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Maternal Infant Health Outreach Worker (MIHOW)®

Last Updated: June 2018

Effects Shown in Research & Outcome Measure Details for Positive Parenting Practices Outcomes

Impact Studies Rated High


Lutenbacher, M., Dietrich, M. S., & Elkins, T. (2016). Evaluation of the Maternal Infant Health Outreach Worker (MIHOW) model in a sample of Hispanic women: A collaborative project between Catholic Charities and Vanderbilt University School of Nursing. Report submitted to the Home Visiting Evidence of Effectiveness (HomVEE) Review.
Show Study Effects Details
About this Table
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
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Statistical Significance
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Effect Size
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Outcome Type
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Child always co-sleeps1 Favorable Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials 2 weeks postpartum 177 Unadjusted proportion = 0.00 Unadjusted proportion = 0.24 MD = -0.24 Statistically significant, p = 0.00 HomVEE = -7.65 Secondary
Child always co-sleeps1 Favorable Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials 6 months postpartum 178 Unadjusted proportion = 0.01 Unadjusted proportion = 0.18 MD = -0.17 Statistically significant, p = 0.00 HomVEE = -1.82 Secondary
Child always co-sleeps1 Favorable Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials 2 months postpartum 176 Unadjusted proportion = 0.01 Unadjusted proportion = 0.20 MD = -0.19 Statistically significant, p = 0.00 HomVEE = -1.87 Secondary
Child never co-sleeps2 Favorable Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials 2 months postpartum 176 Unadjusted proportion = 0.87 Unadjusted proportion = 0.28 MD = 0.59 Statistically significant, p = 0.00 HomVEE = 1.70 Secondary
Child never co-sleeps2 Favorable Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials 6 months postpartum 178 Unadjusted proportion = 0.86 Unadjusted proportion = 0.32 MD = 0.54 Statistically significant, p = 0.00 HomVEE = 1.53 Secondary
Child never co-sleeps2 Favorable Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials 2 weeks postpartum 177 Unadjusted proportion = 0.81 Unadjusted proportion = 0.33 MD = 0.49 Statistically significant, p = 0.00 HomVEE = 1.33 Secondary
Child sleeps on back Favorable Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials 2 weeks postpartum 177 Unadjusted proportion = 0.99 Unadjusted proportion = 0.66 MD = 0.33 Statistically significant, p = 0.00 HomVEE = 2.31 Secondary
Child sleeps on back Favorable Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials 2 months postpartum 176 Unadjusted proportion = 0.98 Unadjusted proportion = 0.66 MD = 0.32 Statistically significant, p = 0.00 HomVEE = 1.88 Secondary
Child sleeps on back Favorable Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials 6 months postpartum 178 Unadjusted proportion = 0.98 Unadjusted proportion = 0.75 MD = 0.23 Statistically significant, p = 0.00 HomVEE = 1.64 Secondary
Child sleeps on side3 Favorable Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials 6 months postpartum 178 Unadjusted proportion = 0.02 Unadjusted proportion = 0.24 MD = -0.22 Statistically significant, p = 0.00 HomVEE = -1.60 Secondary
Child sleeps on side3 Favorable Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials 2 weeks postpartum 177 Unadjusted proportion = 0.01 Unadjusted proportion = 0.34 MD = -0.33 Statistically significant, p = 0.00 HomVEE = -2.31 Secondary
Child sleeps on side3 Favorable Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials 2 months postpartum 176 Unadjusted proportion = 0.02 Unadjusted proportion = 0.33 MD = -0.30 Statistically significant, p = 0.00 HomVEE = -1.85 Secondary
Child sleeps on stomach3 Favorable Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials 2 months postpartum 176 Unadjusted proportion = 0.00 Unadjusted proportion = 0.01 MD = -0.01 Statistically significant, p = 0.00 HomVEE = -5.68 Secondary
Child sleeps on stomach3 No Effect Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials 2 weeks postpartum 177 Unadjusted proportion = 0.00 Unadjusted proportion = 0.00 MD = 0.00 Not statistically significant, p = 1.00 HomVEE = 0.00 Secondary
Child sleeps on stomach3 Favorable Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials 6 months postpartum 178 Unadjusted proportion = 0.00 Unadjusted proportion = 0.01 MD = -0.01 Statistically significant, p = 0.00 HomVEE = -5.62 Secondary
Median Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) Inventory Score Favorable Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials 2 weeks postpartum 177 Unadjusted median = 21.00 Unadjusted median = 15.00 Median Difference = 6.00 Statistically significant, p = 0.00 Not reported Primary
Median Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) Inventory Score Favorable Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials 2 months postpartum 175 Unadjusted median = 27.00 Unadjusted median = 19.00 Median Difference = 8.00 Statistically significant, p = 0.00 Not reported Primary
Median Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) Inventory Score Favorable Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials 6 months postpartum 178 Unadjusted median = 40.00 Unadjusted median = 33.00 Median Difference = 7.00 Statistically significant, p = 0.00 Not reported Primary
Median number of days during prior week reading to child Favorable Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials 2 weeks postpartum 176 Unadjusted median = 5.00 Unadjusted median = 0.00 Median Difference = 5.00 Statistically significant, p = 0.00 Not reported Secondary
Median number of days during prior week singing or telling stories to child Favorable Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials 2 weeks postpartum 176 Unadjusted median = 6.00 Unadjusted median = 5.00 Median Difference = 1.00 Statistically significant, p = 0.00 Not reported Secondary
Reads stories at least three times per week Favorable Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials 2 months postpartum 176 Unadjusted proportion = 0.92 Unadjusted proportion = 0.37 MD = 0.55 Statistically significant, p = 0.00 HomVEE = 1.81 Secondary
Reads stories at least three times per week Favorable Davidson County, Tennessee, MIHOW vs. Educational Materials 6 months postpartum 176 Unadjusted proportion = 0.97 Unadjusted proportion = 0.26 MD = 0.71 Statistically significant, p = 0.00 HomVEE = 2.68 Secondary

