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Nurse Family Partnership (NFP)®

Meets DHHS criteria for an evidenced based model

Last Updated: May 2016

Effects Shown in Research & Outcome Measure Details for Reductions in Juvenile Delinquency, Family Violence, and Crime Outcomes

Impact Studies Rated High


Eckenrode, J., Campa, M., Luckey, D. W., Henderson, C. R., Cole, R., Kitzman, H., Anson, E., Sidora-Arcoleo, K., Powers, J., & Olds, D. (2010). Long-term effects of prenatal and infancy nurse home visitation on the life course of youths: 19-year follow-up of a randomized trial. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 164(1), 9-15.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Arrested, lifetime Favorable Nurse visited during pregnancy and infancy and comparison (Elmira) 19-year follow-up 231 children 21%(adjusted) 37%(adjusted) Diff = -0.16 Statistically significant, p < 0.05 HomVEE = -0.48 Secondary
Arrested, lifetime No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 19-year follow-up 219 children 30%(adjusted) 37%(adjusted) Diff = -0.07 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 HomVEE = -0.20 Secondary
Arrested, past year No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and infancy and comparison (Elmira) 19-year follow-up 231 children 8%(adjusted) 6%(adjusted) Diff = 0.03 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 HomVEE = .026 Secondary
Arrested, past year No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 19-year follow-up 219 children 12%(adjusted) 6%(adjusted) Diff = 0.06 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 HomVEE = 0.49 Secondary
Convicted, lifetime No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 19-year follow-up 219 children 23%(adjusted) 28%(adjusted) Diff = -0.05 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 HomVEE = -0.16 Secondary
Convicted, lifetime Favorable Nurse visited during pregnancy and infancy and comparison (Elmira) 19-year follow-up 231 children 12%(adjusted) 28%(adjusted) Diff = -0.16 Statistically significant, p < 0.05 HomVEE = -0.64 Secondary
Convicted, past year No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 19-year follow-up 219 children 10%(adjusted) 4%(adjusted) Diff = 0.06 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 HomVEE = 0.56 Secondary
Convicted, past year No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and infancy and comparison (Elmira) 19-year follow-up 231 children 8%(adjusted) 4%(adjusted) Diff = 0.03 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 HomVEE = 0.34 Secondary
Felony assault No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and infancy and comparison (Elmira) 19-year follow-up 231 children 3%(adjusted) 7%(adjusted) Diff = -0.05 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 HomVEE = -0.64 Secondary
Felony assault No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 19-year follow-up 219 children 3%(adjusted) 7%(adjusted) Diff = -0.04 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 HomVEE = -0.52 Secondary
Fraud No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 19-year follow-up 219 children 5%(adjusted) 4%(adjusted) Diff = 0.01 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 HomVEE = 0.09 Secondary
Fraud No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and infancy and comparison (Elmira) 19-year follow-up 231 children 2%(adjusted) 4%(adjusted) Diff = -0.03 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 HomVEE = -0.67 Secondary
Illegal services No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and infancy and comparison (Elmira) 19-year follow-up 231 children 4%(adjusted) 7%(adjusted) Diff = -0.03 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 HomVEE = -0.34 Secondary
Illegal services No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 19-year follow-up 219 children 6%(adjusted) 7%(adjusted) Diff = -0.01 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 HomVEE = -0.07 Secondary
Minor assault No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 19-year follow-up 219 children 27%(adjusted) 26%(adjusted) Diff = 0.01 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 HomVEE = 0.03 Secondary
Minor assault No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and infancy and comparison (Elmira) 19-year follow-up 231 children 23%(adjusted) 26%(adjusted) Diff = -0.03 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 HomVEE = -0.10 Secondary
Minor theft No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 19-year follow-up 219 children 9%(adjusted) 11%(adjusted) Diff = -0.02 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 HomVEE = -0.14 Secondary
Minor theft No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and infancy and comparison (Elmira) 19-year follow-up 231 children 8%(adjusted) 11%(adjusted) Diff = -0.03 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 HomVEE = -0.25 Secondary
Number of arrests, lifetime Favorable Nurse visited during pregnancy and infancy and comparison (Elmira) 19-year follow-up 231 children Adjusted mean = 0.37 Adjusted mean = 0.86 MD = -0.49 Statistically significant, p < 0.05 Not available Secondary
Number of arrests, lifetime No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 19-year follow-up 219 children Adjusted mean = 0.52 Adjusted mean = 0.86 MD = -0.34 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Not available Secondary
