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Nurse Family Partnership (NFP)®

Meets DHHS criteria for an evidenced based model

Last Updated: May 2016

Effects Shown in Research & Outcome Measure Details for Maternal Health Outcomes

Impact Studies Rated High


Kitzman, H., Olds, D. L., Sidora, K., Henderson, C. R., Hanks, C., Cole, R., et al. (2000). Enduring effects of nurse home visitation on maternal life course: A 3-year follow-up of a randomized trial. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 283(15), 1983–1989.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Number of months between birth or first and second child Favorable Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 3-year follow-up 646 mothers Adjusted mean = 30.25 Adjusted mean = 26.60 MD = 3.65 Statistically significant,
p ≤ 0.01
Not available Secondary
Number of subsequent live births No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 3-year follow-up 646 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.85 Adjusted mean = 0.96 MD = -0.11 Not statistically significant,
p ≥ 0.05
Not available Secondary
Number of subsequent pregnancies Favorable Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 3-year follow-up 646 mothers Adjusted mean = 1.15 Adjusted mean = 1.34 MD = -0.19 Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
Not available Secondary
Number of subsequent pregnancies with short intervals (< 6 months from previous delivery or termination) Favorable Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 3-year follow-up 646 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.22 Adjusted mean = 0.32 MD = -0.10 Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
1
Not available Secondary
Number of subsequent spontaneous abortions No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 3-year follow-up 646 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.10 Adjusted mean = 0.12 MD = -0.12 Not statistically significant,
p ≥ 0.05
1
Not available Secondary
Number of subsequent still births No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 3-year follow-up 646 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.01 Adjusted mean = 0.02 MD = -0.01 Not statistically significant
p ≥ 0.05
1
Not available Secondary
Number of subsequent therapeutic abortions No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 3-year follow-up 646 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.05 Adjusted mean = 0.10 MD = -0.05 Not statistically significant,
p ≥ 0.05
2
Not available Secondary

1 Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the log-incidence difference.

2 Authors report the difference in this outcome to be statistically significant, p < 0.10, which is greater than the acceptable alpha for this review (α = 0.05).

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Number of months between birth of first and second child Number of months that passed between the birth of the mother’s first and second child Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Number of subsequent live births The number of subsequent live births experienced by the mother Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Number of subsequent pregnancies The number of subsequent pregnancies experienced by the mother Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Number of subsequent pregnancies with short intervals The number of pregnancies where conception occurred less than 6 months from the previous delivery or termination Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Number of subsequent spontaneous abortions Number of subsequent spontaneous abortions experienced by the mother Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Number of subsequent stillbirths Number of subsequent stillbirths experienced by the mother Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Number of subsequent therapeutic abortions Number of subsequent therapeutic abortions experienced by the mother Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary

Kitzman, H., Olds, D. L., Henderson, C. R., Hanks, C., Cole, R., Tatelbaum, R., et al. (1997). Effect of prenatal and infancy home visitation by nurses on pregnancy outcomes, childhood injuries, and repeated childbearing. A randomized controlled trial. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 278(8), 644–652.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Anxiety (MHI), 24 months postpartum, standardized No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 2 years postpartum 671 mothers Adjusted mean = 99.1 Adjusted mean = 100.3 MD = -1.2 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Secondary
Depression (MHI), 24 months postpartum, standardized No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 2 years postpartum 671 mothers Adjusted mean = 99.5 Adjusted mean = 100.1 MD = -.06 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Secondary
Diastolic blood pressure No Effect Full (Memphis) 36th week of pregnancy 916 mothers Adjusted mean = 66.8 Adjusted mean = 67.5 MD = -0.71 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Primary
Gestational weight gain No Effect Full (Memphis) 36th week of pregnancy 916 mothers Adjusted mean = 14.6 Adjusted mean = 14.9 MD = -0.3 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Primary
Number of Gardnerella infections No Effect Full (Memphis) 36th week of pregnancy 916 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.06 Adjusted mean = 0.07 MD = -0.01 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
3
Not available Primary
Number of hospitalizations during pregnancy No Effect Full (Memphis) 36th week of pregnancy 916 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.15 Adjusted mean = 0.13 MD = 0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
3
Not available Primary
Number of sexually transmitted diseases No Effect Full (Memphis) 36th week of pregnancy 916 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.22 Adjusted mean = 0.21 MD = 0.01 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
3
Not available Primary
Number of yeast infections Favorable Full (Memphis) 36th week of pregnancy 916 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.14 Adjusted mean = 0.19 MD = -0.05 Statistically significant,
p ≤ 0.05
3
Not available Primary
Obstetrical evaluation visits (total) No Effect Full (Memphis) 36th week of pregnancy 916 mothers Adjusted mean = 2.8 Adjusted mean = 2.8 MD = 0.01 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Primary
Pearlin Mastery, 24 months postpartum, standardized Favorable Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 2 years postpartum 671 mothers Adjusted mean = 101.6 Adjusted mean = 99.4 MD = 2.2 Statistically significant,
p < 0.01
Not available Secondary
Pregnancy-induced hypertension (percentage) Favorable Full (Memphis) 36th week of pregnancy 916 mothers 13% (adjusted) 20% (adjusted) OR = 0.62 Statistically significant,
p ≤ 0.01
4
HomVEE = -0.31 Primary
Spontaneous abortion, 0–24 months postpartum (percentage) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 2 years postpartum 671 mothers 5% (adjusted) 3% (adjusted) OR = 1.52 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
HomVEE = 0.32 Secondary
Standard prenatal care visits (total) No Effect Full (Memphis) 36th week of pregnancy 916 mothers Adjusted mean = 6.2 Adjusted mean = 6.5 MD = -0.3 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Primary
Subsequent live birth, 0–24 months postpartum (percentage) Favorable Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 2 years postpartum 671 mothers 22% (adjusted) 31% (adjusted) OR = 0.602 Statistically significant,
p < 0.01
4
HomVEE = -0.28 Secondary
Subsequent pregnancy, 0-24 months postpartum (percentage) Favorable Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 2 years postpartum 671 mothers 36% (adjusted) 47% (adjusted) OR = 0.62 Statistically significant,
p < 0.01
4
HomVEE = -0.28 Secondary
Systolic blood pressure No Effect Full (Memphis) 36th week of pregnancy 916 mothers Adjusted mean = 111.7 Adjusted mean = 112.6 MD = -0.9 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Primary
Therapeutic abortion, 0–24 months postpartum (percentage) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 2 years postpartum 671 mothers 2% (adjusted) 4% (adjusted) OR = 0.52 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
HomVEE = -0.43 Secondary

