reported = 12.00 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Sustained attention with objects during parent-child semistructured play
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Age 3 EHS-HBO impact study 744 children Adjusted mean = 5.00 Adjusted mean = 4.90 Mean difference = 0.10 Study reported = 10.60 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

Bayley BRS : Orientation/Engagement

The Bayley BRS assesses child behavior, with each item scored on a 5-point scale. Orientation and engagement was an average score on items including positive affect, interest in materials, and exploration of objects and surroundings. Child assessment

Not reported by author

Secondary

Bayley Behavioral Rating Scale(BRS): Emotional regulation

The Bayley BRS assesses child behavior, with each item scored on a 5-point scale. Emotional regulation was an average score on items including negative affect and attention adaptation to change in test materials. Trained assessor ratings

Not reported by author

Secondary

Bayley Mental DevelopmentIndex(MDI)Standard Score

The MDI of the BSI D assesses the cognitive functioning of young children. Child assessment

Not reported by author

Primary

Child behavior checklist - aggressive behavior

The CBCL is a questionnaire that assesses behavioral problems in young children. Parent/caregiver report

Not reported by author

Secondary

Engagement of parent during parent-child puzzle challenge task

Children were given puzzles at increasing levels of challenge to work on with their parent. The task was videotaped, and child and parent behaviors were coded on a 7-point scale by child development researchers according to strict protocols. The scales are based on a puzzle task used by Brooks-Gunn et al. (1992) in the Newark Observational Study of the Teenage Parent Demonstration. Engagement measures the extent to which the child shows, initiates, or maintains interaction with the parent. Very high engagement receives a 7. Videotape observation

Not reported by author

Secondary

Engagement of parent during parent-child semistructured play

The child’s behavior during a play task was coded. Child engagement with parent was measured as the extent to which the child interacted with the parent and communicated positive feelings. Videotape observation

Not reported by author

Secondary

Frustration during parent-child puzzle challenge task

Children were given puzzles at increasing levels of challenge to work on with their parent. The task was videotaped, and child and parent behaviors were coded on a 7-point scale by child development researchers according to strict protocols. The scales are based on a puzzle task used by Brooks-Gunn et al. (1992) in the Newark Observational Study of the Teenage Parent Demonstration. Frustration measures the degree to which the child expresses frustration or anger toward the puzzle task. Very high frustration receives a 7. Videotape observation

Not reported by author

Secondary

Negativity toward parent during parent-child semistructured play

The child’s behavior during a play task was coded. Child negativity toward parent measured displays of anger, rejection, or a negative reaction to parent’s behavior. Videotape observation

Not reported by author

Secondary

Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT)-III Standard Score

The PPVT -III is a test of children’s receptive vocabulary. Child assessment

Not reported by author

Primary

Percentage with MDI <85

The MDI of the BSI D assesses the cognitive functioning of young children. Child assessment

Not reported by author

Primary

Percentage with PPVT -III<85

The PPVT -III is a test of children’s receptive vocabulary. Child assessment

Not reported by author

Primary

Persistence during parent-child puzzle challenge task

Children were given puzzles at increasing levels of challenge to work on with their parent. The task was videotaped, and child and parent behaviors were coded on a 7-point scale by child development researchers according to strict protocols. The scales are based on a puzzle task used by Brooks-Gunn et al. (1992) in the Newark Observational Study of the Teenage Parent Demonstration. Persistence measures how goal-oriented, focused, and motivated the child remains toward the puzzle throughout the task. Very high persistence receives a 7. Videotape observation

Not reported by author

Secondary

Sustained attention with objects during parent-child semistructured play

The child’s behavior during a play task was coded. Child sustained attention with objects was measured as the duration of the child’s focus on an object or set of objects. Videotape observation

