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Effectiveness Research

HomVEE reviews the evidence of effectiveness for specific home visiting program models. On this page, links to program models lead to a brief program model description and an overview of review results. The results include evidence of program model effectiveness, details of the studies reviewed, and a summary of findings by outcome domain. Rows are highlighted in green if the program model meets the DHHS criteria for an evidence-based program model.

Please read Home Visiting Program Model Effects for a summary across program models.

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DHHS criteria

Target population

Research shows favorable outcomes in:

Model Reports

(Count = 45)
Program ModelsMeets Evidence Criteria?Studies rated high or moderateLast Updated
Attachment and Biobehavioral Catch-Up (ABC) Intervention

Targets: Birth-11 months, 12-23 months

Favorable results in high or moderate studies:
Child health, Positive parenting practices


3 August 2016
Child First

Targets: Birth-11 months, 12-23 months, 24-35 months, 36-47 months, 48+ months

Favorable results in high or moderate studies:
Maternal health, Child health, Child development and school readiness, Reductions in child maltreatment, Linkages and referrals

Meets DHHS criteria for an evidenced based model
1 July 2011
Child Parent Enrichment Project (CPEP)

Targets: Pregnant women, Birth-11 months

Favorable results in high or moderate studies:
Maternal health, Child development and school readiness


1 October 2012
Childhood Asthma Prevention Study (CAPS)

Targets: Birth-11 months, 12-23 months

Favorable results in high or moderate studies:
Positive parenting practices


2 October 2012
Computer-Assisted Motivational Intervention (CAMI)

Targets: Birth-11 months, 12-23 months

Favorable results in high or moderate studies:
Maternal health


1 October 2012
Early Head Start-Home Visiting (EHS-HV)

Targets: Pregnant women, Birth-11 months, 12-23 months, 24-35 months, 36-47 months

Favorable results in high or moderate studies:
Maternal health, Child development and school readiness, Reductions in child maltreatment, Positive parenting practices, Family economic self-sufficiency, Linkages and referrals

Meets DHHS criteria for an evidenced based model
7 July 2016
Early Intervention Program for Adolescent Mothers

Targets: Pregnant women, Birth-11 months

Favorable results in high or moderate studies:
Child health, Family economic self-sufficiency

Meets DHHS criteria for an evidenced based model
4 July 2011
Early Start (New Zealand)

Targets: Birth-11 months, 12-23 months, 24-35 months, 36-47 months, 48+ months

Favorable results in high or moderate studies:
Child health, Child development and school readiness, Reductions in child maltreatment, Positive parenting practices

Meets DHHS criteria for an evidenced based model
1 July 2014
Even Start-Home Visiting (Birth to Age 5)

Implementation support is not currently available for the model as reviewed.

Targets: Birth-11 months, 12-23 months, 24-35 months, 36-47 months, 48+ months

Favorable results in high or moderate studies:
Not applicable - no studies met criteria to be reviewed


Not applicable - no studies met criteria to be reviewed July 2011
Family Check-Up® For Children

Targets: 24-35 months, 36-47 months, 48+ months

Favorable results in high or moderate studies:
Maternal health, Child development and school readiness, Positive parenting practices

Meets DHHS criteria for an evidenced based model
4 July 2011
Family Connections (Birth to Age 5)

Targets: Birth-11 months, 12-23 months, 24-35 months, 36-47 months, 48+ months

Favorable results in high or moderate studies:
Not applicable - no studies met criteria to be reviewed


Not applicable - no studies met criteria to be reviewed July 2011
Family Connects

Targets: Birth-11 months

Favorable results in high or moderate studies:
Maternal health, Child health, Positive parenting practices, Linkages and referrals

Meets DHHS criteria for an evidenced based model
2 October 2014
Family Spirit®

Targets: Tribal Population, Birth-11 months, 12-23 months, 24-35 months

Favorable results in high or moderate studies:
Maternal health, Child development and school readiness, Positive parenting practices

Meets DHHS criteria for an evidenced based model
Meets DHHS criteria for an evidenced based model in tribal populations
4 May 2016
Health Access Nurturing Development Services (HANDS) Program