1 This mean difference, calculated by HomVEE, is within |0.01| of the difference reported by the authors, with the discrepancy likely due to rounding error.

2 The odds ratio compares the nurse-visited group to the comparison.

3 Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the log-incidence difference.

4 Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the odds ratio.

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Diastolic blood pressure The mother’s diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg) upon admission for labor Review of medical records Not applicable Primary
Gestational weight gain The amount of weight the mother gained over the course of her pregnancy in kilograms Review of medical records Not applicable Primary

MHI: Anxiety

MHI: Depression

The MHI assesses mental health in the areas of anxiety, depression, behavior, positive affect, and general distress. The researchers used the assessment to examine anxiety and depression in the sample. Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Secondary
Number of Gardnerella infections The number of diagnosed Gardnerella infections after the mother was randomized to a treatment condition Review of medical records Not applicable Primary
Number of hospitalizations during pregnancy The number of mother hospitalizations that occurred during pregnancy Review of medical records Not applicable Primary
Number of sexually transmitted diseases The number of diagnosed sexually transmitted diseases after the mother was randomized to a treatment condition. The count includes diagnoses of Neisseria gonorrheas, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Trichomonas vaginalis. Parent/caregiver medical examination Not applicable Primary
Number of yeast infections The number of diagnosed yeast infections after the mother was randomized to a treatment condition Review of medical records Not applicable Primary
Obstetrical evaluation visits The total number of obstetrical evaluation visits the mother received Review of medical records Not applicable Primary
Pearlin Mastery Scale The Pearlin Mastery Scale assesses the degree to which a person has a sense of mastery or control over their life. Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Secondary
Pregnancy-induced hypertension Percentage of mothers with pregnancy-induced hypertension. The outcome includes cases of preeclampsia, eclampsia, toxemia, and pregnancy-induced hypertension. Review of medical records Not applicable Primary
Spontaneous abortion Percentage of mothers who had a spontaneous abortion 0–24 months postpartum Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Standard prenatal care visits The total number of standard prenatal care visits the mother received Review of medical records Not applicable Primary
Subsequent live birth Percentage of mothers who had a subsequent live birth 0–24 months postpartum Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Subsequent pregnancy Percentage of mothers who had a subsequent pregnancy 0–24 months postpartum Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Systolic blood pressure The mother’s systolic blood pressure (mm Hg) upon admission for labor Review of medical records Not applicable Primary
Therapeutic abortion Percentage of mothers who had a therapeutic abortion 0–24 months postpartum Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary

Olds, D. L., Eckenrode, J., Henderson, C. R., Kitzman, H., Powers, J., Cole, R., et al. (1997). Long-term effects of home visitation on maternal life course and child abuse and neglect. Fifteen-year follow-up of a randomized trial. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 278(8), 637–643.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Incidence of substance use impairments No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 15-year follow-up 245 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.34 Adjusted mean = 0.43 MD = -0.09 Not statistically significant,
p ≥ 0.05
1
Not available Secondary
Months between birth of first and second child No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 15-year follow-up 245 mothers Adjusted mean = 41.70 Adjusted mean = 37.30 MD = 4.40 Not statistically significant,
p ≥ 0.05
Not available Secondary
Months between birth of first and second child No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 15-year follow-up 227 mothers Adjusted mean = 39.80 Adjusted mean = 37.30 MD = 2.50 Statistical significance not reported Not available Secondary
Subsequent births No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 15-year follow-up 245 mothers Adjusted mean = 1.30 Adjusted mean = 1.60 MD = -0.30 Not statistically significant,
p ≥ 0.05
Not available Secondary
Subsequent births No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 15-year follow-up 227 mothers Adjusted mean = 1.40 Adjusted mean = 1.60 MD = -0.20 Statistical significance not reported Not available Secondary
Subsequent pregnancies No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 15-year follow-up 245 mothers Adjusted mean = 1.70 Adjusted mean = 2.10 MD = -0.40 Not statistically significant,
p ≥ 0.05
Not available Secondary
Subsequent pregnancies No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 15-year follow-up 227 mothers Adjusted mean = 1.90 Adjusted mean = 2.10 MD = -0.20 Statistical significance not reported Not available Secondary
Substance use impairments since birth of first child No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 15-year follow-up 227 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.45 Adjusted mean = 0.43 MD = 0.02 Statistical significance not reported Not available Secondary

1 Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the log-incidence difference.

