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Parents as Teachers (PAT)®

Meets DHHS criteria for an evidenced based model

Last Updated: July 2013

In Brief for Child Development and School Readiness Outcomes

Impact Studies Rated High


Drotar, D., Robinson, J., Jeavons, L., & Lester Kirchner, H. (2009). A randomized, controlled evaluation of early intervention: The Born to Learn curriculum. Child: Care, Health & Development, 35(5), 643–649.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Bracken Basic Concept Scale composite No Effect Ohio sample 36 month 336 children Mean = 113.47
SD = 17.79
Mean = 112.23
SD = 19.04
MD = 1.24 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.51
Study reported = 0.07 Primary
BSID Behavioral Rating Scale No Effect Ohio sample 24 month 354 children Mean = 109.63
SD = 11.42
Mean = 109.20
SD = 13.44
MD = 0.43 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.56
Study reported = 0.062 Primary
BSID Mental Development Scale No Effect Ohio sample 24 month 344 children Mean = 96.97
SD = 14.12
Mean = 97.75
SD = 15.02
MD = -0.78 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.67
Study reported = -0.052 Primary
BSID, Behavioral Rating Scale No Effect Ohio sample 36 month 342 children Mean = 111.84
SD = 12.15
Mean = 113.48
SD = 10.81
MD = -1.64 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.20
Study reported = -0.142 Primary
CBRS, Engagement Score1 No Effect Ohio sample 24 month 336 children Mean = 2.81
SD = 0.98
Mean = 2.98
SD = 0.98
MD = -0.17 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.11
Study reported = -0.172 Primary
CBRS, Negative Affect Score1 No Effect Ohio sample 24 month 336 children Mean = 4.93
SD = 0.34
Mean = 4.93
SD = 0.38
MD = 0.00 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.97
Study reported = 0.00 Primary
CBRS, Positive Affect Score1 No Effect Ohio sample 24 month 336 children Mean = 2.43
SD = 0.80
Mean = 2.44
SD = 0.77
MD = -0.01 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.96
Study reported = -0.012 Primary
CBRS: Involvement Score1 No Effect Ohio sample 24 month 330 children Mean = 4.13
SD = 1.07
Mean = 4.18
SD = 1.06
MD = -0.05 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.73
Study reported = -0.052 Primary
KABC Simultaneous Processing Standard Score No Effect Ohio sample 36 month 331 children Mean = 107.77
SD = 15.33
Mean = 109.29
SD = 14.99
MD = -1.52 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.30
Study reported = -0.11 Primary
Mastery Motivation – Task Competence Favorable Ohio sample 36 month 319 children Mean = 847.98
SD = 32.54
Mean = 841.74
SD = 34.91
MD = 6.24 Statistically significant,
p = 0.05
Study reported = 0.20 Primary
Mastery Motivation – Task Persistence No Effect Ohio sample 36 month 318 children Mean = 17.30
SD = 3.79
Mean = 16.49
SD = 4.39
MD = 0.81 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.07
Study reported = 0.20 Primary
Mastery Motivation – Task Pleasure No Effect Ohio sample 36 month 319 children Mean = 0.51
SD = 0.60
Mean = 0.52
SD = 0.74
MD = -0.01 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.71
Study reported = -0.032 Primary
Q-Sort Security of Attachment1 No Effect Ohio sample 18 month 364 children Mean = 34.43
SD = 23.93
Mean = 35.46
SD = 21.12
MD = -1.03 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.64
Study reported = -0.052 Primary
SSRS Parent Report No Effect Ohio sample 36 month 336 children Mean = 103.07
SD = 14.82
Mean = 100.37
SD = 15.27
MD = 2.70 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.09
Study reported = 0.18 Primary
TERA-2 No Effect Ohio sample 36 month 333 children Mean = 106.12
SD = 9.90
Mean = 105.58
SD = 10.73
MD = 0.54 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.72
Study reported = 0.04 Primary

