The information in this profile reflects feedback from this model’s developer as of the above date. The description of the implementation of the model here, including any adaptations, may differ from how it was implemented in the studies reviewed to determine this model’s evidence of effectiveness. Inclusion in the implementation report does not mean the practices described meet the DHHS criteria for evidence of effectiveness.
The Early Intervention Program (EIP) for Adolescent Mothers was developed by researchers at the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) School of Nursing. The model developer and director provide implementation support. EIP was initially implemented as a collaborative demonstration project between the developer and the San Bernardino County Department of Public Health, Division of Community Health Services.
EIP is designed to help young mothers gain social competence and achieve program objectives by teaching self-management skills, techniques for coping with stress and depression, and skills to communicate effectively with partners, family, peers, and social agencies.
EIP targets pregnant adolescents from underserved minority groups who are referred to the county health department or another health services agency for nursing care. Women are eligible for EIP if they are 14 to 19 years old; at 26 weeks gestation or less; pregnant with their first child; and planning to keep the infant. Expectant mothers who are chemically dependent or have serious medical or obstetric problems are ineligible. Although EIP initially targeted adolescents, young mothers out of adolescence also may benefit from the program.
EIP is designed to improve maternal health behaviors during and after pregnancy; improve birth outcomes and mother and infant health; build maternal caretaking skills and improve the quality of mother-child interaction; prevent rapid repeat pregnancy; increase educational achievement; and build social competence.
Program Model Components
Nurse home visitors deliver EIP services using a case management approach. During home visits, nurse home visitors cover five main content areas: health, sexuality and family planning, maternal role, life skills, and social support.
Prenatal visits focus on use of prenatal health care, preparation for childbirth, and self-care during pregnancy. In addition, nurse home visitors conduct four classes focusing on the transition to motherhood, fetal development, parent-child communication, and maternal health.
During the postpartum visits, nurse home visitors provide mothers with information on family planning; infant care and development; well-baby health care; education attainment; substance use; mental health issues, such as handling emotions; and referrals for mental health counseling, family planning, and child care. For example, EIP addresses the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (such as HIV/AIDs), contraceptive options, school readiness preparations (such as reading to children), and prevention of lead poisoning. Nurse home visitors also help mothers improve communication skills and learn how to assess their infants’ needs, respond to infant distress, and interact reciprocally with their infants. To help mothers improve their infant interaction and nurturing skills, nurse home visitors use videotherapy, in which they videotape a mother interacting with her infant and subsequently soliciting the mother’s opinion about the quality of the interaction.
Program Model Intensity and Length
EIP includes home visits from mid-pregnancy through the end of the child’s first year. The program includes 17 home visits—2 prenatal and 15 postpartum—each lasting 1.5 to 2.0 hours. Postnatal visits occur when the child is one, four, and six weeks old and at monthly intervals between the child’s 2nd and 12th months. In addition, EIP offers four “preparation for motherhood” classes.
EIP was initially developed and implemented in San Bernardino County, California, which comprises urban and rural communities, an ethnically diverse population, and a high teen birth rate relative to state and national rates.
Adaptations and Enhancements
No information is available.
The information contained on this page was last updated in April 2013. In addition, the information contained in this profile was reviewed for accuracy by the developer from the University of California at Los Angeles, School of Nursing on April 9, 2013. HomVEE reserves the right to edit the profile for clarity and consistency.