Number of arrests, past year No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 19-year follow-up 219 children Adjusted mean = 0.11 Adjusted mean = 0.06 MD = 0.05 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Not available Secondary
Number of arrests, past year No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and infancy and comparison (Elmira) 19-year follow-up 231 children Adjusted mean = 0.10 Adjusted mean = 0.06 MD =0.04 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Not available Secondary
Number of convictions, lifetime Favorable Nurse visited during pregnancy and infancy and comparison (Elmira) 19-year follow-up 231 children Adjusted mean = 0.20 Adjusted mean = 0.58 MD = -0.38 Statistically significant, p < 0.05 Not available Secondary
Number of convictions, lifetime No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 19-year follow-up 219 children Adjusted mean = 0.33 Adjusted mean = 0.58 MD = -0.25 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Not available Secondary
Number of convictions, past year No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 19-year follow-up 219 children Adjusted mean = 0.10 Adjusted mean = 0.05 MD = 0.05 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Not available Secondary
Number of convictions, past year No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and infancy and comparison (Elmira) 19-year follow-up 231 children Adjusted mean = 0.09 Adjusted mean = 0.05 MD = 0.04 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Not available Secondary
Public disorder No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 19-year follow-up 219 children 30%(adjusted) 26%(adjusted) Diff = 0.04 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 HomVEE = 0.13 Secondary
Public disorder No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and infancy and comparison (Elmira) 19-year follow-up 231 children 32%(adjusted) 26%(adjusted) Diff = 0.06 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 HomVEE = 0.18 Secondary
Vandalism No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and infancy and comparison (Elmira) 19-year follow-up 231 children 7%(adjusted) 7%(adjusted) Diff = -0.01 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 HomVEE = -0.06 Secondary
Vandalism No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 19-year follow-up 219 children 5%(adjusted) 7%(adjusted) Diff = -0.02 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 HomVEE = -0.24 Secondary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Arrested, lifetime Percentage of youth that had been arrested at least once during their lifetime Adolescent report Not applicable Secondary
Arrested, past year Percentage of youth that had been arrested at least once during the past year Adolescent report Not applicable Secondary
Binge drinking Percentage of youth that had engaged in binge drinking (greater than 4 drinks in a row) during the previous six months Adolescent report Not applicable Secondary
Convicted, lifetime Percentage of youth that had been convicted of a crime during their lifetime Adolescent report Not applicable Secondary
Convicted, past year Percentage of youth that had been convicted of a crime during the past year Adolescent report Not applicable Secondary
Felony assault Percentage of youth that had engaged in felony assault during the past year, including aggravated assault, sexual assault, or gang fights Adolescent report Not applicable Secondary
Fraud Percentage of youth that had engaged in fraud during the past year Adolescent report Not applicable Secondary
Illegal services Percentage of youth that had engaged in illegal services during the past year, including prostitution or selling marijuana or other drugs Adolescent report Not applicable Secondary
Illicit drug use Percentage of youth that had used illegal drugs in the past year. Adolescent report Not applicable Secondary
Minor assault Percentage of youth that had engaged in minor assault during the past year, including hitting parents, teachers, or students Adolescent report Not applicable Secondary
Minor theft Percentage of youth that had engaged in minor assault during the past year, including stealing something worth less than $50 or joyriding Adolescent report Not applicable Secondary
Number of arrests, lifetime Count of the number of times the adolescent had been arrested during their lifetime Adolescent report Not applicable Secondary
Number of arrests, past year Count of the number of times the adolescent had been arrested during the past year Adolescent report Not applicable Secondary
Number of convictions, lifetime Count of the number of times the adolescent had been convicted of a crime during their lifetime Adolescent report Not applicable Secondary
Number of convictions, past year Count of the number of times the adolescent had been convicted of a crime during the past year Adolescent report Not applicable Secondary
Number of convictions, past year Count of the number of sexual partners the adolescent had during the past year Adolescent report Not applicable Secondary
Public disorder Percentage of youth that had engaged in public disorder during the past year, including panhandling or been loud, rowdy, or drunk in public Adolescent report Not applicable Secondary
Vandalism Percentage of youth that had engaged in vandalism or destruction of property during the past year Adolescent report Not applicable Secondary

