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Implementing Parents as Teachers (PAT)®

Meets DHHS criteria for an evidenced based model

Estimated Costs of Implementation

Last Updated

April 2017


Average Cost per Family

On its website, the PAT National Center provides a budget toolkit for programs to estimate basic program implementation costs, from which a per-family cost can be estimated.

Factors that contribute to fluctuations in costs per family include:

  • Education level and qualifications of the parent educator, which can affect salaries.
  • Needs of the population served; the program requires more frequent services for families with higher needs.
  • The type of agency operating the program, existing infrastructure, and overhead expenses included in the PAT budget.
  • Whether services need to be provided in multiple languages, which often requires a translator.
  • Whether there are additional requirements, such as staff and caseloads, associated with a particular funding source.
  • The ratio of parent educators to supervisors; PAT National Center requires a minimum percent FTE per parent educator, but programs can opt to provide a higher ratio.
  • Parent educators’ caseloads; PAT National Center provides guidance, but programs can opt to have lower caseloads.
  • Whether the implementing agency is new to PAT and therefore will incur start-up costs and may not be serving as many families per year.
  • The level of educator turnover, which increases costs and also often results in family turnover. Fewer families served can increase the cost per family.
  • Travel needed to reach families; more travel will reduce the overall caseload an educator can carry and still provide the desired frequency of visits.

Estimates of cost per family for twice monthly home visits (the level of intensity required for families with two or more high need characteristics) are between $2,575 and $6,000 per year [2016 dollars].


Labor Costs

Annual salaries for parent educators, supervisors, and support staff are estimated to be $35,000, $50,000, and $28,000, respectively [2016 dollars]. Annual professional development fees per parent educator and supervisor are approximately $350 [2016 dollars].


Purchase of Program Model or Operating License

All affiliates pay an initial affiliation fee of $3,850 during their first year of operation and $1,650 in each subsequent year [2017 dollars]. After their first year, parent educators pay $150 to renew their certifications.


Materials and Forms

Curriculum materials are included in the cost of training and renewal.


Training and Technical Assistance

The average cost to train a parent educator is $1,100, which includes both the three-day foundational training and the two-day model implementation training [2017 dollars]. Costs are subject to change and may vary by state. Parent educators who administer screenings may require additional training; additional costs may range from $150 to $600 per person [2016 dollars].



An affiliate subscription to the PAT-recommended data system is included in the affiliation fee.


Recruitment and Retention

Some affiliates offer incentives to help retain families. The costs for family incentives vary by affiliate.



The information contained on this page was last updated in April 2017. PAT-/16/7#DeveloperRef">Recommended Further Reading lists the sources for this information. In addition, the information contained in this profile was reviewed for accuracy by the PAT National Center on January 18, 2017. HomVEE reserves the right to edit the profile for clarity and consistency.