Targets: Pregnant women, Birth-11 months, 12-23 months

Favorable results in high or moderate studies:
Maternal health, Child health, Reductions in child maltreatment, Family economic self-sufficiency

Meets DHHS criteria for an evidenced based model
4 July 2015
HealthConnect One's® Community-Based Doula Program

Targets: Pregnant women, Birth-11 months

Favorable results in high or moderate studies:
Not applicable


0 July 2015
Healthy Beginnings

Targets: Pregnant women, Birth-11 months, 12-23 months

Favorable results in high or moderate studies:
Maternal health, Child health, Child development and school readiness, Positive parenting practices

Meets DHHS criteria for an evidenced based model
2 June 2015
Healthy Families America (HFA)®

Targets: Pregnant women, Birth-11 months, 12-23 months, 24-35 months, 36-47 months, 48+ months

Favorable results in high or moderate studies:
Maternal health, Child health, Child development and school readiness, Reductions in child maltreatment, Reductions in juvenile delinquency, family violence, and Crime, Positive parenting practices, Family economic self-sufficiency, Linkages and referrals

Meets DHHS criteria for an evidenced based model
20 July 2016
Healthy Start-Home Visiting

Targets: Pregnant women, Birth-11 months, 12-23 months

Favorable results in high or moderate studies:
Not applicable


1 July 2013
Healthy Steps (National Evaluation 1996 Protocol)

This report focuses on Healthy Steps as implemented in the 1996 evaluation. HHS has determined that home visiting is not the primary service delivery strategy and the model does not meet current requirements for MIECHV program implementation.

Targets: Birth-11 months, 12-23 months, 24-35 months

Favorable results in high or moderate studies:
Child health, Positive parenting practices

Meets DHHS criteria for an evidenced based model
7 July 2011
Home Instruction for Parents of Preschool Youngsters (HIPPY)®

Targets: 36-47 months, 48+ months

Favorable results in high or moderate studies:
Child development and school readiness, Positive parenting practices

Meets DHHS criteria for an evidenced based model
2 May 2013
HOMEBUILDERS (Birth to Age 5)®

Targets: Birth-11 months, 12-23 months, 24-35 months, 36-47 months, 48+ months

Favorable results in high or moderate studies:
Not applicable - no studies met criteria to be reviewed


Not applicable - no studies met criteria to be reviewed July 2011
Home-Start

Targets: Birth-11 months, 12-23 months, 24-35 months, 36-47 months, 48+ months

Favorable results in high or moderate studies:
No favorable effects found


1 October 2012
Maternal Early Childhood Sustained Home-Visiting Program (MECSH)

Targets: Pregnant women, Birth-11 months, 12-23 months

Favorable results in high or moderate studies:
Maternal health, Child health, Positive parenting practices

Meets DHHS criteria for an evidenced based model
2 May 2013
Maternal Infant Health Outreach Worker (MIHOW)®

Targets: Pregnant women, Birth-11 months, 12-23 months, 24-35 months

Favorable results in high or moderate studies:
Not applicable


0 July 2011
Minding the Baby®

Targets: Pregnant women, Birth-11 months, 12-23 months

Favorable results in high or moderate studies:
Maternal health, Child health

Meets DHHS criteria for an evidenced based model
2 November 2014
MOM Program

Targets: Birth-11 months, 12-23 months, 24-35 months, 36-47 months, 48+ months

Favorable results in high or moderate studies:
Linkages and referrals


1 May 2013
Mothers’ Advocates in the Community (MOSAIC)

Targets: Pregnant women, Birth-11 months, 12-23 months, 24-35 months, 48+ months

Favorable results in high or moderate studies:
Not applicable


0 May 2013
North Carolina Baby Love Maternal Outreach Workers Program

Implementation support is not currently available for the model as reviewed.

