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Parents as Teachers (PAT)®

Meets DHHS criteria for an evidenced based model

Last Updated: July 2013

Effects Shown in Research & Outcome Measure Details for Child Health Outcomes

Impact Studies Rated High


Wagner, M., Clayton, S., Gerlach-Downie, S., & McElroy, M. (1999). An evaluation of the northern California Parents as Teachers demonstration. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International.
Additional Source:

Wagner, M. & Clayton, S. (1999). The Parents as Teachers program: Results from two demonstrations. The Future of Children, 9(1), 91-115.

Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Child saw doctor for well-child care in past 6 months No Effect Northern California sample 2 year 365 children 84.7% 86.9% -2.2 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = -0.24 Secondary
Child saw doctor for well-child care in past 6 months No Effect Northern California sample 3 year 352 children 56.9% 57.6% -0.7 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = -0.01 Secondary
Child treated for illness in the past year No Effect Northern California sample 3 year 352 children 51% 50.2% 0.8 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = -0.02 Secondary
Child treated for illness in the past year No Effect Northern California sample 2 year 365 children 39.3% 33.3% 6.0 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = 0.13 Secondary
Child treated for injury in the past year No Effect Northern California sample 2 year 365 children 12% 14.9% -2.9 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = -0.08 Secondary
Child treated for injury in the past year No Effect Northern California sample 3 year 352 children 8.1% 11.9% -3.8 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
1
Study-reported = -0.12 Secondary
Child went to the emergency room in the past year No Effect Northern California sample 3 year 352 children 20.3% 24.5% -4.2 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = -0.10 Secondary
Child went to the emergency room in the past year No Effect Northern California sample 2 year 365 children 29.7% 33.6% -3.9 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = -0.08 Secondary

1 In contrast to the study-reported results, HomVEE calculations showed this difference to be statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05). The HomVEE tests of statistical significance are based on the HomVEE calculated effect sizes, whereas authors may have used other techniques to determine statistical significance, such as regression models or analyses of variance (ANOVA).

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Child saw doctor for well-child care in past 6 months Percentage of children who saw a doctor for well-child care within the past 6 months Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Child treated for illness in the past year Percentage of children who were treated for an illness during the past year Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Child treated for injury in the past year Percentage of children who were treated for an injury during the past year Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Child went to the emergency room in the past year Percentage of children who went to the emergency room during the past year Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
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Impact Studies Rated Moderate


Campbell, K. I., & Silva, P. A. (1997). Parents as first teachers pilot programme evaluation : Age three assessments. Final report to the ministry of education on the Dunedin and Gisborne/East coast areas. Wellington: Ministry of Education.
Results for Parents as First Teachers (New Zealand)
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Incidence of ear infections No Effect Dunedin sample 3 years 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.7 Unadjusted % = 0.79 MD = -0.09 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 HomVEE = -0.29 Secondary
Incidence of hearing problems No Effect Dunedin sample 3 years 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.08 Unadjusted % = 0.07 MD = 0.01 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 HomVEE = 0.09 Secondary
Number of health problems children had experienced No Effect Dunedin sample 3 years 208 mothers Unadjusted mean = 4.85 Unadjusted mean = 4.91 MD = -0.061 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 HomVEE = -0.03 Secondary
Number of hospital admissions No Effect Dunedin sample 3 years 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.33 Unadjusted % = 0.3 MD = 0.03 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 HomVEE = 0.08 Secondary
Number of hospital visits No Effect Dunedin sample 3 years 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.64 Unadjusted % = 0.72 MD = -0.08 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 HomVEE = -0.22 Secondary
Number of times children visited a hospital clinic No Effect Dunedin sample 3 years 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.42 Unadjusted % = 0.51 MD = -0.09 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 HomVEE = -0.22 Secondary
Number of times children visited general practitioner No Effect Dunedin sample 3 years 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0 Unadjusted % = 0 MD = 0 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Not available Secondary
Number of times children visited health specialist No Effect Dunedin sample 3 years 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.54 Unadjusted % = 0.51 MD = 0.03 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 HomVEE = 0.07 Secondary
Number of times children visited other professional health service No Effect Dunedin sample 3 years 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.18 Unadjusted % = 0.15 MD = 0.03 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 HomVEE = 0.13 Secondary
Total number of injuries No Effect Dunedin sample 3 years 208 mothers Unadjusted % = 0.42 Unadjusted % = 0.38 MD = 0.04 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 HomVEE = 0.1 Secondary