1 Information on outcomes was received through communication with the authors.

2 HomVEE reversed the sign of this effect size because the treatment group mean was less than the control group mean.

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Attachment Q-Sort scale The Attachment Q-Sort assesses security of attachment and dependency in young children. Observation Interrater reliability = 0.90 Primary
BBCS-R The BBCS-R assesses knowledge of basic concepts and receptive language skills in young children. Child assessment Not reported by author Primary
BSID:
  • Mental Development Scale
  • Behavioral Rating Scale
The BSID tests the mental, motor, and behavioral development and abilities of young children. The researchers examined both the mental development and behavioral subscales. Child assessment Not reported by author Primary
CBRS:
  • Engagement score
  • Positive Affect score
  • Negative Affect score,
  • Involvement score
The CBRS assesses behavioral problems in young children. The researchers examined scores related to engagement, involvement, and positive and negative affect. Observation Interrater reliability = 0.81 to 0.90 Primary
KABC: Simultaneous Processing Standard score The KABC assesses achievement and intelligence in young children. Child assessment Not reported by author Primary
Mastery Motivation – Task Persistence, Task Pleasure, Task Competence Children were introduced to various toys and were evaluated based upon persistence, pleasure, and competence in problem solving for up to 4 minutes. Observation Interrater reliability = 0.78 to 0.91 Primary
SSRS The SSRS assesses social skills, academic competence, and problem behaviors in young children. Parent/caregiver and teacher report Not reported by author Primary
TERA-2 The TERA-2 assesses early reading skills in young children. Child assessment Not reported by author Primary

Wagner, M., Clayton, S., Gerlach-Downie, S., & McElroy, M. (1999). An evaluation of the northern California Parents as Teachers demonstration. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International.
Additional Source:

Wagner, M. & Clayton, S. (1999). The Parents as Teachers program: Results from two demonstrations. The Future of Children, 9(1), 91-115.

Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
BSID Mental Development Index (in normal range) No Effect Northern California sample 2 year 184 children 67.6% 69.6% -2.0 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = -0.04 Primary
BSID Mental Development Index (mean) No Effect Northern California sample 2 year 184 children Mean = 91.0 Mean = 92.2 MD = -1.20 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = -0.07 Primary
BSID Physical Development Index (in normal range) No Effect Northern California sample 2 year 184 children 85.7% 79.8% 5.9 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = 0.16 Primary
BSID Physical Development Index (mean) No Effect Northern California sample 2 year 184 children Mean = 99.8 Mean = 98.4 MD = 1.40 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = 0.12 Primary
DPII Cognitive Development Scale (at or above chronological age) No Effect Northern California sample 3 year 363 children 44.8% 41.2% 3.6 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = 0.07 Primary
DPII Cognitive Development Scale (at or above chronological age) No Effect Northern California sample 2 year 375 children 68.6% 67.7% 0.9 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = 0.02 Primary
DPII Cognitive Development Scale (mean months differential) No Effect Northern California sample 2 year 375 children Mean = 1.8 Mean = 1.8 MD = 0.00 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = 0.00 Primary
DPII Cognitive Development Scale (mean months differential) No Effect Northern California sample 3 year 363 children Mean = -0.50 Mean = -1.10 MD = 0.60 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = 0.10 Primary
DPII Communication Development Scale (at or above chronological age) No Effect Northern California sample 2 year 375 children 82.7% 74.8% 7.9 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
1
Study-reported = -0.02 Primary
DPII Communication Development Scale (at or above chronological age) No Effect Northern California sample 3 year 363 children 78.6% 77.1% 1.5 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = 0.03 Primary
DPII Communication Development Scale (mean months differential) No Effect Northern California sample 3 year 363 children Mean = 5.40 Mean = 5.30 MD = 0.10 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = 0.01 Primary
DPII Communication Development Scale (mean months differential) No Effect Northern California sample 2 year 375 children Mean = 4.3 Mean = 4.4 MD = -0.10 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = -0.02 Primary
DPII Physical Development Scale (at or above chronological age) No Effect Northern California sample 2 year 375 children 86.4% 85.2% 1.2 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = 0.03 Primary
DPII Physical Development Scale (at or above chronological age) No Effect Northern California sample 3 year 363 children 78.1% 79.1% -1.0 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = -0.02 Primary
DPII Physical Development Scale (mean months differential) No Effect Northern California sample 3 year 363 children Mean = 3.90 Mean = 3.70 MD = 0.20 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = 0.04 Primary
DPII Physical Development Scale (mean months differential) No Effect Northern California sample 2 year 375 children Mean = 4.6 Mean = 4.6 MD = 0.00 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = 0.01 Primary
DPII Self-Help Development Scale (at or above chronological age) No Effect Northern California sample 3 year 363 children 92.9% 90.8% 2.1 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = 0.07 Primary
DPII Self-Help Development Scale (at or above chronological age) No Effect Northern California sample 2 year 375 children 96.4% 95.5% 0.9 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = 0.04 Primary
DPII Self-Help Development Scale (mean months differential) Favorable Northern California sample 3 year 363 children Mean = 13.0 Mean = 10.8 MD = 2.2 Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
Study-reported = 0.25 Primary
DPII Self-Help Development Scale (mean months differential) No Effect Northern California sample 2 year 375 children Mean = 7.3 Mean = 7.4 MD = -0.10 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = -0.01 Primary
DPII Social Development Scale (at or above chronological age) No Effect Northern California sample 3 year 363 children 83.3% 73.9% 9.4 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
1
Study-reported = 0.23 Primary
DPII Social Development Scale (at or above chronological age) No Effect Northern California sample 2 year 375 children 91.6% 93.2% -1.6 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = 0.06 Primary
DPII Social Development Scale (mean months differential) Unfavorable Northern California sample 2 year 375 children Mean = 4.7 Mean = 5.8 MD = -1.10 Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
Study-reported = -0.24 Primary
DPII Social Development Scale (mean months differential) No Effect Northern California sample 3 year 363 children Mean = 7.40 Mean = 5.90 MD = 1.50 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = 0.17 Primary
PPVT ator above chronological age No Effect Northern California sample 3 year 320 children 50% 49.2% 0.8 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = 0.02 Primary
PPVT mean months differential No Effect Northern California sample 3 year 320 children Mean = 0.30 Mean = -0.20 MD = 0.50 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = 0.06 Primary