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Incidence of substance use impairments A scale summarizing the counts of behavioral impairments (e.g., missing work, motor vehicle crash) reported by women resulting from their use of alcohol and illegal drugs. The researchers examined both the total score from the scale and the incidence of impairments in the sample. Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Secondary
Months between birth of first and second child Number of months that passed between the birth of the mother’s first and second child Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Subsequent births The number of subsequent births experienced by the mother Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Subsequent pregnancies The number of subsequent pregnancies experienced by the mother Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Substance use impairments since birth of first child A scale summarizing the counts of behavioral impairments (e.g., missing work, motor vehicle crash) reported by women resulting from their use of alcohol and illegal drugs. The researchers examined both the total score from the scale and the incidence of impairments in the sample. Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Secondary

Olds, D. L., Henderson Jr., C. R., Tatelbaum, R., & Chamberlin, R. (1986). Improving the delivery of prenatal care and outcomes of pregnancy: A randomized trial of nurse home visitation. Pediatrics, 77(1), 16.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Average weight gain (pounds) No Effect Full (Elmira) Prepregnancy to last prenatal visit 289 mothers Mean = 35.71 Mean = 32.78 MD = 2.93 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Primary
Bladder infection (percentage) No Effect Full (Elmira) Enrollment to delivery 306 mothers Mean = 10% Mean = 6% MD = 4 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
HomVEE = 0.34 Primary
Change in average adequacy of diet (percentage RDA) Favorable Full (Elmira) Enrollment to week 32 253 mothers Mean = 4.14 Mean = -0.33 MD = 3.81 Statistically significant,
p ≤ 0.05
Not available Secondary
Change in blood pressure No Effect Full (Elmira) Enrollment to last prenatal visit 295 mothers Mean = 7.60 Mean = 7.13 MD = -0.47 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Primary
Change in percentage experienced bleeding1 No Effect Full (Elmira)1 First to third trimester 295 mothers 0 0.05 MD = 5 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Primary
Change in percentage experienced spotting No Effect Full (Elmira) First to third trimester 308 mothers -0.03 -0.06 MD = -3 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
HomVEE = -0.4 Primary
Edema (percentage) No Effect Full (Elmira) Enrollment to delivery 308 mothers Mean = 62% Mean = 58% MD = 0.04 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
HomVEE = 0.10 Primary
Hematocrit (percentage, last before delivery) No Effect Full (Elmira) Enrollment to delivery 308 mothers Mean = 36.76% Mean = 36.67% MD = 0.09 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
HomVEE = 0.00 Primary
Hypertensive disorder of pregnancy (percentage) No Effect Full (Elmira) Enrollment to delivery 308 mothers Mean = 4% Mean = 7% MD = -3 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
HomVEE = -0.36 Primary
Kidney infection (percentage) Favorable Full (Elmira) Enrollment to delivery 306 mothers Mean = 0% Mean = 3% MD = -3 Statistically significant,
p ≤ 0.01
Not available Primary
Number alcoholic drinks per week (average change) No Effect Full (Elmira) Enrollment to week 32 293 mothers Mean = -0.04 Mean = -0.06 MD = -0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Secondary
Number of antepartum visits No Effect Full (Elmira) 32 weeks 292 mothers Mean = 10.49 Mean = 10.50 MD = -0.01 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Secondary
Number of calls to physician/clinic No Effect Full (Elmira) 32 weeks 292 mothers Mean = 1.43 Mean = 1.72 MD = -0.29 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Secondary
Proteinuria (≥ 2+, percentage) No Effect Full (Elmira) Enrollment to delivery 308 mothers Mean = 5% Mean = 3% MD = 2 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
HomVEE = 0.32 Primary

1 High score equals unfavorable.

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Average weight gain The change in reported weight (pounds) from early to late pregnancy Review of medical records Not applicable Primary
Bladder infection Percentage of mothers who had diagnosed bladder infections, including urinary tract infections not identified specifically as kidney infections Review of medical records Not applicable Primary
Change in average adequacy of diet The change from early to late pregnancy in the reported average percentage of RDAs consumed by mothers Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Change in blood pressure The change in reported blood pressure (diastolic mm Hg) from early to late pregnancy Review of medical records Not applicable Primary
Change in percentage experienced bleeding The percentage change from early to late pregnancy in the proportion of women reporting that they experienced bleeding Review of medical records Not applicable Primary
Change in percentage experienced spotting The percentage change from early to late pregnancy in the proportion of women reporting that they experienced spotting Review of medical records Not applicable Primary
Edema Percentage of mothers who had an edema Review of medical records Not applicable Primary
Hematocrit The percentage of blood volume that is populated by red blood cells as measured prior to delivery Review of medical records Not applicable Primary
Hypertensive disorder of pregnancy Percentage of mothers diagnosed with hypertensive disorder of pregnancy Review of medical records Not applicable Primary
Kidney infection Percentage of mothers who had diagnosed kidney infections Review of medical records Not applicable Primary
Number alcoholic drinks per week The average change from early to late pregnancy in the number of drinks mothers reported consuming per week Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Number of antepartum visits Number of antepartum visits to a physician Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Number of calls to physician/clinic Number of antepartum calls to a physician or clinic Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Number of nutritional supplementation vouchers The number of WIC vouchers the family received Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Proteinuria The proportion of respondents with a score greater than or equal to 2+ on a test assessing the presence of proteins in the mother’s urine. Protein is measured on a 6-point scale, with a range of values from 0 to 4+. Review of medical records Not applicable Primary