Eckenrode, J., Zielinski, D., Smith, E., Marcynyszyn, L. A., Henderson, C. R., Kitzman, H., et al. (2001). Child maltreatment and the early onset of problem behaviors: Can a program of nurse home visitation break the link? Development and Psychopathology, 13(4), 873–890.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Number of early onset of problem behaviors No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 15-year follow-up 228 adolescent youth1 Not available Not available B = 0.28, SE = 0.182 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.12
Not available Secondary

1 Information on sample sizes for this study was received through communication with the authors.

2 The discussion of outcomes in the text of this study implies that the direction of the effect is in the opposite direction than what is reported in the study and replicated here.

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Number of early onset problem behaviors Reports of participation in 11 problematic health and social behaviors through the 15th year of life were aggregated to obtain a count of early onset problem behaviors. Age cutoffs for “early” were established for each behavior using comparison group frequency distributions and national data where available. Adolescent report Not reported by author Secondary

Kitzman, H. J., Olds, D. L., Cole, R. E., Hanks, C. A., Anson, E. A., Arcoleo, K. J., Luckey, D. W., Knudtson, M. D., Henderson, C. R., & Holmberg, J. R. (2010). Enduring effects of prenatal and infancy home visiting by nurses on children: Follow-up of a randomized trial among children at age 12 years. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 164(5), 412–418.
Results with nurse home visitors.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Ever arrested No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 12 years 594 mothers and 578 children 3.1% (adjusted) 3.1% (adjusted) Diff = 0 Not statistically significant HomVEE = 0 Secondary
Externalizing disorders No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 12 years 594 mothers, 578 children, and 548 teachers 19.7% (adjusted) 17.8% (adjusted) OR = 1.13 Not statistically significant, p > .05 HomVEE = .08 Secondary
Internalizing disorders Favorable Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 12 years 578 children 22.1%(adjusted) 30.9% (adjusted) OR = 0.63 Statistically significant, p < .05 HomVEE = -.28 Secondary
Total problems No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 12 years 594 mothers, 578 children, and 548 teachers 23.7% (adjusted) 19.8%(adjusted) OR = 1.26 Not statistically significant, p > .05 HomVEE = .14 Secondary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Ever arrested Percentage of children that had been arrested by the age of 12 years Parent/caregiver and adolescent report Not applicable Secondary
Externalizing disorders Externalizing behavioral problems such as aggression and rule breaking scored from parents’, teachers’, and children’s reports. Children were scored as positive whenever at least 2 of the 3 reporters gave a child a score in the borderline or clinical range  Parent/caregiver, teacher, and adolescent report Not reported by author Secondary
Incidence of days of substance use in the past 30 days Count of days of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana use with a theoretical range of 0 to 90 days. Adolescent report Not applicable  Secondary
Internalizing disorders Internalizing behavioral problems scored from parents’, teachers’, and children’s reports. Children were scored as positive whenever at least 2 of the 3 reporters gave a child a score in the borderline or clinical range Parent/caregiver, teacher, and adolescent report Not reported by author Secondary
Number of substances used in the past 30 days Count of the number of illegal substances (cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana) used by the adolescent during the 30 day period prior to the year 12 interview  Adolescent report Not applicable Secondary
Total problems A measure of internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems scored from parent, teacher, and adolescent reports. Youth were scored as positive whenever at least 2 of the 3 reporters gave the adolescent a score in the borderline or clinical range. Parent/caregiver, teacher, and adolescent report Not reported by author Secondary
Used cigarettes, alcohol, or marijuana in the past 30 days Percentage of youth that had used cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana within the 30-day period preceding the 12-year interview Adolescent report Not applicable  Secondary
Results for mothers with low psychological resources subgroup.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Externalizing disorders No Effect Mothers with low psychological resources — Nurse home visitors and comparison (Memphis) 12 years 326 mothers 24% (adjusted) 22% (adjusted) OR = 1.12 Not statistically significant, p > .05 HomVEE = 0.07 Secondary
Internalizing disorders No Effect Mothers with low psychological resources — Nurse home visitors and comparison (Memphis) 12 years 326 mothers 32%(adjusted) 36% (adjusted) OR = 0.81 Not statistically significant, p > .05 HomVEE = -0.13 Secondary
Total problems No Effect Mothers with low psychological resources — Nurse home visitors and comparison (Memphis) 12 years 326 mothers 30% (adjusted 27% (adjusted) OR = 1.17 Not statistically significant, p > .05 HomVEE = 0.09 Secondary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Externalizing disorders Externalizing behavioral problems such as aggression and rule breaking scored from parents’, teachers’, and children’s reports. Children were scored as positive whenever at least 2 of the 3 reporters gave a child a score in the borderline or clinical range  Parent/caregiver, teacher, and adolescent report Not reported by author Secondary
Internalizing disorders Internalizing behavioral problems scored from parents’, teachers’, and children’s reports. Children were scored as positive whenever at least 2 of the 3 reporters gave a child a score in the borderline or clinical range Parent/caregiver, teacher, and adolescent report Not reported by author Secondary
Total problems A measure of internalizing and externalizing behavioral problems scored from parent, teacher, and adolescent reports. Youth were scored as positive whenever at least 2 of the 3 reporters gave the adolescent a score in the borderline or clinical range. Parent/caregiver, teacher, and adolescent report Not reported by author Secondary

