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Parents as Teachers (PAT)®

Meets DHHS criteria for an evidenced based model

Last Updated: July 2013

In Brief for Maternal Health Outcomes

Impact Studies Rated High


Wagner, M., Clayton, S., Gerlach-Downie, S., & McElroy, M. (1999). An evaluation of the northern California Parents as Teachers demonstration. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International.
Additional Source:

Wagner, M. & Clayton, S. (1999). The Parents as Teachers program: Results from two demonstrations. The Future of Children, 9(1), 91-115.

Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Mother had additional births No Effect Northern California sample 2 year 371 mothers 14.8% 16.3% -1.5 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
HomVEE = -0.07 Secondary
Mother had additional births No Effect Northern California sample 3 year 343 mothers 27.5% -6.7 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
1
HomVEE = -0.22 Secondary

1 In contrast to the study-reported results, HomVEE calculations showed this difference to be statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05). The HomVEE tests of statistical significance are based on the HomVEE calculated effect sizes, whereas authors may have used other techniques to determine statistical significance, such as regression models or analyses of variance (ANOVA).

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Mother had additional births Percentage of mothers who experienced additional births after entering Parents as Teachers Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
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Impact Studies Rated Moderate


Campbell, K. I., & Silva, P. A. (1997). Parents as first teachers pilot programme evaluation : Age three assessments. Final report to the ministry of education on the Dunedin and Gisborne/East coast areas. Wellington: Ministry of Education.
Results for Parents as First Teachers (New Zealand)
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Maternal Social Support Index (MSSI),Overall No Effect Dunedin sample 3 years 207 mothers Not available Not available Not available Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Not available Secondary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Maternal Social Support Index (MSSI),Overall Mean overall results on the Maternal Social Support Index Parent/caregiver report Not reported by authors Secondary
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