1 In contrast to the study-reported results, HomVEE calculations showed this difference to be statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05). The HomVEE tests of statistical significance are based on the HomVEE calculated effect sizes, whereas authors may have used other techniques to determine statistical significance, such as regression models or analyses of variance (ANOVA).

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
BSID:
  • Physical Development Index
  • Mental Development Index
The BSID tests the mental, motor, and behavioral development and abilities of young children. The researchers examined both the mental development and physical development scales. The scores were presented as (1) average scores, and (2) the proportion of the sample that were within the normal range (scores of 86 or above). Child assessment Not reported by author Primary
DPII:
  • Physical Development Scale
  • Cognitive Development Scale
  • Communication Development Scale
  • Self-Help Development Scale
  • Social Development Scale
The subscales of the DPII assess the physical, communication, self-help, social, and cognitive development of young children. The scores were presented as (1) the difference in months between a child’s chronological age and the age that corresponds to the skill level assessed, and (2) the proportion of the sample assessed as at or above their chronological age in the area assessed. Child assessment Not reported by author Primary
DPII:
  • Physical Development Scale
  • Cognitive Development Scale
  • Communication Development Scale
  • Self-Help Development Scale
  • Social Development Scale
The subscales of the DPII assess the physical, communication, self-help, social, and cognitive development of young children. The scores were presented as (1) the difference in months between a child’s chronological age and the age that corresponds to the skill level assessed, and (2) the proportion of the sample assessed as at or above their chronological age in the area assessed. Child assessment Not reported by author Primary
PPVT The PPVT assesses receptive language in young children. Scores were presented as (1) the number of months difference between the chronological age of the child and his/her receptive language developmental age, and (2) the proportion of the sample assessed as at or above their chronological age. Child assessment Not reported by author Primary
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Impact Studies Rated Moderate


Boyd, A. (1997). Parents as first teachers pilot project evaluation (PAFT) : Report on Whangarei region: Final complete draft. Wellington: Ministry of Education.
Results for Parents as First Teachers (New Zealand)
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Positive child behaviors - imaginative play episode, attending to help No Effect Whangarei 3 years 163 mothers Unadjusted mean = 2.00 Unadjusted mean = 2.45 MD = -0.45 Not statistically significant, p = 0.41 HomVEE = -0.13 Secondary
Positive child behaviors - imaginative play episode, using information No Effect Whangarei 3 years 163 mothers Unadjusted mean = 1.99 Unadjusted mean = 2.18 MD = -0.19 Not statistically significant, p = 0.58 HomVEE = -0.09 Secondary
Positive child behaviors - problem solving task, total No Effect Whangarei 3 years 129 mothers Unadjusted mean = 12.09 Unadjusted mean = 11.31 MD = 0.78 Not statistically significant, p = 0.52 HomVEE = 0.11 Secondary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Positive child behaviors - imaginative play episode, attending to help Mean number of times child attended to help offered by caregiver during interactive play Videotaped observation Not applicable Secondary
Positive child behaviors - imaginative play episode, using information Mean number of times child used information that caregiver offered during interactive play Videotaped observation Not applicable Secondary
Positive child behaviors - problem solving task, total Mean total positive child behavior score on a problem-solving task (opening a puzzle box), with scores recorded as the number of times a child exhibited each of six positive behaviors (asking questions, exploration, verbalization, trying keys, attending to help offered, and using information offered). Videotaped observation Not applicable Secondary