Olds, D. L., Eckenrode, J., Henderson, C. R., Kitzman, H., Powers, J., Cole, R., et al. (1997). Long-term effects of home visitation on maternal life course and child abuse and neglect. Fifteen-year follow-up of a randomized trial. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 278(8), 637–643.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Arrests (incidence; self-report) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 15-year follow-up 226 mothers1 Adjusted mean = 0.16 Adjusted mean = 0.22 MD = -0.06 Statistical significance not reported Not available Secondary
Arrests (incidence; self-report) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 15-year follow-up 244 mothers1 Adjusted mean = 0.09 Adjusted mean = 0.22 MD = -0.13 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Secondary
Convictions (incidence; self-report) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 15-year follow-up 245 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.03 Adjusted mean = 0.13 MD = -0.10 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Secondary
Convictions (incidence; self-report) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 15-year follow-up 227 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.05 Adjusted mean = 0.13 MD = -0.08 Statistical significance not reported Not available Secondary
Days in jail (incidence; self-report) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 15-year follow-up 227 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.13 Adjusted mean = 0.65 MD = -0.52 Statistical significance not reported Not available Secondary
Days in jail (incidence; self-report) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 15-year follow-up 245 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.01 Adjusted mean = 0.65 MD = -0.64 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Secondary
NYS arrests (incidence; administrative records) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 15-year follow-up 245 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.12 Adjusted mean = 0.38 MD = -0.26 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Primary
NYS arrests (incidence; administrative records) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 15-year follow-up 227 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.34 Adjusted mean = 0.38 MD = -0.04 Statistical significance not reported Not available Primary
NYS convictions (incidence; administrative records) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 15-year follow-up 227 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.28 Adjusted mean = 0.27 MD = 0.01 Statistical significance not reported Not available Primary
NYS convictions (incidence; administrative records) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 15-year follow-up 245 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.12 Adjusted mean = 0.27 MD = -0.15 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Primary

1 Information on sample sizes for this study was received through communication with the authors.

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Arrests Counts of the number of times that mothers were arrested from the time of the birth of their first child to that child’s 15th birthday Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Convictions Counts of the number of times that mothers were convicted from the time of the birth of their first child to that child’s 15th birthday Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Days in jail Counts of the number of days that mothers were in jail from the time of the birth of their first child to that child’s 15th birthday Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
NYS arrests Counts of the number of times that mothers were arrested from the time of the birth of their first child to that child’s 15th birthday Review of criminal justice records Not applicable Primary
NYS convictions Counts of the number of times that mothers were convicted from the time of the birth of their first child to that child’s 15th birthday Review of criminal justice records Not applicable Primary

Olds, D. L., Henderson, C. R., Cole, R., Eckenrode, J., Kitzman, H., Luckey, D., et al. (1998). Long-term effects of nurse home visitation on children’s criminal and antisocial behavior: 15-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 280(14), 1238–1244.
Additional Source:

Olds, D. L. (1999). "Long-term effects of nurse home visitation on children's criminal and antisocial behavior: 15-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial": Reply. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 281(15), 1377.

Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Ever was person inneed of supervision (PINS; self-report) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 15-year follow-up 227 adolescent youth 11% (adjusted) 13% (adjusted) MD = -2.0 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.75
1
HomVEE = -0.12 Secondary
Ever was person inneed of supervision (PINS; self-report) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 15-year follow-up Unknown 8% (adjusted) 13% (adjusted) MD = -5 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.33
1
HomVEE = -0.33 Secondary
Incidence of arrests (mother report) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 15-year follow-up 277 adolescent youth Adjusted mean = 0.11 Adjusted mean = 0.12 MD = -0.01 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.73
2
Not available Secondary
Incidence of arrests (mother report) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 15-year follow-up 245 adolescent youth Adjusted mean = 0.08 Adjusted mean = 0.12 MD = -0.04 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.37
2
Not available Secondary
Incidence–arrests (self-report) Favorable Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 15-year follow-up 227 adolescent youth Adjusted mean = 0.16 Adjusted mean = 0.36 MD = -0.20 Statistically significant,
p < 0.01
2
Not available Secondary
Incidence–convictions and probation violations (self-report) Favorable Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 15-year follow-up 227 adolescent youth Adjusted mean = 0.06 Adjusted mean = 0.27 MD = -0.21 Statistically significant,
p < 0.01
2
Not available Secondary
Incidence–convictions and probation violations (self-report) Favorable Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 15-year follow-up 245 adolescent youth Adjusted mean = 0.10 Adjusted mean = 0.27 MD = -0.17 Statistically significant,
p < 0.01
2
Not available Secondary
Incidence–long-term school suspensions No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 15-year follow-up 245 adolescent youth Adjusted mean = 0.01 Adjusted mean = 0.04 MD = -0.03 Not statistically significant,
p = 1.00
2
Not available Secondary
Incidence–sent to youth corrections (self-report) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 15-year follow-up 245 adolescent youth Adjusted mean = 0.04 Adjusted mean = 0.05 MD = -0.01 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.98
2
Not available Secondary
Incidence–sent to youth corrections (self-report) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 15-year follow-up 227 adolescent youth Adjusted mean = 0.05 Adjusted mean = 0.05 MD = 0.00 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.98
2
Not available Secondary
Incidence–short-term school suspensions No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 15-year follow-up 245 adolescent youth Adjusted mean = 0.27 Adjusted mean = 0.28 MD = -0.01 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.97
2
Not available Primary
Incidence–stopped by police (self-report) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 15-year follow-up 227 adolescent youth Adjusted mean = 0.53 Adjusted mean = 0.80 MD = -0.27 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.24
2
Not available Secondary
Incidence–stopped by police (self-report) Unfavorable Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 15-year follow-up 245 adolescent youth Adjusted mean = 2.25 Adjusted mean = 0.80 MD = 1.45 Statistically significant,
p < 0.01
2
Not available Secondary
Incidence–times ran away No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 15-year follow-up 245 adolescent youth Adjusted mean = 0.34 Adjusted mean = 0.29 MD = 0.05 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.07
2
Not available Secondary
Incidence–times ran away (self-report) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 15-year follow-up 227 adolescent youth Adjusted mean = 0.23 Adjusted mean = 0.29 MD = -0.06 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.83
2
Not available Secondary
Number of acting out problems (teacher report) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 15-year follow-up 245 adolescent youth Adjusted mean = 9.47 Adjusted mean = 9.61 MD = -0.14 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.85
Not available Secondary
Number of acting out problems (teacher report) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 15-year follow-up 227 adolescent youth Adjusted mean = 8.97 Adjusted mean = 9.61 MD = -0.64 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.41
Not available Secondary
Number of externalizing problems (self-report and mother report) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 15-year follow-up 245 adolescent youth Adjusted mean = 13.88 Adjusted mean = 13.73 MD = 0.15 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.89
Not available Secondary
Number of externalizing problems (self-report and mother report) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 15-year follow-up 227 adolescent youth Adjusted mean = 13.65 Adjusted mean = 13.73 MD = -0.08 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.95
Not available Secondary
Number of major delinquent acts (self-report) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 15-year follow-up 227 adolescent youth Adjusted mean = 2.79 Adjusted mean = 3.02 MD = -0.23 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.93
Not available Secondary
Number of major delinquent acts (self-report) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 15-year follow-up 245 adolescent youth Adjusted mean = 3.57 Adjusted mean = 3.02 MD = 0.55 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.48
Not available Secondary
Number of minor antisocial acts (self-report) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 15-year follow-up 245 adolescent youth Adjusted mean = 2.88 Adjusted mean = 2.99 MD = -0.11 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.86
Not available Secondary
Number of minor antisocial acts (self-report) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 15-year follow-up 227 adolescent youth Adjusted mean = 2.54 Adjusted mean = 2.99 MD = -0.45 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.50
Not available Secondary