Targets: Pregnant women, Birth-11 months

Favorable results in high or moderate studies:
Not applicable


0 October 2012
Nurse Family Partnership (NFP)®

Targets: Pregnant women, Birth-11 months, 12-23 months

Favorable results in high or moderate studies:
Maternal health, Child health, Child development and school readiness, Reductions in child maltreatment, Reductions in juvenile delinquency, family violence, and Crime, Positive parenting practices, Family economic self-sufficiency

Meets DHHS criteria for an evidenced based model
24 May 2016
Nurses for Newborns®

Targets: Pregnant women, Birth-11 months, 12-23 months

Favorable results in high or moderate studies:
Not applicable


0 July 2015
Nurturing Parenting Programs (Birth to Age 5)

Targets: Pregnant women, Birth-11 months, 12-23 months, 24-35 months, 36-47 months, 48+ months

Favorable results in high or moderate studies:
Not applicable


0 July 2011
Oklahoma’s Community-Based Family Resource and Support (CBFRS) Program

Implementation support is not currently available for the model as reviewed.

Targets: Pregnant women, Birth-11 months

Favorable results in high or moderate studies:
Maternal health, Positive parenting practices

Meets DHHS criteria for an evidenced based model
2 October 2012
Parent-Child Assistance Program (PCAP)

Targets: Pregnant women, Birth-11 months, 12-23 months, 24-35 months

Favorable results in high or moderate studies:
Not applicable


0 April 2016
Parent-Child Home Program

Targets: 24-35 months, 36-47 months

Favorable results in high or moderate studies:
Positive parenting practices


1 July 2011
Parents as Teachers (PAT)®

Targets: Pregnant women, Birth-11 months, 12-23 months, 24-35 months, 36-47 months, 48+ months

Favorable results in high or moderate studies:
Child development and school readiness, Reductions in child maltreatment, Positive parenting practices, Family economic self-sufficiency

Meets DHHS criteria for an evidenced based model
7 July 2013
Philani Outreach Programme

Targets: Tribal Population, Birth-11 months, 12-23 months, 24-35 months, 36-47 months, 48+ months

Favorable results in high or moderate studies:
Not applicable


0 July 2014
Play and Learning Strategies (PALS)

Targets: Birth-11 months, 12-23 months, 24-35 months, 36-47 months, 48+ months

Favorable results in high or moderate studies:
Child development and school readiness, Positive parenting practices

Yes (PALS Infant only)
(PALS Infant only)

3 October 2012
Pride in Parenting (PIP)

Implementation support is not currently available for the model as reviewed.

Targets: Birth-11 months

Favorable results in high or moderate studies:
Not applicable


0 July 2013
Promoting First Relationships®

Targets: Birth-11 months, 12-23 months, 24-35 months, 36-47 months

Favorable results in high or moderate studies:
Not applicable


0 June 2015
Resource Mothers Program

Implementation support is not currently available for the model as reviewed.

Targets: Pregnant women, Birth-11 months

Favorable results in high or moderate studies:
Not applicable


0 July 2011
Resources, Education, and Care in the Home (REACH)

Targets: Birth-11 months

Favorable results in high or moderate studies:
Child health


1 July 2011
REST Routine

Implementation support is not currently available for the model as reviewed.

Targets: Birth-11 months

Favorable results in high or moderate studies:
Child health


2 October 2012
SafeCare®

Targets: Birth-11 months, 12-23 months, 24-35 months, 36-47 months, 48+ months

Favorable results in high or moderate studies:
Maternal health, Child development and school readiness, Reductions in child maltreatment, Positive parenting practices, Linkages and referrals

Yes (SafeCare Augmented only)
(SafeCare Augmented only)

4 August 2013
Seattle-King County Healthy Homes Project

Targets: 48+ months

Favorable results in high or moderate studies:
Not applicable - no studies met criteria to be reviewed


Not applicable - no studies met criteria to be reviewed October 2012
Triple P-Positive Parenting Program®-Home Visiting (Triple P-Home Visiting)

Targets: Birth-11 months, 12-23 months, 24-35 months, 36-47 months, 48+ months

Favorable results in high or moderate studies:
Not applicable, Child development and school readiness


5 July 2014