Campbell, K. I., & Silva, P. A. (1997). Parents as first teachers pilot programme evaluation : Age three assessments. Final report to the ministry of education on the Dunedin and Gisborne/East coast areas. Wellington: Ministry of Education.
Results for Parents as First Teachers (New Zealand)
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Age in months when child first walked 6 steps unaided No Effect Dunedin sample 3 years 206 mothers Unadjusted mean = 12.9 Unadjusted mean = 12.37 MD = 0.53 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 HomVEE = 0.24 Secondary
Behaviour Checklist No Effect Dunedin sample 3 years 208 mothers Not available Not available Not available Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Not available Secondary
Denver II Assessment, Fine Motor Delay No Effect Dunedin sample 3 years 206 mothers Not available Not available Not available Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Not available Primary
Denver II Assessment, Gross Motor Delay No Effect Dunedin sample 3 years 206 mothers Not available Not available Not available Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Not available Primary
Denver II Assessment, Language Delay No Effect Dunedin sample 3 years 206 mothers Not available Not available Not available Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Not available Primary
Denver II Assessment, Personal Social Items No Effect Dunedin sample 3 years 206 mothers Not available Not available Not available Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Not available Primary
Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Mental Processing Composite No Effect Dunedin sample 3 years 158 mothers Unadjusted mean = 59.44 Unadjusted mean = 60.34 MD = -0.9 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 HomVEE = -0.09 Primary
Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Sequential Processing No Effect Dunedin sample 3 years 158 mothers Unadjusted mean = 22.14 Unadjusted mean = 23 MD = -0.86 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 HomVEE = -0.16 Primary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Age in months when child first walked 6 steps unaided Mean age in months when child first walked 6 steps unaided Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Behaviour Checklist Number/percentage of parents who responded whether each of 14 listed behavior and emotional problems (e.g. poor appetite, difficulty sleeping at night, overactive, etc.) apply, somewhat apply, or do not apply to their children. Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Denver II Assessment, Fine Motor Delay Number/percentage of children whose performance on the Denver II Assessment of fine motor delay was categorized as advanced, delayed, or cautions. The Denver II Assessment was designed to detect potential developmental problems. Child assessment Not reported by authors Primary
Denver II Assessment, Gross Motor Delay Number/percentage of children whose performance on the Denver II Assessment of gross motor delay was categorized as advanced, delayed, or cautions. The Denver II Assessment was designed to detect potential developmental problems. Child assessment Not reported by authors Primary
Denver II Assessment, Language Delay Number/percentage of children whose performance on the Denver II Assessment of language delay was categorized as advanced, delayed, or cautions. The Denver II Assessment was designed to detect potential developmental problems. Child assessment Not reported by authors Primary
Denver II Assessment, Personal Social Items Number/percentage of children whose performance on the Denver II Assessment of personal social items was categorized as advanced, delayed, or cautions. The Denver II Assessment was designed to detect potential developmental problems. Child assessment Not reported by authors Primary
Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Mental Processing Composite Mean mental processing composite score on the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children. The mental processing composite includes measures of sequential and simultaneous processing, designed to elicit problem-solving and information processing styles while minimizing the role of language and verbal skills. Child assessment Not reported by authors Primary
Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Sequential Processing Mean sequential processing score on the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children Child assessment Not reported by authors Primary