1 Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the odds ratio.

2 Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the log-incidence difference.

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Alcohol and drug impairment Responses to questions regarding children’s behavioral problems attributable to alcohol and drug use were summarized with a scale ranging from 0 to 10. Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Secondary
Alcohol impairment Responses to questions regarding the effect of alcohol on five domains, (trouble with parents, trouble at school, problems with friends, problems with someone they were dating, trouble with police) were summarized in an alcohol-use behavioral problem scale with a range of 0 to 5. Adolescent report Not reported by author Secondary
Ever was person in need of supervision (PINS) Percentage of youth adjudicated as PINS Adolescent report Not applicable Secondary
Incidence of arrests Counts of the number of times the youth had been arrested up to their 15th year Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Incidence–arrests Counts of the number of times the youth had been arrested up to their 15th year Adolescent report Not applicable Secondary
Incidence–convictions and probation violations Counts of the number of times the youth had been convicted of an original crime or a parole violation up to their 15th year Adolescent report Not applicable Secondary
Incidence–sent to youth corrections Counts of the number of times the youth was sent to a correctional facility up to their 15th year Adolescent report Not applicable Secondary
Incidence–stopped by police Counts of the number of times the youth was stopped by police up to their 15th year Adolescent report Not applicable Secondary
Incidence–times ran away Counts of the number of times the youth had run away from home up to their 15th year Adolescent report Not applicable Secondary
Number of acting out problems A scale that rated youth’s disruptive behavior in the classroom Current Mathematics and English teacher reports Not reported by author Secondary
Number of externalizing problems An externalizing problems scale representing delinquency and aggression behavioral problems was drawn from the Achenbach Youth Self Report of Problem Behaviors. Adolescent report Not reported by author Secondary
Number of major delinquent acts Reports of antisocial and delinquent acts were factor analyzed and produced two factors, one of which was classified as major antisocial acts Adolescent report Cronbach’s α = .82 Secondary
Number of minor antisocial acts Reports of antisocial and delinquent acts were factor analyzed and produced two factors, one of which was classified as minor antisocial acts Adolescent report Cronbach’s α = .68 Secondary

Olds, D. L., Kitzman, H. J., Cole, R. E., Hanks, C. A., Arcoleo, K. J., Anson, E. A., Luckey, D. W., Knudtson, M. D., Henderson, C. R., Bondy, J., & Stevenson, A. J. (2010). Enduring effects of prenatal and infancy home visiting by nurses on maternal life course and government spending: Follow-up of a randomized trial among children at age 12 years. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 164(5), 419-424
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Intimate partner violence No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and infancy and development screening comparison (Memphis) 12-year follow-up 594mothers 22%(adjusted) 21%(adjusted) OR = 1.06 Not statistically significant, p > .05 HomVEE = 0.03 Secondary
Maternal arrests No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and infancy and development screening comparison (Memphis) 0 to 12 years 594 mothers 49%(adjusted) 36%(adjusted) OR = 1.36 Not statistically significant, p > .05 HomVEE = 0.32 Secondary
Mother jailed No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and infancy and development screening comparison (Memphis) 12-year follow-up 594mothers 13% (adjusted) 13%(adjusted) OR = .97 Not statistically significant, p > .05 HomVEE = -0.02 Secondary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Intimate partner violence Percentage of mothers that had experienced any physical intimate partner violence between the child’s 9th-year and 12th-year interviews Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Maternal arrests Count of the number of times the mother had been arrested from birth through child age 12 years Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Mother jailed Percentage of mothers that had been jailed through child age 12 Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary

