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Parents as Teachers (PAT)®

Meets DHHS criteria for an evidenced based model

Last Updated: July 2013

Effects Shown in Research & Outcome Measure Details for Positive Parenting Practices Outcomes

Impact Studies Rated High


Wagner, M., Clayton, S., Gerlach-Downie, S., & McElroy, M. (1999). An evaluation of the northern California Parents as Teachers demonstration. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International.
Additional Source:

Wagner, M. & Clayton, S. (1999). The Parents as Teachers program: Results from two demonstrations. The Future of Children, 9(1), 91-115.

Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Discipline (from HOME items) Unfavorable Northern California sample 3 year 335 mothers Mean = 5.7 Mean = 5.9 MD = -0.2 Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
Study-reported = -0.27 Primary
HOME acceptance of child’s behavior subscale Unfavorable Northern California sample 3 year 335 mothers Mean = 6.4 Mean = 6.7 MD = -0.3 Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
Study-reported = -0.28 Primary
HOME involvement with child subscale No Effect Northern California sample 2 year 350 mothers Mean = 4.6 Mean = 4.6 MD = 0.0 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = -0.02 Primary
HOME involvement with child subscale No Effect Northern California sample 3 year 335 mothers Mean = 4.0 Mean = 4.0 MD = 0.0 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = 0.01 Primary
HOME opportunities for stimulation subscale No Effect Northern California sample 3 year 335 mothers Mean = 3.4 Mean = 3.5 MD = -0.1 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = -0.07 Primary
HOME acceptance of child’s behavior subscale Unfavorable Northern California sample 2 year 350 mothers Mean = 6.4 Mean = 6.7 MD = -0.0 Statistically significant,
p < 0.001
Study-reported = -0.32 Primary
HOME appropriate play materials subscale No Effect Northern California sample 2 year 350 mothers Mean = 6.6 Mean = 6.5 MD = 0.1 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = 0.02 Primary
HOME appropriate play materials subscale No Effect Northern California sample 3 year 335 mothers Mean = 6.7 Mean = 6.7 MD = 0.0 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = 0.00 Primary
HOME language- and literacy-promoting behaviors No Effect Northern California sample 3 year 335 mothers Mean = 5.8 Mean = 5.8 MD = 0.0 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = 0.00 Primary
Home mother-child interaction No Effect Northern California sample 3 year 335 mothers Mean = 5.2 Mean = 5.2 MD = 0.0 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = -0.02 Primary
HOME opportunities for stimulation subscale No Effect Northern California sample 2 year 350 mothers Mean = 3.5 Mean = 3.6 MD = -0.1 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = -0.13 Primary
HOME organization of the environment subscale No Effect Northern California sample 2 year 350 mothers Mean = 5.7 Mean = 5.7 MD = 0.0 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = 0.05 Primary
HOME organization of the environment subscale No Effect Northern California sample 3 year 335 mothers Mean = 5.7 Mean = 5.7 MD = 0.0 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = 0.08 Primary
HOME parental responsivity subscale No Effect Northern California sample 2 year 350 mothers Mean = 10.0 Mean = 10.0 MD = 0.0 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = 0.00 Primary
HOME parental responsivity subscale No Effect Northern California sample 3 year 335 mothers Mean = 9.9 Mean = 9.8 MD = 0.1 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = 0.04 Primary
HOME total scale No Effect Northern California sample 2 year 350 mothers Mean = 36.6 Mean = 37.2 MD = -0.60 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = -0.09 Primary
HOME total scale No Effect Northern California sample 3 year 335 mothers Mean = 36.2 Mean = 36.4 MD = -0.2 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = -0.02 Primary
KIDI No Effect Northern California sample 2 year 367 mothers Mean = 0.648 Mean = 0.652 MD = -0.004 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = -0.02 Secondary
KIDI No Effect Northern California sample 3 year 350 mothers Mean = 0.664 Mean = 0.688 MD = -0.024 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = -0.18 Secondary
PSOC parenting efficacy subscale No Effect Northern California sample 2 year 357 mothers Mean = 27.2 Mean = 27.0 MD = 0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = 0.05 Secondary
PSOC parenting efficacy subscale No Effect Northern California sample 3 year 341 mothers Mean = 27.1 Mean = 26.6 MD = 0.5 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = 0.15 Secondary
PSOC parenting satisfaction subscale No Effect Northern California sample 3 year 341 mothers Mean = 25.4 Mean = 26.4 MD = -1.0 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = -0.18 Secondary
PSOC parenting satisfaction subscale No Effect Northern California sample 2 year 357 mothers Mean = 24.6 Mean = 25.2 MD = -0.06 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = -0.09 Secondary
PSOC total score No Effect Northern California sample 2 year 357 mothers Mean = 51.8 Mean = 52.2 MD = -0.40 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = -0.05 Secondary
PSOC total score No Effect Northern California sample 3 year 341 mothers Mean = 52.4 Mean = 52.9 MD = -0.5 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = -0.06 Secondary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
HOME:
  • Total score
  • Parental responsivity subscale
  • Acceptance of child’s behavior subscale
  • Organization of the environment subscale
  • Appropriate play materials subscale
  • Involvement with child subscale
  • Opportunities for stimulation subscale
  • Parental responsivity subscale
  • Language- and literacy-promoting behaviors
  • Mother-child interaction
  • Discipline
The HOME assesses parenting practices and aspects of the home environment. The researchers examined the total score, as well as the following subscales: acceptance of child’s behavior, opportunity for stimulation, organization of the environment, parental involvement, parental responsivity, appropriate play materials, language promoting behaviors, mother-child interaction, and discipline. Parent/caregiver interview and observational assessment Not reported by author Primary
KIDI The KIDI measures the parent’s knowledge of childrearing practices and developmental processes. The researchers measured the percentage of items that were answered correctly on the 57-item assessment. Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Secondary
PSOC Scale: Total score, Parenting satisfaction subscale, Parenting efficacy subscale The PSOC measures parent attitudes and self-efficacy. The researchers examined the total score and two subscale scores regarding parental, efficacy and satisfaction. Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Secondary
Top