Olds, D. L., Henderson, Jr., C. R., Tatelbaum, R., & Chamberlin, R. (1988). Improving the lifecourse development of socially disadvantaged parents: A randomized trial of nurse home visitation. American Journal of Public Health, 78, 1436–1445.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Number of births including first born (0–46 months postpartum) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 46 months, postpartum 216 mothers Adjusted mean = 1.65 Adjusted mean = 1.85 MD = -0.2 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
1
Not available Secondary
Number of births including first born (0–46 months postpartum) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 46 months, postpartum 203 mothers Adjusted mean = 1.77 Adjusted mean = 1.85 MD = -0.08 Statistical significance not reported Not available Secondary
Number of months between first and second child (0–46 months postpartum) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 46 months, postpartum 203 mothers Adjusted mean = 41.58 Adjusted mean = 37.11 MD = 4.47 Statistical significance not reported Not available Secondary
Number of months between first and second child (0–46 months postpartum) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 46 months, postpartum 216 mothers Adjusted mean = 40.76 Adjusted mean = 37.11 MD = 3.65 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
1
Not available Secondary
Number of pregnancies (0–22 months postpartum) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 22 months, postpartum 196 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.38 Adjusted mean = 0.44 MD = -0.06 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
1
Not available Secondary
Number of pregnancies (0–22 months postpartum) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 22 months postpartum 188 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.31 Adjusted mean = 0.44 MD = -0.13 Statistical significance not reported Not available Secondary
Number of pregnancies (0–46 months postpartum) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 46 months, postpartum 194 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.90 Adjusted mean = 1.06 MD = -0.16 Statistical significance not reported Not available Secondary
Number of pregnancies (0–46 months postpartum) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 46 months, postpartum 205 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.82 Adjusted mean = 1.06 MD = -0.24 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
1
Not available Secondary
Number of spontaneous abortions (0–46 months postpartum) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 46 months, postpartum 205 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.10 Adjusted mean = 0.13 MD = -0.03 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
1
Not available Secondary
Number of spontaneous abortions (0–46 months postpartum) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 46 months, postpartum 194 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.12 Adjusted mean = 0.13 MD = -0.01 Statistical significance not reported Not available Secondary
Number of therapeutic abortions (0–46 months postpartum) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 46 months, postpartum 194 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.05 Adjusted mean = 0.04 MD = 0.01 Statistical significance not reported Not available Secondary
Number of therapeutic abortions (0–46 months postpartum) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 46 months, postpartum 205 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.05 Adjusted mean = 0.04 MD = 0.01 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
1
Not available Secondary

1 Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the log-incidence difference.

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Number of births, including firstborn The number of births experienced by the mother Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Number of months between first and second child Number of months that passed between the birth of the mother’s first and second child Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Number of pregnancies The number of subsequent pregnancies experienced by the mother Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Number of spontaneous abortions The number of spontaneous abortions experienced by the mother Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Number of therapeutic abortions The number of therapeutic abortions experienced by the mother Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary

Olds, D. L., Kitzman, H. J., Cole, R. E., Hanks, C. A., Arcoleo, K. J., Anson, E. A., Luckey, D. W., Knudtson, M. D., Henderson, C. R., Bondy, J., & Stevenson, A. J. (2010). Enduring effects of prenatal and infancy home visiting by nurses on maternal life course and government spending: Follow-up of a randomized trial among children at age 12 years. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 164(5), 419-424
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Alcohol or other drug use No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and infancy and development screening comparison (Memphis) 12-year follow-up 594mothers 10%(adjusted) 10%(adjusted) OR = .91 Not statistically significant, p > .05 HomVEE = -0.05 Secondary
Cumulative subsequent births No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and infancy and development screening comparison (Memphis) 0 to 12 years 594mothers Adjusted mean = 1.07 Adjusted mean =1.15 MD = -.08 Not statistically significant, p > .05 HomVEE = -1.69 Secondary
Cumulative subsequent births No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and infancy and development screening comparison (Memphis) 10 to 12 years 594mothers Adjusted mean = 1.80 Adjusted mean = 1.83 MD = -.03 Not statistically significant, p > .05 HomVEE = -0.42 Secondary
Pearlin Mastery Scale Favorable Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and development screening comparison (Memphis) 6 months to 12 years 594 mothers Adjusted mean = 101.04 Adjusted mean = 99.60 MD = 1.44 Statistically significant, p < .05 HomVEE = 4.3 Secondary
Pearlin Mastery Scale No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and development screening comparison (Memphis) 12-year follow-up 594 mothers Adjusted mean = 101.07 Adjusted mean = 99.56 MD = 1.51 Not statistically significant, p > .05 HomVEE = 2.8 Secondary
Role impairment due to alcohol or drug use Favorable Nurse visited during pregnancy and infancy and development screening comparison (Memphis) 12-year follow-up 594mothers 0%(adjusted) 3%(adjusted) Diff = -.03 Statistically significant, p < .05 Not available Secondary
Symptoms of psychological distress (borderline/clinical vs. normal) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and infancy and development screening comparison (Memphis) 12-year follow-up 594mothers 18%(adjusted) 17%(adjusted) OR = 1.09 Not statistically significant, p > .05 HomVEE = 0.05 Secondary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Alcohol or other drug use Percentage of mothers that had consumed 3 or more alcoholic drinks 3 or more times per month in the last year or used marijuana or cocaine since the last interview at age 9 years of the child Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Cumulative subsequent births An index that reflects the number and timing of subsequent births Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Secondary
Pearlin Mastery Scale Mother’s sense of mastery reported from child age 6 months to 12 years. The Pearlin Mastery Scale assesses the degree to which a person has a sense of mastery or control over their life. Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Role impairment due to alcohol or drug use Percentage of mothers that experienced any impairment in role functioning (at work, with friends, or with family members) due to use of alcohol and other drugs since the last interview at child age 9 years Parent/caregiver report Not applicable  Secondary
Symptoms of psychological distress (borderline/clinical vs. normal) Mother’s symptoms of psychological distress (borderline or clinical vs. normal) Parent/caregiver report Not applicable  Secondary

