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Computer-Assisted Motivational Intervention (CAMI)

In Brief

Last Updated

October 2012

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Evidence of Model Effectiveness

This model does not meet the criteria established by the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) for an “evidence-based early childhood home visiting service delivery model” for the general population or for tribal populations.

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Model Description

The Computer-Assisted Motivational Intervention (CAMI) was designed to delay repeat childbearing among adolescent girls by motivating them to change their contraceptive behaviors. During home visits, adolescents completed a computer-based survey assessing their sexual relationships, contraceptive intentions and plans, and current pregnancy prevention practices. An algorithm assessed the participant’s risk for repeat pregnancy, sexually transmitted infections, and readiness to use contraception and/or condoms. Following the survey, CAMI counselors conducted a 20- to 30-minute motivational interview in which they discussed how the teen’s goals and actions aligned, and encouraged the adolescent to change her behavior. Home visits lasted about one hour and were conducted once per quarter over a two-year period.

This report also includes a review of an enhancement to CAMI, called CAMI+. In addition to the standard program, CAMI+ provided participants with biweekly or monthly home-based parent training and case management services. The 16-module curriculum, designed specifically for African American adolescent mothers, covered topics such as child development and discipline. The home visits were initiated prenatally at about 32 weeks gestation.

For more information, please read the Model Overview.

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Extent of Evidence

Results of Search and ReviewNumber of Studies for CAMI OnlyNumber of Studies for CAMI+
Released from 1979 to 2011 21
Eligible for review 22
     Rated high 11
     Rated moderate 00
     Rated low 00
     Additional sourcesa 11

aAdditional sources overlap with another study and are not rated.

For more information, see the study database. For more information on the criteria used to determine the study ratings, please read Producing Study Ratings.

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Summary of Findings



Computer-Assisted Motivational Intervention (CAMI)
Outcomes Primary Outcome Measures Secondary Outcome Measures
Child Development and School Readiness Not measured Not measured
Child Health Not measured Not measured
Family Economic Self-Sufficiency Not measured Not measured
Linkages and Referrals Not measured Not measured
Maternal Health

Favorable: 0
No effect: 1
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Favorable: 0
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Positive Parenting Practices Not measured Not measured
Reductions in Child Maltreatment Not measured Not measured
Reductions in Juvenile Delinquency, Family Violence, and Crime Not measured Not measured

CAMI+
Outcomes Primary Outcome Measures Secondary Outcome Measures
Child Development and School Readiness Not measured Not measured
Child Health Not measured Not measured
Family Economic Self-Sufficiency Not measured Not measured
Linkages and Referrals Not measured Not measured
Maternal Health

Favorable: 1
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Favorable: 0
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Positive Parenting Practices Not measured Not measured
Reductions in Child Maltreatment Not measured Not measured
Reductions in Juvenile Delinquency, Family Violence, and Crime Not measured Not measured
Table Help
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This table summarizes the effects found in research across outcome domains. Outcomes with a favorable impact are listed in green and outcomes with an unfavorable or ambiguous impact are listed in red. Outcomes that have high attrition or lack of baseline equivalence are excluded from this report.

Favorable Impact: A statistically significant impact on an outcome measure in a direction that is beneficial for children and parents. This impact could statistically be positive or negative, and is determined “favorable” based on the end result. For example, a favorable impact could be an increase in children’s vocabulary or daily reading to children by parents, or a reduction in harsh parenting practices or maternal depression.

Unfavorable or Ambiguous Impact: A statistically significant impact on an outcome measure in a direction that may indicate potential harm to children and/or parents. This impact could statistically be positive or negative, and is determined “unfavorable or ambiguous” based on the end result. NOTE: While some outcomes are clearly unfavorable, for other outcomes it is not as clear which direction is desirable. For example, an increase in children’s behavior problems is clearly unfavorable, while an increase in number of days mothers are hospitalized is more ambiguous. This may be viewed as an unfavorable impact because it indicates that mothers have more health problems, but it could also indicate that mothers have increased access to needed health care due to their participation in a home visiting program.

Primary Outcome Measure: For the HomVEE review, an outcome measured through direct observation, direct assessment, or administrative data; or self-reported data collected using a standardized (normed) instrument.

Secondary Outcome Measure: For the HomVEE review, most self-reported data, excluding self-reports based on a standardized (normed) instrument.

Please read Describing Effects for more information on these categories. Only results from studies that meet the standards for the high or moderate ratings are included above.

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Criteria Established by the Department of Health and Human Services

 CAMI OnlyCAMI+
Information Based on Comprehensive Review of All High- and Moderate-Impact Studies for this Model
High- or moderate-quality impact study? YesYes
Across high- or moderate-quality studies, favorable impacts in…
 
   at least two outcome domains within one sample
 
   OR
 
   the same domain for at least two non-overlapping samples?
NoNo
Favorable impacts on full sample? NoYes
Any favorable impacts on outcome measures sustained at least 12 months after program enrollment?a NAYes
One or more favorable, statistically significant impact reported in a peer-reviewed journal?a NAYes

NA = not applicable.

aThis information is reported for all models, but the requirements for sustained findings and inclusion in a peer-reviewed journal only apply to models for which all findings are from randomized controlled trials.

Please read the HHS Criteria for Evidence-Based Programs for more information.

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