Not reported by author

Secondary
Early Head Start–Home-Based Option (EHS-HBO)
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type
BSID Mental Development Index (MDI)standard score
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Age 2 EHS-HBO impact study 814 children Adjusted mean = 91.60 Adjusted mean = 90.50 Mean difference = 1.10 Study reported = 0.08 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Bayley BRS – Emotional Regulation
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Age 2 EHS-HBO impact study 814 children Adjusted mean = 3.60 Adjusted mean = 3.60 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = 0.07 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Bayley BRS – Orientation/Engagement
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Age 2 EHS-HBO impact study 814 children Adjusted mean = 3.60 Adjusted mean = 3.60 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = 0.01 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Parent-Child Structured Play: Child Engagement
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Age 2 EHS-HBO impact study 794 children Adjusted mean = 4.30 Adjusted mean = 4.30 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = 0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Parent-Child Structured Play: Child Negativity Toward Parent
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Age 2 EHS-HBO impact study 794 children Adjusted mean = 1.70 Adjusted mean = 1.70 Mean difference = 0.00 Study reported = -0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Parent-Child Structured Play: Child Sustained Attention with Objects
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Age 2 EHS-HBO impact study 794 children Adjusted mean = 5.10 Adjusted mean = 5.00 Mean difference = 0.10 Study reported = 0.05 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Percentage with MDI < 100
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Age 2 EHS-HBO impact study 814 children Adjusted mean = 73.00 Adjusted mean = 71.90 Mean difference = 1.10 Study reported = 0.03 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Percentage with MDI < 85
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
Age 2 EHS-HBO impact study 814 children Adjusted mean = 31.50 Adjusted mean = 32.50 Mean difference = -1.00 Study reported = -0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

BSID, MDIPercentage with MDI <85Percentage with MDI <100

The MDI of the BSID assesses the cognitive functioning of young children. In addition to the mean MDI score, the researchers examined the percentage with MDI <85 and MDI <100. Child assessment

Not reported by author

Primary

Bayley BRS: Emotional Regulation Bayley BRS: Orientation/Engagement

The Bayley BRS assesses child behavior, with each item scored on a 5-point scale. Emotional regulation was an average score on items including negative affect and attention adaptation to change in test materials. Orientation and engagement was an average score on items including positive affect, interest in materials, and exploration of objects and surroundings. Trained assessor ratings

Not reported by author

Primary

Parent-child Structured Play:

  • Child Sustained Attention with Objects
  • Child Negativity Toward Parent
  • Child Engagement
The child’s behavior during a play task was coded. Child engagement with parent was measured as the extent to which the child interacted with the parent and communicated positive feelings. Child negativity toward parent measured displays of anger, rejection, or a negative reaction to parent’s behavior. Child sustained attention with objects was measured as the duration of the child’s focus on an object or set of objects. Videotape observation

Not reported by author

Primary
Early Head Start–Home-Based Option (EHS-HBO)
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome measure Effect Follow-up Timing Sample Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Group Difference Effect size Statistical significance Outcome Type
BSID MDI
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
24 months EHS-HBO impact study (Utah) 161 children Not reported Not reported Not reported Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Primary
BSID MDI
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
36 months EHS-HBO impact study (Utah) 161 children Not reported Not reported &beta; = 0.19 Not available Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
Primary
Attachment security
FavorableUnfavorableNo Effect
18 months EHS-HBO impact study (Utah) 161 children Not reported Not reported &beta; = 0.17 Not available Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
Secondary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Measure Outcome Measure Description Collection method Properties Outcome Type Operations links

BSID, MDI

The MDI of the BSID assesses the cognitive functioning of young children. Child assessment

Cronbach’s α = 0.79 at age 14 months, Cronbach’s α = 0.85 at age 24 months, Cronbach’s α = 0.99 at age 36 months

Primary

Attachment Q-Sort scale

The Attachment Q-Sort assesses security of attachment and dependency in young children. Each of the 90 items is a description of a specific behavior. Items are sorted by the mother/caregiver into nine piles of 10 cards each based on how likely or unlikely the item matches the behavior of her child. Parent/caregiver report with the assistance of a trained interviewer

r = 0.64

Secondary
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