Olds, D. L., Kitzman, H., Cole, R., Robinson, J., Sidora, K., Luckey, D. W., et al. (2004). Effects of nurse home-visiting on maternal life course and child development: Age 6 follow-up results of a randomized trial. Pediatrics, 114(6), 1550–1559
Results with nurse home visitors.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Behavioral problems attributable to substance abuse No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 6-year follow-up 641 mothers 4% (adjusted) 4% (adjusted) OR = 0.94 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.88
1
HomVEE = -0.03 Secondary
Currently uses marijuana No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 6-year follow-up 641 mothers 5% (adjusted) 3% (adjusted) OR = 1.37 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.47
1
HomVEE = 0.19 Secondary
MHI No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 6-year follow-up 641 mothers Adjusted mean = 100.18
SE = 0.71
Adjusted mean = 99.92
SE = 0.48
MD = 0.26 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.76
Study-reported = 0.03 Secondary
Moderate/heavy drinker (= 3 drinks = 3 times per month) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 6-year follow-up 641 mothers 5% (adjusted) 3% (adjusted) OR = 2.03 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.11
1
HomVEE = 0.44 Secondary
Months between births of first and second children Favorable Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 6-year follow-up 641 mothers Adjusted mean = 34.38
SE = 1.33
Adjusted mean = 30.23
SE =0.85
MD = 4.15 Statistically significant,
p = 0.01
Study-reported = 0.26 Secondary
Number of subsequent children (birth to 72 months postpartum) Favorable Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 6-year follow-up 641 mothers Adjusted mean = 1.08
SE = 0.07
Adjusted mean = 1.28
SE = 0.04
MD = -0.20 Statistically significant,
p = 0.01
Study-reported = -0.22 Secondary
Number of subsequent pregnancies (birth to 72 months postpartum) Favorable Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 6-year follow-up 641 mothers Adjusted mean = 1.16
SE = 0.07
Adjusted mean = 1.38
SE = 0.05
MD = -0.22 Statistically significant,
p = 0.01
Study-reported = -0.22 Secondary
Pearlin Mastery Scale No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 6-year follow-up 641 mothers Adjusted mean = 100.46
SE = 0.70
Adjusted mean = 99.79
SE = 0.46
MD = 0.67 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.43
Study-reported = 0.07 Secondary
Subsequent abortion (rate per subsequent pregnancy) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 6-year follow-up 641 mothers 4% (adjusted) 5% (adjusted) OR = 0.70 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.42
1
HomVEE = -0.23 Secondary
Subsequent miscarriage (rate per subsequent pregnancy) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 6-year follow-up 641 mothers 3% (adjusted) 5% (adjusted) OR = 0.75 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.50
1
HomVEE = -0.27 Secondary

1 Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the odds ratio.

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Behavioral problems attributable to substance abuse Percentage of mothers who had behavioral problems, such as traffic violations, poor performance at work, or compromised care of the child, that were attributable to the use of substances Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Currently uses marijuana Percentage of mothers who currently used marijuana Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
MHI The MHI assesses mental health in the areas of anxiety, depression, behavior, positive affect, and general distress. Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Moderate/heavy drinker Percentage of mothers who had at least three drinks at a time at least three times per month Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Months between births of first and second children Number of months that passed between the birth of the mother’s first and second child Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Number of subsequent children The number of subsequent children born to the mother Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Number of subsequent pregnancies The number of subsequent pregnancies experienced by the mother Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Pearlin Mastery Scale The Pearlin Mastery Scale assesses the degree to which a person has a sense of mastery or control over their life. Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Subsequent abortion Rate of abortion per subsequent pregnancy experienced by the mothers Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Subsequent miscarriage Rate of miscarriage per subsequent pregnancy experienced by the mothers Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary

Olds, D. L., Kitzman, H., Hanks, C., Cole, R., Anson, E., Sidora-Arcoleo, K., et al. (2007). Effects of nurse home visiting on maternal and child functioning: Age-9 follow-up of a randomized trial. Pediatrics, 120(4), e832–e845.
Results with nurse home visitors.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Cumulative subsequent live birth per year (6–9 years postpartum) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy during infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 9-year follow-up 627 mothers Adjusted mean = 1.40
SE = 0.08
Adjusted mean = 1.53
SE = 0.05
MD = -0.13 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.17
2
Study-reported = -0.16 Secondary
Cumulative subsequent live births per year (0–9 yr postpartum) Favorable Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 9-year follow-up 627 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.81
SE = 0.05
Adjusted mean = 0.93
SE = 0.03
MD = -0.12 Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
2
Study-reported = -0.14 Secondary
Maternal depression (CES-D) (9 years postpartum) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 9-year follow-up 627 mothers Adjusted mean = 1.71
SE = 0.04
Adjusted mean = 1.72
SE = 0.03
MD = 0.01 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.87
2
Study-reported = -0.01 Secondary
Number of months between birth of first and second child Favorable Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 9-year follow-up 627 mothers Adjusted mean = 40.73
SE = 1.81
Adjusted mean = 34.09
SE = 1.19
MD = 6.64 Statistically significant,
p < 0.01
2
Study-reported = 0.29 Secondary
Number of subsequent abortions No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 9-year follow-up 627 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.14 Adjusted mean = 0.20 MD = -0.06 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.15
1
Not available Secondary
Number of subsequent miscarriages (0–9 years postpartum) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 9-year follow-up 627 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.24 Adjusted mean = 0.24 MD = 0.00 Not statistically significant,
p = 1.00
1
Not available Secondary
Number of substances used (moderate/heavy alcohol, marijuana, cocaine) since last interview No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 9-year follow-up 627 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.10 Adjusted mean = 0.17 MD = -0.07 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.08
1
Not available Secondary
Pearlin Mastery Scale (9 years postpartum) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 9-year follow-up 627 mothers Adjusted mean = 100.79
SE = 0.67
Adjusted mean = 99.75
SE = 0.44
MD = 1.04 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.20
2
Study-reported = 0.10 Secondary
Pearlin Mastery Scale (6 months–9 years postpartum) Favorable Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 9-year follow-up 627 mothers Adjusted mean = 101.03
SE = 0.45
Adjusted mean = 99.50
SE = 0.30
MD = 1.53 Statistically significant,
p < 0.01
2
Study-reported = 0.15 Secondary
Subsequent still birth (0–9 years postpartum), percentage No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 9-year follow-up 627 mothers 1% (adjusted) 2% (adjusted) MD = -1.0 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.36
2
Study-reported = 1.00 Secondary

1 Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculation of incidence ratio.