Olds, D. L., Kitzman, H., Cole, R., Robinson, J., Sidora, K., Luckey, D. W., et al. (2004). Effects of nurse home-visiting on maternal life course and child development: Age 6 follow-up results of a randomized trial. Pediatrics, 114(6), 1550–1559
Results with nurse home visitors.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Any domestic violence, birth to age 6 No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 6-year follow-up 641 mothers 39% (adjusted) 40% (adjusted) OR = 0.97 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.87
1
-0.02 Secondary

1 Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the odds ratio.

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Any domestic violence Rate of domestic violence since the birth of the first child through age 6 Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary

Olds, D. L., Kitzman, H., Hanks, C., Cole, R., Anson, E., Sidora-Arcoleo, K., et al. (2007). Effects of nurse home visiting on maternal and child functioning: Age-9 follow-up of a randomized trial. Pediatrics, 120(4), e832–e845.
Results with nurse home visitors.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Any domestic violence (6–9 years postpartum) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 9-year follow-up 627 mothers 0.21 0.24 OR = 0.81 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.37
1
HomVEE = -0.11 Secondary
Mother jailed (6–9 years postpartum) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 9-year follow-up 627 mothers 0.04 0.03 OR = 1.46 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.46
1
HomVEE = 0.25 Secondary
Number of maternal arrests (6–9 years postpartum) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 9-year follow-up 627 mothers Mean = 0.41 Mean = 0.30 MD = 0.11 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.16
Study reported = 1.35 Secondary

1 Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the odds ratio.

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Any domestic violence Whether the mother had experienced physical violence from any of her partners during 6 through 9 years postpartum Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Mother jailed Counts of the number of days the mother was jailed 6 to 9 years postpartum Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Number of maternal arrests Counts of the number of times the mother was arrested 6 to 9 years postpartum Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary

Olds, D. L., Robinson, J., Pettitt, L., Luckey, D. W., Holmberg, J., Ng, R. K., et al. (2004). Effects of home visits by paraprofessionals and by nurses: Age 4 follow-up results of a randomized trial. Pediatrics, 114(6), 1560-1568.
Results with nurse home visitors.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Any domestic violence (past 6 months) Favorable Nurse home visitor and comparison (Denver) 4-year follow-up 424 mothers 0.07 0.14 OR = 0.47 Statistically significant,
p = 0.05
HomVEE = -0.46 Secondary
Any domestic violence (since child age 2) No Effect Nurse home visitor and comparison (Denver) 4-year follow-up 424 mothers 0.16 0.24 OR = 0.60 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.09
HomVEE = -0.31 Secondary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Any domestic violence (past 6 months) Whether the mother had experienced physical violence from any of her partners during the previous 6 months Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Any domestic violence (since child age 2) Whether the mother had experienced physical violence from any of her partners since the child was 2 years old Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
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Impact Studies Rated Moderate


Olds, D. L., Robinson, J., Pettitt, L., Luckey, D. W., Holmberg, J., Ng, R. K., et al. (2004). Effects of home visits by paraprofessionals and by nurses: Age 4 follow-up results of a randomized trial. Pediatrics, 114(6), 1560-1568.
Results with paraprofessional home visitors.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Any domestic violence (past 6 months) No Effect Paraprofessional home visitor and comparison (Denver) 4-year follow-up 431 mothers 0.14 0.14 OR = 1.05 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.88
HomVEE = 0.03 Secondary
Any domestic violence (since child age 2) No Effect Paraprofessional home visitor and comparison (Denver) 4-year follow-up 431 mothers 0.22 0.24 OR = 0.90 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.72
HomVEE = -0.06 Secondary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Any domestic violence Whether the mother had experienced physical violence from any of her partners during the previous 6 months Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Any domestic violence Whether the mother had experienced physical violence from any of her partners since the child was 2 years old Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
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