1 Proportions indicate the percentages of women who selected this response to a closed-ended question on frequency of cosleeping that included five possible responses. Authors analyzed all five responses collectively using a likelihood chi-square test; we report a HomVEE-calculated effect size and p-value associated with the individual response. Negative effect size is favorable to the intervention.

2 Proportions indicate the percentages of women who selected this response to a closed-ended question on frequency of cosleeping that included five possible responses. Authors analyzed all five responses collectively using a likelihood chi-square test; we report a HomVEE-calculated effect size and p-value associated with the individual response.

3 Negative effect size is favorable to the intervention.

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
About This Table
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
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Child always co-sleeps Question from the Perinatal Risk Assessment Monitory System Survey Mother report Not reported by author Secondary
Child never co-sleeps Question from the Perinatal Risk Assessment Monitory System Survey Mother report Not reported by author Secondary
Child sleeps on back Question from the Perinatal Risk Assessment Monitory System Survey Mother report Not reported by author Secondary
Child sleeps on side Question from the Perinatal Risk Assessment Monitory System Survey Mother report Not reported by author Secondary
Child sleeps on stomach Question from the Perinatal Risk Assessment Monitory System Survey Mother report Not reported by author Secondary
Median Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) Inventory Score The HOME Inventory Score measures the stimulation available in the child's home environment. Direct observation Cronbach’s alpha equal or greater than .90 for total scores. Primary
Median number of days during prior week reading to child Question from the National Survey of Children’s Health Mother report Not reported by author Secondary
Median number of days during prior week singing or telling stories to child Question from the National Survey of Children’s Health Mother report Not reported by author Secondary
Reads stories at least three times per week Question from the National Survey of Children’s Health Mother report Not reported by author Secondary
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