2 Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the odds ratio.

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
CES-D: Maternal depression The CES-D is a 20-item assessment of depressive symptoms. Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Cumulative subsequent live births  per year Rate of subsequent births per year experienced by the mothers Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Cumulative subsequent live births per year Rate of subsequent births per year experienced by the mothers Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Number of months between birth of first and second child Number of months that passed between the birth of the mother’s first and second child Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Number of subsequent abortions Number of subsequent abortions experienced by the mother Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Number of subsequent miscarriages Number of subsequent miscarriages experienced by the mother Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Number of substances used A count of substances used that included at least three drinks of alcohol at least three times per, month in the past year, use of marijuana, and use of cocaine since the child was age 6 Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Pearlin Mastery Scale The Pearlin Mastery Scale assesses the degree to which a person has a sense of mastery or control over their life. Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Subsequent stillbirth Percentage of mothers who experienced a subsequent stillbirth Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary

Olds, D. L., Robinson, J., O’Brien, R., Luckey, D. W., Pettitt, L. M., Henderson, C. R., et al. (2002). Home visiting by paraprofessionals and by nurses: A randomized, controlled trial. Pediatrics, 110(3), 486.
Results with nurse home visitors.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Subsequent birth (24 months postpartum) Favorable Nurse home visitor and comparison (Denver) 24 months 436 mothers 12% (adjusted) 19% (adjusted) OR = 0.58 Statistically significant,
p ≤ 0.05
HomVEE = -0.33 Secondary
Subsequent pregnancy (24 months postpartum) Favorable Nurse home visitor and comparison (Denver) 24 months 436 mothers 29% (adjusted) 41% (adjusted) OR = 0.60 Statistically significant,
p ≤ 0.05
HomVEE = -0.32 Secondary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Subsequent births The number of subsequent births experienced by the mother Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Subsequent pregnancy The number of subsequent pregnancies experienced by the mother Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Results with paraprofessional home visitors.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Subsequent birth (24 months postpartum) No Effect Paraprofessional home visitor and comparison (Denver) 24 months 417 mothers 13% (adjusted) 19% (adjusted) OR = 0.63 Not statistically significant, p > 0.051 HomVEE = -0.27 Secondary
Subsequent pregnancy (24 months postpartum) No Effect Paraprofessional home visitor and comparison (Denver) 24 months 417 mothers 33% (adjusted) 41% (adjusted) OR = 0.70 Not statistically significant, p > 0.051 HomVEE = -0.21 Secondary
Use of emergency services No Effect Paraprofessional home visitor and comparison (Denver) 36 weeks (prenatal) 344 mothers 9% (adjusted) 9% (adjusted) OR = 1.01 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
HomVEE = 0.00 Secondary
Use of preventative services No Effect Paraprofessional home visitor and comparison (Denver) 36 weeks (prenatal) 344 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.67 Adjusted mean = 0.69 MD = -0.02 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Secondary

1 Authors report the difference in this outcome to be statistically significant, p < 0.10, which is greater than the acceptable alpha for this review (α = 0.05).

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Subsequent births The number of subsequent births experienced by the mother Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Subsequent pregnancies The number of subsequent pregnancies experienced by the mother Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Use of emergency services A summary variable of the families’ use of emergency services, including emergency housing and emergency food banks Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Use of preventative services A summary variable of the families’ use of ancillary preventative services, including mental health, legal aid, drug/alcohol treatment, childbirth classes, rent and utility assistance, education, and employment Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary

