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Triple P-Positive Parenting Program®-Home Visiting (Triple P-Home Visiting)

Model Overview

Last Updated

May 2014


Theoretical Model

Triple P–Home Visiting draws on social learning theory, cognitive behavioral development, and research on the risk factors associated with social and behavioral problems in children.

The Triple P system has five levels of increasing intensity and a range of delivery methods within each level to meet different family needs and be appropriate for multiple cultures. Implementing agencies select the intensity levels and approaches that reflect their organization’s priorities and budgets. For example, agencies can implement Triple P’s public health approach to reach an entire population, or select a targeted Triple P intervention for a particular parenting group or demographic.


Model Components

The program components and delivery methods vary across and within levels. Parenting support can be delivered as one-on-one consultations, small group courses, large public seminars, and web-based or other self-directed settings. Regardless of the approach, Triple P parenting strategies focus on developing positive relationships, attitudes, and conduct with children to improve behavioral problems.

For the HomVEE review, this profile is based on developer recommendations for the following interventions that are suitable for delivery in the home:

  • Primary Care Triple P, a Level 3 intervention, provides parenting strategies face to face or by telephone. 
  • Standard Triple P, Level 4, offers individual counseling for parents who need intensive support. Level 4 includes the Child Management Training component, which teaches parents how to modify their children’s behavior. 
  • Enhanced Triple P, Level 5, includes up to three modules for parents that target specific concerns and seek to address partner relationships and communication, personal coping strategies for high-stress situations, and positive parenting practices. 
  • Pathways Triple P, a Level 5 intervention for parents at risk of committing child maltreatment, covers anger management and other behavioral strategies to improve a parent’s ability to cope with raising children.

Three of the specialized interventions—Stepping Stones Triple P, Family Transitions, and Indigenous Triple P—can be delivered individually to families or have individual components. Stepping Stones, for example, can be delivered using the Primary Care or Standard Triple P models. Indigenous Triple P is a six-session course with a number of individual home visits or telephone counseling sessions.


Target Population

Triple P–Home Visiting can be delivered to different target populations. The program mainly targets families with children from birth to age 12 who experience behavioral and emotional problems. A prenatal-postnatal program, which prepares parents for the first year of parenting, is currently being evaluated. Teen Triple P is available for parents of children ages 12 to 16. For the purposes of the HomVEE review, this profile is based on developer recommendations and studies of programs that target parents prenatally or families with children birth to age 5. Triple P–Home Visiting also includes specialized interventions for certain subgroups within the target age range, including children with a disability (Stepping Stones Triple P), parents going through separation or divorce (Family Transitions), and indigenous families with children from birth to age 12 (Indigenous Triple P). Indigenous Triple P is primarily used in Australia, New Zealand, and Canada.

The system’s five levels are organized by the degree of parental need or child behavioral difficulties. Intensity ranges from Level 1 (Universal Triple P), a population-wide communication strategy, to Level 5, targeted intensive support for families with stressful circumstances and children experiencing severe behavioral problems or parents who are at risk of committing child maltreatment.


Where to Find Out More

Triple P America
PO Box 12755
Columbia, SC 29211
Phone: (803) 451-2278