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Maternal Health

In Brief

Overview

Improving maternal health is a goal of some home visiting models in the HomVEE review. To achieve this goal, models provide mothers with health information and guidance during pregnancy and after the child’s birth. Some also link mothers to prenatal and postpartum health care providers. In addition, some programs link mothers to treatment facilities for mental health and substance issues, or may directly provide preventive mental health intervention or other services that promote their psychological well-being.

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Measurement Considerations

Primary outcome measures in this domain include health care service receipt outcomes extracted from medical records and standardized parent self-report measures. Secondary outcome measures include parent self-reports that are not standardized.

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Review of Studies

The HomVEE review examined the research on 45 home visiting program models with studies published between 1979 and 2016. (More information is available on literature search and prioritizing program models for review.) Of the 24 program models with high- or moderate-quality studies that measured outcomes in this domain, 6 had favorable effects on primary outcome measures, and 12 had favorable effects on secondary outcome measures.

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Summary of Findings

The effects shown in the research are grouped into four categories: (1) favorable, (2) no effect, (3) unfavorable or ambiguous, and (4) not measured. Results for program models that do not have studies with a high or moderate rating are listed as “not applicable.” For more information on these categories please read Describing Effects. Only results from studies that meet the standards for the high or moderate ratings are considered below. This table includes links to more information on the program model’s effectiveness, implementation, and details on outcomes in this domain.

Effects Shown in Research — Maternal Health Domain


Program Model Name Meets DHHS-Criteria Primary Outcome Measures Secondary Outcome Measures For More Information
Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-Up (ABC) Intervention
ABC
Yes Not measured Not measured
Child First Yes

Favorable:  10
No effect: 12
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Favorable:  1
No effect: 3
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Child Parent Enrichment Project (CPEP) No

Favorable:  0
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Favorable:  1
No effect: 6
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Childhood Asthma Prevention Study (CAPS) No

Favorable:  0
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Favorable:  0
No effect: 1
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Computer-Assisted Motivational Intervention (CAMI)
Computer-Assisted Motivational Intervention (CAMI)
No

Favorable:  0
No effect: 1
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Favorable:  0
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

CAMI+
NA

Favorable:  1
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Favorable:  0
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Early Head Start-Home Visiting (EHS-HV) Yes

Favorable:  0
No effect: 7
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Favorable:  0
No effect: 4
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

IMH-HB EHS
No

Favorable:  0
No effect: 2
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Favorable:  5
No effect: 4
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 1

Early Intervention Program for Adolescent Mothers Yes

Favorable:  0
No effect: 10
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Favorable:  0
No effect: 9
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 1

Early Start (New Zealand)
Early Start (New Zealand) - Full Sample
Yes

Favorable:  0
No effect: 2
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Favorable:  0
No effect: 3
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Even Start-Home Visiting (Birth to Age 5) No Not applicable Not applicable
Family Check-Up® For Children Yes

Favorable:  0
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Favorable:  7
No effect: 2
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Family Connections (Birth to Age 5) No Not applicable Not applicable
Family Connects Yes

Favorable:  0
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Favorable:  1
No effect: 2
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Family Spirit® Yes

Favorable:  2
No effect: 17
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Favorable:  3
No effect: 31
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Health Access Nurturing Development Services (HANDS) Program Yes

Favorable:  7
No effect: 1
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Favorable:  0
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

HealthConnect One's® Community-Based Doula Program No Not applicable Not applicable
Healthy Beginnings Yes

Favorable:  0
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Favorable:  3
No effect: 6
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Healthy Families America (HFA)® Yes

Favorable:  0
No effect: 10
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Favorable:  4
No effect: 66
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Healthy Start-Home Visiting No Not measured Not measured
Healthy Steps (National Evaluation 1996 Protocol) Yes

Favorable:  0
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Favorable:  0
No effect: 1
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

PrePare supplement relative to Healthy Steps only subgroup
NA

Favorable:  0
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Favorable:  0
No effect: 9
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 1

Home Instruction for Parents of Preschool Youngsters (HIPPY)® Yes Not measured Not measured
Home-Start No

Favorable:  0
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Favorable:  0
No effect: 4
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

HOMEBUILDERS (Birth to Age 5)® No Not applicable Not applicable
Maternal Early Childhood Sustained Home-Visiting Program (MECSH) Yes

Favorable:  0
No effect: 6
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Favorable:  1
No effect: 9
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Maternal Infant Health Outreach Worker (MIHOW)® No Not applicable Not applicable
Minding the Baby® Yes

Favorable:  1
No effect: 1
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Favorable:  0
No effect: 10
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

MOM Program No

Favorable:  0
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Favorable:  0
No effect: 4
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Mothers’ Advocates in the Community (MOSAIC) No Not applicable Not applicable
North Carolina Baby Love Maternal Outreach Workers Program No Not applicable Not applicable
Nurse Family Partnership (NFP)® Yes

Favorable:  8
No effect: 18
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Favorable:  18
No effect: 61
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

NFP with Paraprofessional Home Visitors
NA

Favorable:  0
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Favorable:  3
No effect: 11
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Nurses for Newborns® No Not applicable Not applicable
Nurturing Parenting Programs (Birth to Age 5) No Not applicable Not applicable
Oklahoma’s Community-Based Family Resource and Support (CBFRS) Program Yes

Favorable:  0
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Favorable:  3
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Parent-Child Assistance Program (PCAP)
Parent-Child Assistance Program (P-CAP)
No Not applicable Not applicable
Parent-Child Home Program No Not measured Not measured
Parents as Teachers (PAT)®
Parents as Teachers
Yes

Favorable:  0
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Favorable:  0
No effect: 2
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Parents as First Teachers (New Zealand)
Yes

Favorable:  0
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Favorable:  0
No effect: 1
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Philani Outreach Programme No Not applicable Not applicable
Play and Learning Strategies (PALS)
Play and Learning Strategies (PALS) Infant
Yes Not measured Not measured
Pride in Parenting (PIP) No Not applicable Not applicable
Promoting First Relationships® No Not applicable Not applicable
Resource Mothers Program No Not applicable Not applicable
Resources, Education, and Care in the Home (REACH) No Not measured Not measured
REST Routine No

Favorable:  0
No effect: 1
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Favorable:  0
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

SafeCare®
SafeCare Augmented
Yes

Favorable:  0
No effect: 2
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Favorable:  0
No effect: 4
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

SafeCare/Project 12-Ways
No

Favorable:  0
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Favorable:  0
No effect: 5
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Cellular Phone Enhanced Planned Activities Training
No

Favorable:  0
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Favorable:  5
No effect: 5
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Seattle-King County Healthy Homes Project No Not applicable Not applicable
Triple P-Positive Parenting Program®-Home Visiting (Triple P-Home Visiting)
Triple P-Home Visiting
No Not measured Not measured
Triple P-Home Visiting: Stepping Stones
No

Favorable:  0
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Favorable:  0
No effect: 1
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

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