Olds, D. L., Robinson, J., Pettitt, L., Luckey, D. W., Holmberg, J., Ng, R. K., et al. (2004). Effects of home visits by paraprofessionals and by nurses: Age 4 follow-up results of a randomized trial. Pediatrics, 114(6), 1560-1568.
Results with nurse home visitors.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Behavioral problems attributable to substance use No Effect Nurse home visitor and comparison (Denver) 4-year follow-up 424 mothers 0.15 0.12 OR = 1.27 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.41
HomVEE = 0.15 Secondary
Currently using marijuana No Effect Nurse home visitor and comparison (Denver) 4-year follow-up 424 mothers 0.08 0.09 OR = 0.86 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.67
HomVEE = -0.09 Secondary
MHI No Effect Nurse home visitor and comparison (Denver) 4-year follow-up 424 mothers Adjusted mean = 99.82
SE = 0.68
Adjusted mean = 99.16
SE = 0.66
MD = 0.66 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.49
Study-reported = 0.04 Secondary
Moderate/heavy drinker (= 3 drinks, = 3 times in 14 days) No Effect Nurse home visitor and comparison (Denver) 4-year follow-up 424 mothers 0.04 0.04 OR = 1.09 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.84
HomVEE = 0.06 Secondary
Months between births of first and second children Favorable Nurse home visitor and comparison (Denver) 4-year follow-up 424 mothers Adjusted mean = 24.51
SE = 1.18
Adjusted mean = 20.39
SE = 1.09
MD = 4.12 Statistically significant,
p = 0.01
Study-reported = 0.32 Secondary
Number of subsequent live births No Effect Nurse home visitor and comparison (Denver) 4-year follow-up 424 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.48
SE = 0.05
Adjusted mean = 0.57
SE = 0.04
MD = -0.09 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.18
Study-reported = -0.13 Secondary
Number of subsequent pregnancies No Effect Nurse home visitor and comparison (Denver) 4-year follow-up 424 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.85
SE = 0.06
Adjusted mean = 0.88
SE = 0.06
MD = -0.03 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.72
Study-reported = -0.04 Secondary
Pearlin Mastery Scale No Effect Nurse home visitor and comparison (Denver) 4-year follow-up 424 mothers Adjusted mean = 99.41
SE = 0.64
Adjusted mean = 99.31
SE = 0.62
MD = 0.10 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.91
Study-reported = 0.12 Secondary
Subsequent abortion No Effect Nurse home visitor and comparison (Denver) 4-year follow-up 424 mothers 0.05 0.05 OR = 0.94 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.89
HomVEE = -0.04 Secondary
Subsequent miscarriage No Effect Nurse home visitor and comparison (Denver) 4-year follow-up 424 mothers 0.09 0.12 OR = 0.73 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.31
HomVEE = -0.19 Secondary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Behavioral problems attributable to substance use A measure of the extent to which use of alcohol and drugs interfered with the mother’s daily functioning Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Currently using marijuana Percentage of mothers who were currently using marijuana Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
MHI The MHI assesses mental health in the areas of anxiety, depression, behavior, positive affect, and general distress. Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Moderate/heavy drinker (= 3 drinks, = 3 times in 14 days) Percentage of mothers who had at least three drinks at a time at least three times in the previous 14 days Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Months between births of first and second children Number of months that passed between the birth of the mother’s first and second child Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Number of subsequent live births The number of subsequent births experienced by the mother Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Number of subsequent pregnancies The number of subsequent pregnancies experienced by the mother Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Pearlin Mastery Scale The Pearlin Mastery Scale assesses the degree to which a person has a sense of mastery or control over their life. Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Subsequent abortion Rate of abortion per subsequent pregnancy experienced by the mothers Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Subsequent miscarriage Rate of miscarriage per subsequent pregnancy experienced by the mothers Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
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Impact Studies Rated Moderate


Olds, D. L., Kitzman, H., Knudtson, M. D., Anson, E., Smith, J. A., & Cole, R. (2014). Effect of home visiting by nurses on maternal and child mortality: Results of a 2-decade follow-up of a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Pediatrics, 168(9), 800-806.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
21 year maternal mortality rate - all causes (Nurse home visits during pregnancy and infancy vs. transport to prenatal appointment comparison) Favorable Nurse home visits during pregnancy and infancy vs. transport to prenatal appointment comparison (Memphis) 21 years 1138 mother-child dyads Unadjusted mean = 0.01 Unadjusted mean = 0.04 MD = -0.031 Statistically significant, p = 0.01 HomVEE = -0.69 Primary
21 year maternal mortality rate - all causes (Nurse home visits during pregnancy and infancy vs. transport to prenatal appointment comparison) Favorable Nurse home visits during pregnancy and infancy vs. transport to prenatal appointment comparison (Memphis) 21 years 1138 mother-child dyads Unadjusted mean = 0.01 Unadjusted mean = 0.04 MD = -0.031 Statistically significant, p = 0.01 HomVEE = -0.69 Primary
21 year maternal mortality rate - all causes (Nurse home visits during pregnancy plus 2 postpartum visits vs. transport to prenatal appointment comparison) Favorable Nurse home visits during pregnancy plus 2 postpartum visits vs. transport to prenatal appointment comparison (Memphis) 21 years 910 mother-child dyads Unadjusted mean = 0.00 Unadjusted mean = 0.04 MD = -0.041 Statistically significant, p = 0.01 HomVEE = -1.41 Primary
21 year maternal mortality rate - external cause (Nurse home visits during pregnancy and infancy vs. transport to prenatal appointment comparison) Favorable Nurse home visits during pregnancy and infancy vs. transport to prenatal appointment comparison (Memphis) 21 years 1138 mother-child dyads Unadjusted mean = 0.00 Unadjusted mean = 0.02 MD = -0.011 Statistically significant, p = 0.02 HomVEE = -1.22 Primary
21 year maternal mortality rate - external cause (Nurse home visits during pregnancy and infancy vs. transport to prenatal appointment comparison) Favorable Nurse home visits during pregnancy and infancy vs. transport to prenatal appointment comparison (Memphis) 21 years 1138 mother-child dyads Unadjusted mean = 0.00 Unadjusted mean = 0.02 MD = -0.011 Statistically significant, p = 0.02 HomVEE = -1.22 Primary
21 year maternal mortality rate - external cause (Nurse home visits during pregnancy plus 2 postpartum visits vs. transport to prenatal appointment comparison) No Effect Nurse home visits during pregnancy plus 2 postpartum visits vs. transport to prenatal appointment comparison (Memphis) 21 years 910 mother-child dyads Unadjusted mean = 0.00 Unadjusted mean = 0.02 MD = -0.021 Not statistically significant, p = 0.05 Not available Primary