Drazen, S. M., & Haust, M. (1993, August). Raising reading readiness in low-income children by parent education. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Psychological Association.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Achievement-Kaufman ABC No Effect Binghamton, NY 4-5 years 24 children Unadjusted mean = 97.00 Unadjusted mean = 94.00 MD = 3.00 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 HomVEE = 0.25 Primary
Achievement-Kaufman ABC, % Below 90 No Effect Binghamton, NY 4-5 years 24 children Unadjusted mean = 0.25 Unadjusted mean = 0.20 MD = 0.05 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 HomVEE = 0.17 Primary
Fine Motor Delays-Denver Developmental Screening Test No Effect Binghamton, NY 4-5 years 40 children Unadjusted mean = 0.30 Unadjusted mean = 0.50 MD = -0.20 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 HomVEE = -0.30 Primary
Fine Motor Delays-Denver Developmental Screening Test, % Below Age Level No Effect Binghamton, NY 4-5 years 40 children Unadjusted mean = 0.25 Unadjusted mean = 0.40 MD = -0.15 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 HomVEE = -0.41 Primary
Gross Motor Delays-Denver Developmental Screening Test Favorable Binghamton, NY 4-5 years 40 children Unadjusted mean = 0.10 Unadjusted mean = 0.90 MD = -0.8 Statistically significant, p < 0.05 HomVEE = -0.77 Primary
Gross Motor Delays-Denver Developmental Screening Test, % Below Age Level Favorable Binghamton, NY 4-5 years 40 children Unadjusted mean = 0.10 Unadjusted mean = 0.45 MD = -0.35 Statistically significant, p < 0.05 HomVEE = 1.05 Primary
Language Acquisition Quotient-Zimmerman Preschool Language Scale Favorable Binghamton, NY 4-5 years 40 children Unadjusted mean = 107.00 Unadjusted mean = 100.00 MD = 7.00 Statistically significant, p < 0.05 HomVEE = 0.57 Primary
Language Acquisition Quotient-Zimmerman Preschool Language Scale, % Below Age Level Favorable Binghamton, NY 4-5 years 40 children Unadjusted mean = 0.30 Unadjusted mean = 0.65 MD = -0.35 Statistically significant, p < 0.05 HomVEE = -0.80 Primary
Mental Processing-Kaufman ABC No Effect Binghamton, NY 4-5 years 24 children Unadjusted mean = 102.00 Unadjusted mean = 94.00 MD = 8.00 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 HomVEE = 0.62 Primary
Mental Processing-Kaufman ABC, % Below 90 Favorable Binghamton, NY 4-5 years 24 children Unadjusted mean = 0.05 Unadjusted mean = 0.25 MD = -0.20 Statistically significant, p < 0.05 HomVEE = -1.27 Primary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Achievement-Kaufman ABC Mean score on achievement portion of Kaufman Assessment Battery for children (K-ABC) Child assessment Not reported by authors Primary
Achievement-Kaufman ABC, % Below 90 Percentage of children who scored below 90 on achievement portion of Kaufman Assessment Battery for children (K-ABC) Child assessment Not reported by authors Primary
Fine Motor Delays-Denver Developmental Screening Test Mean number of fine motor delays (definite delays) and cautions (questionable delays) on the Denver Developmental Screening Test Child assessment Not reported by authors Primary
Fine Motor Delays-Denver Developmental Screening Test, % Below Age Level Percentage of children who scored below age level for fine motor delays (definite delays) and cautions (questionable delays) on the Denver Developmental Screening Test Child assessment Not reported by authors Primary
Gross Motor Delays-Denver Developmental Screening Test Mean number of gross motor delays (definite delays) and cautions (questionable delays) on the Denver Developmental Screening Test Child assessment Not reported by authors Primary
Gross Motor Delays-Denver Developmental Screening Test, % Below Age Level Percentage of children who scored below age level for gross motor delays (definite delays) and cautions (questionable delays) on the Denver Developmental Screening Test Child assessment Not reported by authors Primary
Language Acquisition Quotient-Zimmerman Preschool Language Scale Mean language age quotient on Zimmerman Preschool Language Scale, calculated by comparing the child's language development with his/her chronical age to measure language development. Child assessment Not reported by authors Primary
Language Acquisition Quotient-Zimmerman Preschool Language Scale, % Below Age Level Percentage of children whose language age quotient was below 100 on the Zimmerman Preschool Language Scale, indicating their language development was below their cronical age. Child assessment Not reported by authors Primary
Mental Processing-Kaufman ABC Mean score on mental processing portion of Kaufman Assessment Battery for children (K-ABC) Child assessment Not reported by authors Primary
Mental Processing-Kaufman ABC, % Below 90 Percentage of children who scored below 90 on mental processing portion of Kaufman Assessment Battery for children (K-ABC) Child assessment Not reported by authors Primary

Wagner, M., & Spiker, D. (2001). Experiences and outcomes for children and families: Multisite Parents as Teachers evaluation. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International. http://www.sri.com/policy/cehs/publications/humanpub/patfinal.pdf.
Additional Sources:

Wagner, M. (2001). The multisite evaluation of the Parents as Teachers home visiting program. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International.

