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Positive Parenting Practices

In Brief

Overview

Most home visiting models included in the HomVEE review are designed to promote positive parenting practices. Parenting education is often provided, either through didactic or experiential approaches. Some models use a structured curriculum to provide these services; others take a more flexible approach by addressing specific parenting needs identified during home visits. To a lesser extent, home visiting models integrate parenting interventions that have been found to improve specific parenting behaviors (for example, responsive interactions and positive behavioral support). In addition, home visitors may provide information to parents about child development or safety practices in the home.

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Measurement Considerations

Primary outcome measures in this domain include observational measures of parent-child interactions or the home environment. For some measures, parent-child interactions are videotaped and then coded at a later time. For others, live coding is completed during an observation of the parent and child in the home environment. Many studies also use outcome measures based on parent self-reports of parenting attitudes and practices. HomVEE classifies self-report measures that are standardized (normed) as primary outcome measures; self-report measures that are not standardized are classified as secondary measures.

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Review of Studies

The HomVEE review examined the research on 45 home visiting program models with studies published between 1979 and 2015. (More information is available on literature search and prioritizing program models for review.) Of the 21 program models with high- or moderate-quality studies that measured outcomes in this domain, 14 had favorable effects on primary outcome measures, and 9 had favorable effects on secondary outcome measures.

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Summary of Findings

The effects shown in the research are grouped into four categories: (1) favorable, (2) no effect, (3) unfavorable or ambiguous, and (4) not measured. Results for program models that do not have studies with a high or moderate rating are listed as “not applicable.” For more information on these categories please read Describing Effects. Only results from studies that meet the standards for the high or moderate ratings are considered below. This table includes links to more information on the program model’s effectiveness, implementation, and details on outcomes in this domain.

Effects Shown in Research — Positive Parenting Practices Domain


Program Model Name Meets DHHS-Criteria Primary Outcome Measures Secondary Outcome Measures For More Information
Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-Up (ABC) Intervention
ABC
No

Favorable:  2
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Favorable:  0
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

ABC-I
No

Favorable:  2
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Favorable:  0
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Child First Yes Not measured Not measured
Child Parent Enrichment Project (CPEP) No Not measured Not measured
Childhood Asthma Prevention Study (CAPS) No

Favorable:  3
No effect: 3
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Favorable:  0
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Computer-Assisted Motivational Intervention (CAMI)
Computer-Assisted Motivational Intervention (CAMI)
No Not measured Not measured
Early Head Start-Home Visiting (EHS-HV) Yes

Favorable:  3
No effect: 23
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Favorable:  5
No effect: 30
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Early Intervention Program for Adolescent Mothers Yes

Favorable:  0
No effect: 9
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Favorable:  0
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Early Start (New Zealand)
Early Start (New Zealand) - Full Sample
Yes

Favorable:  3
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Favorable:  0
No effect: 1
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Early Start (New Zealand) – Māori subgroup
Yes

Favorable:  2
No effect: 1
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Favorable:  0
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Even Start-Home Visiting (Birth to Age 5) No Not applicable Not applicable
Family Check-Up® For Children Yes

Favorable:  2
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Favorable:  0
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Family Connections (Birth to Age 5) No Not applicable Not applicable
Family Connects Yes

Favorable:  0
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Favorable:  1
No effect: 4
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Family Spirit® Yes

Favorable:  0
No effect: 5
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Favorable:  7
No effect: 6
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Health Access Nurturing Development Services (HANDS) Program Yes Not measured Not measured
HealthConnect One's® Community-Based Doula Program No Not applicable Not applicable
Healthy Beginnings Yes

Favorable:  0
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Favorable:  10
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Healthy Families America (HFA)® Yes

Favorable:  3
No effect: 49
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Favorable:  5
No effect: 35
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Healthy Start-Home Visiting No Not measured Not measured
Healthy Steps (National Evaluation 1996 Protocol) Yes

Favorable:  0
No effect: 1
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Favorable:  3
No effect: 13
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

PrePare supplement relative to Healthy Steps only subgroup
NA

Favorable:  0
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Favorable:  1
No effect: 20
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 3

Home Instruction for Parents of Preschool Youngsters (HIPPY)® Yes

Favorable:  1
No effect: 9
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Favorable:  1
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Home-Start No Not measured Not measured
HOMEBUILDERS (Birth to Age 5)® No Not applicable Not applicable
Maternal Early Childhood Sustained Home-Visiting Program (MECSH) Yes

Favorable:  1
No effect: 5
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Favorable:  0
No effect: 1
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Maternal Infant Health Outreach Worker (MIHOW)® No Not applicable Not applicable
Minding the Baby® Yes

Favorable:  0
No effect: 2
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Favorable:  0
No effect: 1
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

MOM Program No Not measured Not measured
Mothers’ Advocates in the Community (MOSAIC) No Not applicable Not applicable
North Carolina Baby Love Maternal Outreach Workers Program No Not applicable Not applicable
Nurse Family Partnership (NFP)® Yes

Favorable:  5
No effect: 18
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Favorable:  1
No effect: 7
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

NFP with Paraprofessional Home Visitors
NA

Favorable:  1
No effect: 3
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Favorable:  0
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Nurses for Newborns® No Not applicable Not applicable
Nurturing Parenting Programs (Birth to Age 5) No Not applicable Not applicable
Oklahoma’s Community-Based Family Resource and Support (CBFRS) Program Yes

Favorable:  2
No effect: 5
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Favorable:  0
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Parent-Child Assistance Program (PCAP)
Parent-Child Assistance Program (P-CAP)
No Not applicable Not applicable
Parent-Child Home Program No

Favorable:  1
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Favorable:  0
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Parents as Teachers (PAT)®
Parents as Teachers
Yes

Favorable:  3
No effect: 43
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 4

Favorable:  0
No effect: 42
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Parents as First Teachers (New Zealand)
Yes

Favorable:  0
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Favorable:  0
No effect: 10
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Philani Outreach Programme No Not applicable Not applicable
Play and Learning Strategies (PALS)
Play and Learning Strategies (PALS) Infant
Yes

Favorable:  11
No effect: 12
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 1

Favorable:  0
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

PALS Toddler
No

Favorable:  1
No effect: 13
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Favorable:  0
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

PALS Infant + Toddler
No

Favorable:  3
No effect: 11
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Favorable:  0
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Pride in Parenting (PIP) No Not applicable Not applicable
Promoting First Relationships® No Not applicable Not applicable
Resource Mothers Program No Not applicable Not applicable
Resources, Education, and Care in the Home (REACH) No Not measured Not measured
REST Routine No Not measured Not measured
SafeCare®
SafeCare Augmented
Yes Not measured Not measured
Project 12-Ways/SafeCare
No

Favorable:  0
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Favorable:  4
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Project 12-Ways/SafeCare Plus a Home Safety Enhancement
No

Favorable:  1
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Favorable:  0
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Australian Adaptation of UCLA Parent-Child Health and Wellness Project
No

Favorable:  0
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Favorable:  0
No effect: 24
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Cellular Phone Enhanced Planned Activities Training
No

Favorable:  0
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Favorable:  5
No effect: 3
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Seattle-King County Healthy Homes Project No Not applicable Not applicable
Triple P-Positive Parenting Program®-Home Visiting (Triple P-Home Visiting)
Triple P-Home Visiting
No Not measured Not measured
Triple P-Home Visiting: Stepping Stones
No

Favorable:  0
No effect: 1
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Favorable:  0
No effect: 5
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

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