1 Authors report that significantly more program children experienced bronchitis attacks.

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Incidence of ear infections Number/percentage of children who experienced an ear infection Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Incidence of hearing problems Number/percentage of children who experienced a hearing problem Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Number of health problems children had experienced Mean number of health problems children experienced Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Number of hospital admissions Number of hospital admissions children experienced Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Number of hospital visits Number of hospital visits children experienced Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Number of times children visited a hospital clinic Number of times children visited a hospital clinic Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Number of times children visited general practitioner Number of times children visited a general practitioner Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Number of times children visited health specialist Number of times children visited a health specialist Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Number of times children visited other professional health service Number of times children visited another professional health service Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Total number of injuries Total number of injuries children experienced Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary

Wagner, M., & Spiker, D. (2001). Experiences and outcomes for children and families: Multisite Parents as Teachers evaluation. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International. http://www.sri.com/policy/cehs/publications/humanpub/patfinal.pdf.
Additional Sources:

Wagner, M. (2001). The multisite evaluation of the Parents as Teachers home visiting program. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International.

Wagner, M., Spiker, D., & Linn, M. I. (2002). The effectiveness of the Parents as Teachers program with low-income parents and children. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 22(2), 67–81.

Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Child covered by health insurance No Effect Three-site sample 2 year 265 children 79.8% 84.8% -4.6 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = -0.13 Secondary
Child saw doctor for well-child care in past 6 months No Effect Three-site sample 2 year 265 children 91.4% 94.8% -3.4 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
1
Study-reported = -0.14 Secondary
Child treated for injury in the past year No Effect Three-site sample 2 year 265 children 5.5% 11% -5.5 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
1
Study-reported = -0.20 Secondary
Child was fully immunized No Effect Three-site sample 2 year 265 children 26.3% 19% 7.3 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = 0.17 Primary
Child went to the emergency room No Effect Three-site sample 2 year 265 children 38.5% 50.6% -12.1 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
1
Study-reported = -0.24 Secondary

1 In contrast to the study-reported results, HomVEE calculations showed this difference to be statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05). The HomVEE tests of statistical significance are based on the HomVEE calculated effect sizes, whereas authors may have used other techniques to determine statistical significance, such as regression models or analyses of variance (ANOVA).

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Child covered by health insurance Percentage of children who were covered by health insurance Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Child saw doctor for well-child care in past 6 months Percentage of children who had seen a doctor for well-child care during the past 6 months Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Child treated for injury in the past year Percentage of children who were treated for an injury during the past year Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Child was fully immunized Percentage of children who were fully immunized for their age Review of immunization records for families who could produce them Not applicable Primary
Child went to the emergency room Percentage of children who went to the emergency room during the past year Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary

Wagner, M., Cameto, R., & Gerlach-Downie, S. (1996). Intervention in support of adolescent parents and their children: A final report on the Teen Parents as Teachers Demonstration. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International.
Additional Source:

Wagner, M. & Clayton, S. (1999). The Parents as Teachers program: Results from two demonstrations. The Future of Children, 9(1), 91-115.

Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Child had a regular source of medical care No Effect Teen mothers sample 1 year 232 children 92% 94.1% -2.1 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
HomVEE = -0.20 Secondary
Child had a regular source of medical care No Effect Teen mothers sample 2 year 192 children 90.3% 92.9% -2.6 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
HomVEE = -0.21 Secondary
Child saw a doctor for well-baby care in past 6 months No Effect Teen mothers sample 2 year 194 children 87.1% 92.1% -5.0 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
1
HomVEE = -0.33 Secondary
Child saw a doctor for well-baby care in past 6 months No Effect Teen mothers sample 1 year 232 children 97.4% 95.8% 1.6 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
1
HomVEE = 0.30 Secondary

1 In contrast to the study-reported results, HomVEE calculations showed this difference to be statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05). The HomVEE tests of statistical significance are based on the HomVEE calculated effect sizes, whereas authors may have used other techniques to determine statistical significance, such as regression models or analyses of variance (ANOVA).

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Child had a regular source of medical care Percentage of children who had a regular source of medical care Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Child saw a doctor for well-baby care in past 6 months Percentage of children who had seen a doctor for well-child care during the past 6 months Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
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