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Linkages and Referrals

In Brief

Overview

Coordination with and referrals for other community resources and supports is a possible outcome of some the home visiting models, even if such coordination and referrals are not an explicit model goal. For example, program staff may directly refer participating families to places in their community where they can receive additional financial, in-kind, medical, or social support services. If programs do not provide direct referral, frequent exposure to home visiting staff may have the indirect result of educating or motivating participating families to seek these services on their own.

For this domain only, we include outcomes measured at the provider level, as well as the family level. For example, we will include the number of referrals that a home visitor or other service provider gave to families. This is consistent with the benchmark areas in the MIECHV legislation, which include coordination and referrals for other community resources and supports.

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Measurement Considerations

Primary outcome measures in this domain include reviews of home visitor, medical, or school records for indications that the child or family had received a referral to other services in the community. Secondary outcome measures include parent reports of receiving a referral and parent reports of awareness about other services in the community.

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Review of Studies

The HomVEE review examined the research on 45 home visiting program models with studies published between 1979 and 2015. (More information is available on literature search and prioritizing program models for review.) Of the 7 program models with high- or moderate-quality studies that measured outcomes in this domain, 2 had favorable impacts on a primary outcome measure and 5 had favorable impacts on a secondary outcome measure.

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Summary of Findings

The effects shown in the research are grouped into four categories: (1) favorable, (2) no effect, (3) unfavorable or ambiguous, and (4) not measured. Results for program models that do not have studies with a high or moderate rating are listed as “not applicable.” For more information on these categories, please read Describing Effects. Only results from studies that meet the standards for the high or moderate ratings are considered below. This table includes links to more information on the program model’s effectiveness, implementation, and details on outcomes in this domain.

Effects Shown in Research — Linkages and Referrals


Program Model Name Meets DHHS-Criteria Primary Outcome Measures Secondary Outcome Measures For More Information
Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-Up (ABC) Intervention
ABC
No Not measured Not measured
Child First Yes

Favorable:  0
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Favorable:  11
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Child Parent Enrichment Project (CPEP) No Not measured Not measured
Childhood Asthma Prevention Study (CAPS) No Not measured Not measured
Computer-Assisted Motivational Intervention (CAMI)
Computer-Assisted Motivational Intervention (CAMI)
No Not measured Not measured
Early Head Start-Home Visiting (EHS-HV) Yes

Favorable:  0
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Favorable:  8
No effect: 8
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Early Intervention Program for Adolescent Mothers Yes Not measured Not measured
Early Start (New Zealand)
Early Start (New Zealand) - Full Sample
Yes Not measured Not measured
Even Start-Home Visiting (Birth to Age 5) No Not applicable Not applicable
Family Check-Up® For Children Yes Not measured Not measured
Family Connections (Birth to Age 5) No Not applicable Not applicable
Family Connects Yes

Favorable:  0
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Favorable:  1
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Family Spirit® Yes Not measured Not measured
Health Access Nurturing Development Services (HANDS) Program Yes Not measured Not measured
HealthConnect One's® Community-Based Doula Program No Not applicable Not applicable
Healthy Beginnings Yes Not measured Not measured
Healthy Families America (HFA)® Yes

Favorable:  1
No effect: 16
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 1

Favorable:  1
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Healthy Start-Home Visiting No Not measured Not measured
Healthy Steps (National Evaluation 1996 Protocol) Yes Not measured Not measured
Home Instruction for Parents of Preschool Youngsters (HIPPY)® Yes Not measured Not measured
Home-Start No Not measured Not measured
HOMEBUILDERS (Birth to Age 5)® No Not applicable Not applicable
Maternal Early Childhood Sustained Home-Visiting Program (MECSH) Yes Not measured Not measured
Maternal Infant Health Outreach Worker (MIHOW)® No Not applicable Not applicable
Minding the Baby® Yes Not measured Not measured
MOM Program No

Favorable:  0
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Favorable:  4
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Mothers’ Advocates in the Community (MOSAIC) No Not applicable Not applicable
North Carolina Baby Love Maternal Outreach Workers Program No Not applicable Not applicable
Nurse Family Partnership (NFP)® Yes

Favorable:  0
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Favorable:  0
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 1

Nurses for Newborns® No Not applicable Not applicable
Nurturing Parenting Programs (Birth to Age 5) No Not applicable Not applicable
Oklahoma’s Community-Based Family Resource and Support (CBFRS) Program Yes Not measured Not measured
Parent-Child Assistance Program (PCAP)
Parent-Child Assistance Program (P-CAP)
No Not applicable Not applicable
Parent-Child Home Program No Not measured Not measured
Parents as Teachers (PAT)®
Parents as Teachers
Yes Not measured Not measured
Philani Outreach Programme No Not applicable Not applicable
Play and Learning Strategies (PALS)
Play and Learning Strategies (PALS) Infant
Yes Not measured Not measured
Pride in Parenting (PIP) No Not applicable Not applicable
Promoting First Relationships® No Not applicable Not applicable
Resource Mothers Program No Not applicable Not applicable
Resources, Education, and Care in the Home (REACH) No Not measured Not measured
REST Routine No Not measured Not measured
SafeCare®
SafeCare Augmented
Yes

Favorable:  1
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Favorable:  0
No effect: 0
Unfavorable or ambiguous: 0

Seattle-King County Healthy Homes Project No Not applicable Not applicable
Triple P-Positive Parenting Program®-Home Visiting (Triple P-Home Visiting)
Triple P-Home Visiting
No Not measured Not measured
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