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Study Detail

Sanders, M. R., & Plant, K. (1989). Programming for generalization to high and low risk parenting situations in families with oppositional developmentally disabled preschoolers. Behavior Modification, 13(3), 283-305.

Program(s) Reviewed: Triple P-Home Visiting: Child Management Training Component

Study Screening Details

Screening DecisionScreening Conclusion
Study Passes ScreensEligible for Review

Study Design Details

RatingDesignAttritionBaseline EquivalenceReassignmentConfounding Factors
ModerateSingle-case design (multiple baseline) that has at least 3 attempts to demonstrate an effect at 3 different points in timeNot applicableNot applicableNot applicableNot applicable

The portion of the study in the high-risk generalization setting rated moderate. The other two portions (training and low-risk generalization) rated low because there were not at least three attempts to demonstrate an effect with at least three data points per phase. The HomVEE review focused on the Child Management Training component, which was the only one adjacent to a phase that included no Triple P components. The other phases were not reviewed for impacts.

The results from single-case design studies with a high or moderate rating are not factored into whether a model meets the DHHS criteria unless additional criteria are met. Please read the DHHS criteria for evidence-based program models for more information.

Study Characteristics

Study Participants

Participants were five two-parent families with preschool-age children with developmental disabilities who received services from what the authors described as “an Intellectual Services Handicap” program. All families were Caucasian. On average, mothers were age 29 years, fathers were 31, and children were 4. All families were described as lower middle or middle class. The children all scored within the mild range of developmental disability on the Merrill-Palmer Scale of Mental Tests. They also displayed high levels of noncompliant, demanding, and disruptive behavior and met the DSM III criteria for diagnosis of an oppositional disorder. All families self-referred to the program after reported difficulty managing their children.

Setting The study was conducted in Queensland, Australia.
Home Visiting Services

During the first four weeks, parents received Child Management Training (CMT). This began with two two-hour training sessions during which the therapist taught parents to use descriptive praise, star charts, and tangible reinforcers to encourage desired behavior. The therapist then used a process of instruction, discussion, modeling, rehearsal, and feedback to introduce eight procedures for managing specific oppositional behaviors. After completing the training sessions, the therapist conducted four home visits twice weekly for two weeks to observe parent-child interactions for 25 minutes and then discuss with the parent the use of praise and correction. The therapist also prompted parents to evaluate their own skills and behavior. The therapist provided parents with written feedback on the percentage of appropriate child behavior, parents’ use of praise statements and instruction, and parents’ fidelity to procedures. An independent observer coded these outcomes during the course of the home visit. Therapists and parents also established goals for between-session practice.

During the final five weeks, parents received Planned Activities Training (PAT) home visits, but these services were not part of the HomVEE review.

Comparison Condition Baseline observations were conducted prior to instruction in the use of CMT.
Staff Characteristics and Training The second author served as the therapist who delivered both CMT and PAT .
Funding Source Not specified.
Author Affiliation The first author is the developer of this program model.

Study Registration Identifier: None found

Study registration was assessed by HomVEE beginning with the 2014 review.


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