1 Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
21 year maternal mortality rate - all causes (Nurse home visits during pregnancy and infancy vs. transport to prenatal appointment comparison) Percentage of mothers dying from any cause Administrative records (National Death Index) Not applicable Primary
21 year maternal mortality rate - all causes (Nurse home visits during pregnancy plus 2 postpartum visits vs. transport to prenatal appointment comparison) Percentage of mothers dying from any cause Administrative records (National Death Index) Not applicable Primary
21 year maternal mortality rate - external cause (Nurse home visits during pregnancy and infancy vs. transport to prenatal appointment comparison) Percentage of mothers dying from external causes (including drug overdose, suicide, unintentional injuries, and homicide) Administrative records (National Death Index) Not applicable Primary
21 year maternal mortality rate - external cause (Nurse home visits during pregnancy plus 2 postpartum visits vs. transport to prenatal appointment comparison) Percentage of mothers dying from external causes (including drug overdose, suicide, unintentional injuries, and homicide) Administrative records (National Death Index) Not applicable Primary

Olds, D. L., Robinson, J., O’Brien, R., Luckey, D. W., Pettitt, L. M., Henderson, C. R., et al. (2002). Home visiting by paraprofessionals and by nurses: A randomized, controlled trial. Pediatrics, 110(3), 486.
Results with nurse home visitors.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Use of emergency services No Effect Nurse home visitor and comparison (Denver) 36 weeks (prenatal) 353 mothers 6% (adjusted) 9% (adjusted) OR = 0.64 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
HomVEE = -0.27 Secondary
Use of preventative services No Effect Nurse home visitor and comparison (Denver) 36 weeks (prenatal) 353 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.80 Adjusted mean = 0.69 MD = 0.11 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
HomVEE = 0.09 Secondary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Use of emergency services A summary variable of the families’ use of emergency services, including emergency housing and emergency food banks Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Use of preventative services A summary variable of the families’ use of ancillary preventative services, including mental health, legal aid, drug/alcohol treatment, childbirth classes, rent and utility assistance, education, and employment Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary

Olds, D. L., Robinson, J., Pettitt, L., Luckey, D. W., Holmberg, J., Ng, R. K., et al. (2004). Effects of home visits by paraprofessionals and by nurses: Age 4 follow-up results of a randomized trial. Pediatrics, 114(6), 1560-1568.
Results with paraprofessional home visitors.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Behavioral problems attributable to substance use No Effect Paraprofessional home visitor and comparison (Denver) 4-year follow-up 431 mothers 0.1 0.12 OR = 0.82 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.52
HomVEE = -0.12 Secondary
Currently using marijuana No Effect Paraprofessional home visitor and comparison, (Denver) 4-year follow-up 431 mothers 0.09 0.09 OR = 0.94 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.87
HomVEE = -0.04 Secondary
MHI Favorable Paraprofessional home visitor and comparison (Denver) 4-year follow-up 431 mothers Adjusted mean = 101.21
SE = 0.67
Adjusted mean = 99.16
SE = 0.66
MD = 0.66 Statistically significant,
p = 0.03
Study-reported = -0.03 Secondary
Moderate/heavy drinker (= 3 drinks, = 3 times in 14 days) No Effect Paraprofessional home visitor and comparison (Denver) 4-year follow-up 431 mothers 0.03 0.04 OR = 0.74 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.54
HomVEE = -0.21 Secondary
Months between births of first and second children No Effect Paraprofessional home visitor and comparison (Denver) 4-year follow-up 431 mothers Adjusted mean = 22.20
SE = 1.19
Adjusted mean = 20.39
SE = 1.09
MD = 1.81 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.27
Study-reported = 0.14 Secondary
Number of subsequent live births No Effect Paraprofessional home visitor and comparison (Denver) 4-year follow-up 431 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.53
SE = 0.04
Adjusted mean = 0.57
SE = 0.04
MD = -0.04 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.57
Study-reported = -0.06 Secondary
Number of subsequent pregnancies No Effect Paraprofessional home visitor and comparison (Denver) 4-year follow-up 431 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.88
SE = 0.06
Adjusted mean = 0.88
SE = 0.06
MD = 0.00 Not statistically significant,
p = 1.00
Study-reported = 0.00 Secondary
Pearlin Mastery Scale Favorable Paraprofessional home visitor and comparison (Denver) 4-year follow-up 431 mothers Adjusted mean = 101.25
SE = 0.64
Adjusted mean = 99.31
SE = 0.62
MD = 1.94 Statistically significant,
p = 0.03
Study-reported = 0.20 Secondary
Subsequent abortion No Effect Paraprofessional home visitor and comparison (Denver) 4-year follow-up 431 mothers 0.06 0.05 OR = 1.19 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.67
HomVEE = 0.1 Secondary
Subsequent miscarriage Favorable Paraprofessional home visitor and comparison (Denver) 4-year follow-up 431 mothers 0.07 0.12 OR = 0.50 Statistically significant,
p = 0.04
HomVEE = -0.42 Secondary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Behavioral problems attributable to substance use A measure of the extent to which use of alcohol and drugs interfered with the mother’s daily functioning Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Currently using marijuana Percentage of mothers who were currently using marijuana Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
MHI The MHI assesses mental health in the areas of anxiety, depression, behavior, positive affect, and general distress. Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Moderate/heavy drinker (= 3 drinks, = 3 times in 14 days) Percentage of mothers who had at least three drinks at a time at least three times in the previous 14 days Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Months between births of first and second children Number of months that passed between the birth of the mother’s first and second child Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Number of subsequent live births The number of subsequent births experienced by the mother Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Number of subsequent pregnancies The number of subsequent pregnancies experienced by the mother Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Pearlin Mastery Scale The Pearlin Mastery Scale assesses the degree to which a person has a sense of mastery or control over their life. Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Subsequent abortion Rate of abortion per subsequent pregnancy experienced by the mothers Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Subsequent miscarriage Rate of miscarriage per subsequent pregnancy experienced by the mothers Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
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