Skip Navigation

Study Detail

Drazen, S. M., & Haust, M. (1993, August). Raising reading readiness in low-income children by parent education. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association.

Program(s) Reviewed: Parents as Teachers

Study Screening Details

Screening DecisionScreening Conclusion
Study Passes ScreensEligible for Review

Study Design Details

RatingDesignAttritionBaseline EquivalenceReassignmentConfounding Factors
ModerateQuasi-experimental designNot applicableEstablished on race/ethnicity, SES, and outcomesNot applicableNone

This study receives a mixed rating. The authors conducted two studies. Two outcomes from Study 1 rate low and all of Study 2 rates low because baseline equivalence was not demonstrated on race/ethnicity, SES, or outcomes (low-rated outcomes are not reported). In Study 1, receiving Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) at present rates low because, though groups were equivalent at baseline on this measure, the authors do not control for it in analyses. In addition, months receiving AFDC rates low because baseline equivalence is not established on this measure (baseline data are not reported). The other outcomes reported in Study 1 receive a moderate rating.

Study Characteristics

Study Participants

The intervention group comprised 20 Parents and Children Together (PACT) graduates ages 4 and 5 with the highest risk of school failure whose parents started participation in PACT between the time of the child’s birth and first birthday (most started when children were newborns). A comparison child was selected for each intervention child based on race, sex, educational experience, participation in Head Start, and number of risk factors, for a total of 20 comparison children.


This study took place in Binghamton City School District in New York.

Home Visiting Services

Trained and certified parent educators visit the families’ homes at least one per month, starting at birth and continuing until the child is 3 years old. Parent educators provide information about child development and demonstrate parenting techniques. They also refer parents to other agencies when appropriate. The program provides developmental screening tests, parent group meetings, and access to parenting resources such as books and toys.

Comparison Condition

The comparison condition was business as usual.

Staff Characteristics and Training

No information given.

Funding Source

No information given.

Author Affiliation

None of the authors is a developer of this program model.


See also…