The information in this profile reflects feedback from this model’s developer as of the above date. The description of the implementation of the model here, including any adaptations, may differ from how it was implemented in the studies reviewed to determine this model’s evidence of effectiveness. Inclusion in the implementation report does not mean the practices described meet the DHHS criteria for evidence of effectiveness.
Triple P–Positive Parenting Program (Triple P) is a parenting and family support system developed by researchers at the University of Queensland’s Parenting and Family Support Centre in Australia. The HomVEE review is based on Triple P interventions where home visiting is the primary service delivery strategy (Triple P–Home Visiting).
Triple P is licensed under Triple P International (TPI), based in Brisbane, Australia. TPI publishes Triple P resources, supports implementation, and provides training and accreditation. TPI subsidiary offices operate in many countries. In the United States, Triple P America has implementation consultants who support governments or organizations through all stages of implementation, including planning, training, delivery, evaluation, and sustainability.
Triple P–Home Visiting draws on social learning theory, cognitive behavioral development, and research on the risk factors associated with social and behavioral problems in children.
The Triple P system has five levels of increasing intensity and a range of delivery methods within each level to meet different family needs and be appropriate for multiple cultures. Implementing agencies select the intensity levels and approaches that reflect their organization’s priorities and budgets. For example, agencies can implement Triple P’s public health approach to reach an entire population, or select a targeted Triple P intervention for a particular parenting group or demographic.
Triple P–Home Visiting can be delivered to different target populations. The program mainly targets families with children from birth to age 12 who experience behavioral and emotional problems. A prenatal-postnatal program, which prepares parents for the first year of parenting, is currently being evaluated. Teen Triple P is available for parents of children ages 12 to 16. For the purposes of the HomVEE review, this profile is based on developer recommendations and studies of programs that target parents prenatally or families with children birth to age 5. Triple P–Home Visiting also includes specialized interventions for certain subgroups within the target age range, including children with a disability (Stepping Stones Triple P), parents going through separation or divorce (Family Transitions), and indigenous families with children from birth to age 12 (Indigenous Triple P). Indigenous Triple P is primarily used in Australia, New Zealand, and Canada.
The system’s five levels are organized by the degree of parental need or child behavioral difficulties. Intensity ranges from Level 1 (Universal Triple P), a population-wide communication strategy, to Level 5, targeted intensive support for families with stressful circumstances and children experiencing severe behavioral problems or parents who are at risk of committing child maltreatment.
Triple P is designed to prevent and treat the behavioral and emotional problems of children and teenagers. The program aims to equip parents with the skills and confidence they need to manage behavioral issues without ongoing support.
Program Model Components
The program components and delivery methods vary across and within levels. Parenting support can be delivered as one-on-one consultations, small group courses, large public seminars, and web-based or other self-directed settings. Regardless of the approach, Triple P parenting strategies focus on developing positive relationships, attitudes, and conduct with children to improve behavioral problems.
For the HomVEE review, this profile is based on developer recommendations for the following interventions that are suitable for delivery in the home:
- Primary Care Triple P, a Level 3 intervention, provides parenting strategies face to face or by telephone.
- Standard Triple P, Level 4, offers individual counseling for parents who need intensive support. Level 4 includes the Child Management Training component, which teaches parents how to modify their children’s behavior.
- Enhanced Triple P, Level 5, includes up to three modules for parents that target specific concerns and seek to address partner relationships and communication, personal coping strategies for high-stress situations, and positive parenting practices.
- Pathways Triple P, a Level 5 intervention for parents at risk of committing child maltreatment, covers anger management and other behavioral strategies to improve a parent’s ability to cope with raising children.
Three of the specialized interventions—Stepping Stones Triple P, Family Transitions, and Indigenous Triple P—can be delivered individually to families or have individual components. Stepping Stones, for example, can be delivered using the Primary Care or Standard Triple P models. Indigenous Triple P is a six-session course with a number of individual home visits or telephone counseling sessions.
Program Model Intensity and Length
The intensity and length of program components varies by intervention. Parents must participate in Standard Triple P before or in conjunction with Enhanced or Pathways Triple P (Level 5 programs).
- Primary Care Triple P and Primary Stepping Stones—approximately four individual consultations of 15 to 30 minutes over one to two months;
- Standard Triple P and Standard Stepping Stones—seven one-hour sessions;
- Enhanced Triple P—approximately eight individualized sessions, each lasting 60 to 90 minutes; and
- Pathways Triple P—approximately four individualized sessions, each lasting 60 to 90 minutes.
No information is available on the recommended frequency of visits (such as once per week) for Standard Triple P, Enhanced Triple P, or Pathways Triple P.
Triple P has been implemented in more than 25 countries. In the United States, Triple P providers are located in 40 states.
Adaptations and Enhancements
Tripe P–Home Visiting is designed to be adaptable to different delivery settings, practitioners, and populations. Practitioners are trained to apply Triple P processes and strategies in different ways to a range of presenting behavioral and emotional problems and family circumstances.
The information contained on this page was last updated in May 2014. Recommended Further Reading lists the sources for this information. In addition, the information contained in this profile was reviewed for accuracy by the Triple P America office on May 9, 2014. HomVEE reserves the right to edit the profile for clarity and consistency.