Impact Studies Rated Moderate


Boyd, A. (1997). Parents as first teachers pilot project evaluation (PAFT) : Report on Whangarei region: Final complete draft. Wellington: Ministry of Education.
Results for Parents as First Teachers (New Zealand)
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Positive caregiver behaviors - imaginative play episode, responding to child No Effect Whangarei 3 years 143 mothers Unadjusted mean = 3.75 Unadjusted mean = 4.29 MD = -0.54 Not statistically significant, p = 0.25 HomVEE = -0.19 Secondary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Positive caregiver behaviors - imaginative play episode, responding to child Mean number of times caregiver responded to their child's initiative during interactive play Videotaped observation Not applicable Secondary

Campbell, K. I., & Silva, P. A. (1997). Parents as first teachers pilot programme evaluation : Age three assessments. Final report to the ministry of education on the Dunedin and Gisborne/East coast areas. Wellington: Ministry of Education.
Results for Parents as First Teachers (New Zealand)
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
HOME Questionnaire, Overall No Effect Dunedin sample 3 years 207 mothers Not available Not available Not available Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Not available Primary
Parental Concerns, Disruption of plans No Effect Dunedin sample 3 years 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.04 Unadjusted % = 0.04 MD = 0 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 HomVEE = 0 Secondary
Parental Concerns, Disruption of relationship with partner No Effect Dunedin sample 3 years 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.1 Unadjusted % = 0.15 MD = -0.05 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 HomVEE = -0.28 Secondary
Parental Concerns, Significant Concern No Effect Dunedin sample 3 years 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.18 Unadjusted % = 0.14 MD = 0.04 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 HomVEE = 0.18 Secondary
Parental Concerns, Social Concern No Effect Dunedin sample 3 years 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.21 Unadjusted % = 0.25 MD = -0.04 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 HomVEE = -0.14 Secondary
Parents as Teachers Questionnaire, Overall No Effect Dunedin sample 3 years 208 mothers Not available Not available Not available1 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Not available Secondary
Total number of activities No Effect Dunedin sample 3 years 208 mothers Unadjusted mean = 27.64 Unadjusted mean = 27.27 MD = 0.372 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 HomVEE = 0.17 Secondary
Total number of experiences No Effect Dunedin sample 3 years 208 mothers Unadjusted mean = 18.93 Unadjusted mean = 18.79 MD = 0.14 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 HomVEE = 0.04 Secondary
Video Session, Parent-Child Interaction No Effect Dunedin sample 3 years 155 mothers Unadjusted mean = 26.78 Unadjusted mean = 30.97 MD = -4.193 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 HomVEE = -0.21 Primary

1 Authors report that significantly more program parents respond yes to the following item: Looking around his/her surroundings takes up much of a baby's day during the first month of life.