Wagner, M., Spiker, D., & Linn, M. I. (2002). The effectiveness of the Parents as Teachers program with low-income parents and children. Topics in Early Childhood Special Education, 22(2), 67–81.

Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
ASBI score No Effect Three-site sample 2-year assessment 259 children Mean = 72.3 Mean = 70.8 MD = 1.5 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = 0.21 Secondary
DPII average months differential: cognitive development No Effect Three-site sample 2-year assessment 266 children Mean = 2.2 Mean = 2.4 MD = -0.2 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = -0.04 Primary
DPII average months differential: communication development No Effect Three-site sample 2-year assessment 266 children Mean = 4.9 Mean = 4.5 MD = 0.4 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = 0.08 Primary
DPII average months differential: physical development No Effect Three-site sample 2-year assessment 266 children Mean = 2.9 Mean = 3.0 MD = -0.1 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = -0.01 Primary
DPII average months differential: self-help development No Effect Three-site sample 2-year assessment 266 children Mean = 6.1 Mean = 6.0 MD = 0.1 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = 0.02 Primary
DPII average months differential: social development No Effect Three-site sample 2-year assessment 266 children Mean = 4.9 Mean = 4.9 MD = 0.0 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study-reported = -0.01 Primary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
ASBI: Total score The ASBI assesses the social development and prosocial/antisocial behaviors of young children. Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Secondary
DPII:
  • Physical Development Scale
  • Cognitive Development Scale
  • Communication Development Scale
  • Self-Help Development Scale
  • Social Development Scale
The subscales of the DPII assess the physical, communication, self-help, social, and cognitive development of young children. The scores were presented as the difference in months between a child’s chronological age and the age that corresponds to the skill level assessed. Child assessment Not reported by author Primary

Wagner, M., Cameto, R., & Gerlach-Downie, S. (1996). Intervention in support of adolescent parents and their children: A final report on the Teen Parents as Teachers Demonstration. Menlo Park, CA: SRI International.
Additional Source:

Wagner, M. & Clayton, S. (1999). The Parents as Teachers program: Results from two demonstrations. The Future of Children, 9(1), 91-115.

Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
DPII average months differential: cognitive development No Effect Teen mothers sample 1 year 236 children Mean = 3.9 Mean = 3.6 MD = 0.3 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Primary
DPII average months differential: cognitive development No Effect Teen mothers sample 2 year 196 children Mean = 2.6 Mean = 2.2 MD = 0.4 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Primary
DPII average months differential: communication development No Effect Teen mothers sample 1 year 236 children Mean = 2.6 Mean = 2.3 MD = 0.3 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Primary
DPII average months differential: communication development No Effect Teen mothers sample 2 year 196 children Mean = 3.5 Mean = 3.2 MD = 0.3 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Primary
DPII average months differential: physical development No Effect Teen mothers sample 2 year 196 children Mean = 5.6 Mean = 5.6 MD = 0.0 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Primary
DPII average months differential: physical development No Effect Teen mothers sample 1 year 236 children Mean = 3.6 Mean = 3.8 MD = -0.2 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Primary
DPII average months differential: self-help No Effect Teen mothers sample 1 year 236 children Mean = 2.7 Mean = 2.6 MD = 0.1 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Primary
DPII average months differential: self-help No Effect Teen mothers sample 2 year 196 children Mean = 9.0 Mean = 9.4 MD = -0.4 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Primary
DPII average months differential: social development No Effect Teen mothers sample 1 year 236 children Mean = 6.1 Mean = 6.6 MD = -0.5 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Primary
DPII average months differential: social development No Effect Teen mothers sample 2 year 196 children Mean = 7.8 Mean = 6.8 MD = 1.0 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Primary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
DPII:
  • Physical Development Scale
  • Cognitive Development Scale
  • Communication Development Scale
  • Self-Help Development Scale
  • Social Development Scale
The subscales of the DPII assess the physical, communication, self-help, social, and cognitive development of young children. The scores were presented as the difference in months between a child’s chronological age and the age that corresponds to the skill level assessed. Child assessment Not reported by author Primary
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