2 Authors report that significantly more program children play fantasy games.

3 Authors report significant differences on several items: &#8220;Book chosen by,&#8221; &#8220;Motivation,&#8221; &#8220;Attention maintained,&#8221; &#8220;Attending to help,&#8221; and &#8220;Using information.&#8221;

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
HOME Questionnaire, Overall The Home Observation forMeasurement of theEnvironment (HOME)Questionnaire was designed to rate family interaction/reactionary behaviors and non-interactive behaviors, especially between the main caregiver and the child. Observational Assessment Not reported by authors Secondary
Parental Concerns, Disruption of plans Number/percentage of parents who reported caring for their child had disrupted their personal plans Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Parental Concerns, Disruption of relationship with partner Number/percentage of parents who reported caring for their child had disrupted their relationship with their partner Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Parental Concerns, Significant Concern Number/percentage of parents who had a significant concern about caring for their child Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Parental Concerns, Social Concern Number/percentage of parents who had a social concern about caring for their child Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Parents as Teachers Questionnaire, Overall The Parents as Teachers Questionnaire was designed to assess parental knowledge of child health and development. Parent/caregiver report Not reported by authors Secondary
Total number of activities Mean total number of activities children experienced at home within six months prior to the parental interview Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Total number of experiences Mean total number of children's experiences out of the home Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Video Session, Parent-Child Interaction Parent-child interactions were video recorded and scored by researchers. Videotaped observation Not reported by authors Secondary

Wagner, M., & Spiker, D. (2001). Experiences and outcomes for children and families: Multisite Parents as Teachers evaluation. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International. http://www.sri.com/policy/cehs/publications/humanpub/patfinal.pdf.
Additional Sources:

Wagner, M. (2001). The multisite evaluation of the Parents as Teachers home visiting program. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International.

Wagner, M., Spiker, D., & Linn, M. I. (2002). The effectiveness of the Parents as Teachers program with low-income parents and children. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 22(2), 67–81.

Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
AAPI average child maltreatment precursor scale (range = 6 to 24) No Effect Three-site sample 1-year assessment 344 mothers Mean = 19.1 Mean = 19.1 MD = 0.0 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = 0.02 Primary
AAPI average child maltreatment precursor scale (range = 6 to 24) No Effect Three-site sample 2-year assessment 267 mothers Mean = 18.3 Mean = 18.3 MD = 0.0 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = 0.01 Primary
HOME acceptance of child’s behavior subscale No Effect Three-site sample 2-year assessment 254 mothers Mean = 6.0 Mean = 5.7ES = MD = 0.3 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = 0.22 Primary
HOME acceptance of child’s behavior subscale No Effect Three-site sample 1-year assessment 343 mothers Mean = 6.0 Mean = 6.2 MD = -0.2 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = -0.12 Primary
HOME appropriate play materials subscale No Effect Three-site sample 2-year assessment 254 mothers Mean = 7.9 Mean = 7.4 MD = 0.3 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = 0.26 Primary
HOME involvement with child subscale No Effect Three-site sample 2-year assessment 254 mothers Mean = 5.0 Mean = 4.9 MD = 0.1 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = 0.02 Primary
HOME involvement with child subscale No Effect Three-site sample 1-year assessment 343 mothers Mean = 4.1 Mean = 4.1 MD = 0.0 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = -0.01 Primary
HOME opportunities for stimulation subscale No Effect Three-site sample 1-year assessment 343 mothers Mean = 3.4 Mean = 3.4 MD = 0.0 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = -0.02 Primary
HOME opportunities for stimulation subscale No Effect Three-site sample 2-year assessment 254 mothers Mean = 3.7 Mean = 3.5 MD = 0.2 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = 0.20 Primary
HOME organization of the environment subscale No Effect Three-site sample 1-year assessment 343 mothers Mean = 5.3 Mean = 5.3 MD = 0.0 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = 0.03 Primary
HOME appropriate play materials subscale No Effect Three-site sample 1-year assessment 343 mothers Mean = 6.8 Mean = 6.7 MD = 0.1 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = 0.06 Primary
HOME organization of the environment subscale No Effect Three-site sample 2-year assessment 254 mothers Mean = 5.7 Mean = 5.6 MD = 0.1 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = 0.17 Primary
HOME parental responsivity subcale No Effect Three-site sample 2-year assessment 254 mothers Mean = 9.4 Mean = 9.3 MD = 0.1 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = 0.09 Primary
HOME subscale related to language- and literacy-promoting behaviors (range = 0 to 8) No Effect Three-site sample 2-year assessment 266 mothers Mean = 6.5 Mean = 6.1 MD = 0.4 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = 0.31 Primary
HOME subscale related to language- and literacy-promoting behaviors (range = 0 to 8) No Effect Three-site sample 1-year assessment 343 mothers Mean = 5.5 Mean = 5.3 MD = 0.2 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = 0.08 Primary
HOME subscale: parental responsivity No Effect Three-site sample 1-year assessment 343 mothers Mean = 8.5 Mean = 8.5 MD = 0.0 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = -0.02 Primary
HOME total scale (range = 0 to 45) No Effect Three-site sample 1-year assessment 343 mothers Mean = 34.1 Mean = 34.2 MD = -0.1 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.93
Study-reported = -0.01 Primary
HOME total scale (range = 0 to 45) No Effect Three-site sample 2-year assessment 254 mothers Mean = 37.7 Mean = 36.4 MD = 1.3 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = 0.22 Primary
Language literacy numeracy promotion scale (range = 6 to 24) No Effect Three-site sample 2-year assessment 266 mothers Mean = 20.0 Mean = 19.7 MD = 0.3 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = 0.09 Secondary
Language literacy numeracy promotion scale (range = 6 to 24) No Effect Three-site sample 1-year assessment 343 mothers Mean = 19.0 Mean = 18.5 MD = 0.5 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = 0.12 Secondary
NCAST, total scale score No Effect Three-site sample 2-year assessment 254 mothers Mean = 52.6 Mean = 52.9 MD = -0.3 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.41
Study-reported = -0.09 Primary
Parent Observation Scale (range 1 to 4; 4 = more observant) No Effect Three-site sample 1-year assessment 340 mothers Mean = 3.7 Mean = 3.8 MD = -0.1 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = -0.21 Secondary
Parent Observation Scale (range 1 to 4; 4 = more observant) No Effect Three-site sample 2-year assessment 267 mothers Mean = 3.8 Mean = 3.8 MD = 0.0 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = 0.01 Secondary
Parent reads books with child No Effect Three-site sample 1-year assessment 327 mothers Mean = 3.0 Mean = 3.0 MD = 0.0 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = 0.07 Secondary
Parent reads books with child No Effect Three-site sample 2-year assessment 261 mothers Mean = 3.2 Mean = 3.2 MD = 0.0 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = 0.05 Secondary
Parent talks to/asks child questions during reading No Effect Three-site sample 2-year assessment 261 mothers Mean = 3.6 Mean = 3.6 MD = 0.0 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = -0.04 Secondary
Parent talks to/asks child questions during reading No Effect Three-site sample 1-year assessment 327 mothers Mean = 3.3 Mean = 3.1 MD = 0.2 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = 0.20 Secondary
Parent tell stories sings with child No Effect Three-site sample 1-year assessment 343 mothers Mean = 3.4 Mean = 3.5 MD = -0.1 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = -0.02 Secondary
Parent tell stories sings with child No Effect Three-site sample 2-year assessment 266 mothers Mean = 3.4 Mean = 3.2 MD = 0.2 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = 0.19 Secondary
Parental knowledge all items (percentage answered correctly) No Effect Three-site sample 2-year assessment 268 mothers Mean = 77.7% Mean = 75.9% MD = 1.8 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = 0.14 Secondary
Parental knowledge all items (percentage answered correctly) No Effect Three-site sample 1-year assessment 344 mothers Mean = 78.8% Mean = 80.0% MD = -0.2 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = -0.20 Secondary
Parental knowledge child care and safety (percentage answered correctly) No Effect Three-site sample 2-year assessment 268 mothers Mean = 74.3% Mean = 74.6% MD = -0.3 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = -0.01 Secondary
Parental knowledge child care and safety (percentage answered correctly) No Effect Three-site sample 1-year assessment 344 mothers Mean = 84.0% Mean = 85.5% MD = -1.5 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = -0.09 Secondary
Parental knowledge discipline (percentage answered correctly) No Effect Three-site sample 2-year assessment 268 mothers Mean = 75.4% Mean = 75.8% MD = -0.4 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = -0.02 Secondary
Parental knowledge discipline (percentage answered correctly) No Effect Three-site sample 1-year assessment 344 mothers Mean = 84.8% Mean = 85.2% MD = -0.4 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = -0.02 Secondary
Parental knowledge emotional development (percentage answered correctly) No Effect Three-site sample 2-year assessment 268 mothers Mean = 79.8% Mean = 75.1% MD = 4.7 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = 0.24 Secondary
Parental knowledge emotional development (percentage answered correctly) No Effect Three-site sample 1-year assessment 344 mothers Mean = 75.5% Mean = 77.9% MD = -2.4 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = -0.12 Secondary
Parental knowledge general child development (percentage answered correctly) No Effect Three-site sample 1-year assessment 344 mothers Mean = 82.4% Mean = 80.3% MD = 2.1 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = 0.14 Secondary
Parental knowledge general child development (percentage answered correctly) No Effect Three-site sample 2-year assessment 268 mothers Mean = 74.0% Mean = 71.9% MD = 2.1 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = 0.13 Secondary
Parental knowledge language/cognitive development (percentage answered correctly) No Effect Three-site sample 2-year assessment 268 mothers Mean = 79.9% Mean = 78.7% MD = 1.2 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = 0.07 Secondary
Parental knowledge language/cognitive development (percentage answered correctly) No Effect Three-site sample 1-year assessment 344 mothers Mean = 70.7% Mean = 73.9% MD = -3.2 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = -0.20 Secondary
PSOC parenting efficacy subscale (range = 8 to 32) No Effect Three-site sample 2-year assessment 267 mothers Mean = 28.7 Mean = 28.7 MD = 0.0 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = 0.01 Secondary
PSOC parenting efficacy subscale (range = 8 to 32) No Effect Three-site sample 1-year assessment 344 mothers Mean = 28.6 Mean = 28.8 MD = -0.2 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = -0.10 Secondary
PSOC satisfaction subscale (range = 9 to 36) No Effect Three-site sample 1-year assessment 344 mothers Mean = 25.9 Mean = 26.8 MD = -0.9 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = -0.20 Secondary
PSOC satisfaction subscale (range = 9 to 36) No Effect Three-site sample 2-year assessment 267 mothers Mean = 25.5 Mean = 25.7 MD = -0.2 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = -0.05 Secondary
PSOC total scale (range = 17 to 68) No Effect Three-site sample 2-year assessment 267 mothers Mean = 54.2 Mean = 54.4 MD = -0.2 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = -0.04 Secondary
PSOC total scale (range = 17 to 68) No Effect Three-site sample 1-year assessment 344 mothers Mean = 54.4 Mean = 55.6 MD = -1.2 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = -0.20 Secondary
While doing everyday things parent counts things or uses numbers with child No Effect Three-site sample 1-year assessment 343 mothers Mean = 3.1 Mean = 3.2 MD = -0.1 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = -0.10 Secondary
While doing everyday things parent counts things or uses numbers with child No Effect Three-site sample 2-year assessment 266 mothers Mean = 3.4 Mean = 3.4 MD = 0.0 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = 0.04 Secondary
While doing everyday things parent reads aloud to child No Effect Three-site sample 2-year assessment 266 mothers Mean = 3.1 Mean = 2.9 MD = 0.2 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = 0.20 Secondary
While doing everyday things parent reads aloud to child No Effect Three-site sample 1-year assessment 343 mothers Mean = 2.8 Mean = 2.6 MD = 0.2 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = 0.13 Secondary
While doing everyday things parent talks to/asks child questions No Effect Three-site sample 1-year assessment 343 mothers Mean = 3.3 Mean = 3.2 MD = 0.1 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = 0.09 Secondary
While doing everyday things parent talks to/asks child questions No Effect Three-site sample 2-year assessment 266 mothers Mean = 3.3 Mean = 3.4 MD = -0.1 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = -0.09 Secondary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
AAPI: Average CMPS score The CMPS from the AAPI assesses attitudes toward disciplining children that have been shown to, correlate with later abusive behaviors toward them. Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Primary
HOME:
  • Language- and literacy-promoting behaviors
  • Total score
  • Parental responsivity
  • Acceptance of child’s behavior
  • Organization of the environment
  • Appropriate play materials
  • Involvement
  • Opportunities for stimulation
The HOME assesses parenting practices and aspects of the home environment. The researchers examined the total score, as well as subscales related to parental responsivity, acceptance of child's behavior, provision of appropriate play materials,, organization of the child’s environment, parental involvement with children, and the opportunities provided for daily stimulation. Parent/caregiver interview and observational assessment Not reported by author Primary
KIDI:
  • All items
  • General child development
  • Language/cognitive development
  • Emotional development
  • Discipline
  • Child care and safety
The KIDI measures the parent’s knowledge of childrearing practices and developmental processes. In addition to the total score, the researchers examined subscales about general child development, language/cognitive development, emotional development, and discipline. Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Secondary
Language, literacy, numeracy promotion scale
  • While doing everyday things, parent talks to/asks child questions
  • While doing everyday things, parent reads aloud to child
  • While doing everyday things, parent counts things or uses numbers with child
  • Parent tells stories, sings with child
  • Parent reads books with child
  • Parent talks to/asks child questions during reading
A 6-item measure of direct parent-child verbal interactions that encourage children’s language development, literacy, and numeracy. Each question was answered on a 4-point scale, with 4 being the most positive response. An overall scale was formed by summing the values on these six items. Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Secondary
NCAST: Total score The NCAST assesses the quality of teaching interaction between caregivers and young children. Mothers were assessed while introducing a new toy to their child. Areas of assessment included cue-giving and responsiveness to cues of both the parents and children. Observation Not reported by author Primary
Parent Observation Scale A scale of parent observations skills ranging from 1 to 4, with 4 being the most observant Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Secondary
PSOC: Total score, Parenting efficacy, Satisfaction The PSOC measures parent attitudes and self-efficacy. The researchers analyzed the total score and scores on the two subscales: parent satisfaction and parent efficacy. Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Secondary

Wagner, M., Cameto, R., & Gerlach-Downie, S. (1996). Intervention in support of adolescent parents and their children: A final report on the Teen Parents as Teachers Demonstration. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International.
Additional Source:

Wagner, M. & Clayton, S. (1999). The Parents as Teachers program: Results from two demonstrations. The Future of Children, 9(1), 91-115.

Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
HOME appropriate play materials subscale Favorable Teen mothers sample 1 year 236 mothers Mean = 7.6 Mean = 7.2 MD = 0.4 Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
Not available Primary
HOME appropriate play materials subscale Unfavorable Teen mothers sample 2 year 195 mothers Mean = 7.6 Mean = 8.0 MD = -0.4 Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
Not available Primary
HOME involvement with child subscale No Effect Teen mothers sample 1 year 236 mothers Mean = 5.0 Mean = 4.7 MD = 0.3 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Primary
HOME involvement with child subscale No Effect Teen mothers sample 2 year 195 mothers Mean = 4.7 Mean = 4.9 MD = -0.2 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Primary
HOME opportunities for stimulation subscale No Effect Teen mothers sample 2 year 195 mothers Mean = 4.0 Mean = 3.7 MD = 0.3 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Primary
HOME opportunities for stimulation subscale No Effect Teen mothers sample 1 year 236 mothers Mean = 3.5 Mean = 3.4 MD = 0.1 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Primary
HOME organization of the environment subscale No Effect Teen mothers sample 1 year 236 mothers Mean = 5.6 Mean = 5.6 MD = 0.0 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Primary
HOME organization of the environment subscale No Effect Teen mothers sample 2 year 195 mothers Mean = 5.7 Mean = 5.7 MD = 0.0 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Primary
HOME acceptance of child’s behavior subscale No Effect Teen mothers sample 2 year 195 mothers Mean = 6.3 Mean = 6.3 MD = 0.0 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Primary
HOME acceptance of child’s behavior subscale No Effect Teen mothers sample 1 year 236 mothers Mean = 6.1 Mean = 6.0 MD = 0.1 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Primary
HOME parental responsivity subscale No Effect Teen mothers sample 2 year 195 mothers Mean = 9.8 Mean = 9.9 MD = -0.1 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Primary
HOME parental responsivity subscale Favorable Teen mothers sample 1 year 236 mothers Mean = 9.9 Mean = 9.4 MD = 0.5 Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
Not available Primary
HOME total scale Favorable Teen mothers sample 1 year 236 mothers Mean = 37.6 Mean = 36.2 MD = 1.4 Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
Not available Primary
HOME total scale No Effect Teen mothers sample 2 year 195 mothers Mean = 38.0 Mean = 38.5 MD = -0.5 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Primary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
HOME:
  • Total score
  • Parental responsivity subscale
  • Acceptance of child’s behavior subscale
  • Appropriate play materials subscale
  • Organization of the environment subscale
  • Involvement with child subscale
  • Opportunities for stimulation subscale
The HOME assesses parenting practices and aspects of the home environment. The researchers examined the total score, as well as subscales related to parental responsivity, acceptance of child's behavior, provision of appropriate play materials, organization of the child’s environment, parental involvement with children, and the opportunities provided for daily stimulation. Parent/caregiver interview and observational assessment Not reported by author Primary
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