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Nurse Family Partnership (NFP)®

Meets DHHS criteria for an evidenced based model

Last Updated: May 2016

Effects Shown in Research & Outcome Measure Details for Child Health Outcomes

Impact Studies Rated High


Eckenrode, J., Campa, M., Luckey, D. W., Henderson, C. R., Cole, R., Kitzman, H., Anson, E., Sidora-Arcoleo, K., Powers, J., & Olds, D. (2010). Long-term effects of prenatal and infancy nurse home visitation on the life course of youths: 19-year follow-up of a randomized trial. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 164(1), 9-15.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Binge drinking No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 19-year follow-up 219 children 36%(adjusted) 32%(adjusted) Diff = 0.04 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 HomVEE = 0.11 Secondary
Binge drinking No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and infancy and comparison (Elmira) 19-year follow-up 231 children 28%(adjusted) 32%(adjusted) Diff = -0.03 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 HomVEE = -0.10 Secondary
Ever been pregnant/made a girl pregnant No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 19-year follow-up 231 children 32.4% (adjusted) 31.6%(adjusted) Diff = 0.8 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 HomVEE = 0.02 Secondary
Ever been pregnant/made a girl pregnant No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 19-year follow-up 219 children 32.4%(adjusted) 30.9%(adjusted) Diff =1.5 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 HomVEE = 0.04 Secondary
Ever fathered a child/given birth No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 19-year follow-up 219 children 18.1%(adjusted) 20.7%(adjusted) Diff =-2.6 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 HomVEE = -0.10 Secondary
Ever fathered a child/given birth No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 19-year follow-up 231 children 21.2%(adjusted) 20.7%(adjusted) Diff =0.5 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 HomVEE = 0.02 Secondary
Frequency of birth control use No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 19-year follow-up 219 children Adjusted mean = 4.90 Adjusted mean = 4.60 MD =0.30 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Not available Secondary
Frequency of birth control use No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 19-year follow-up 231 children Adjusted mean = 4.70 Adjusted mean = 4.60 MD =0.10 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Not available Secondary
Frequency of condom use No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 19-year follow-up 231 children Adjusted mean = 3.90 Adjusted mean = 3.30 MD =0.60 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Not available Secondary
Frequency of condom use No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 19-year follow-up 219 children Adjusted mean = 3.70 Adjusted mean = 3.30 MD =0.40 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Not available Secondary
Illicit drug use No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and infancy and comparison (Elmira) 19-year follow-up 231 children 49%(adjusted) 52%(adjusted) Diff = -0.03 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 HomVEE = -0.08 Secondary
Illicit drug use No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 19-year follow-up 219 children 53%(adjusted) 52%(adjusted) Diff = 0.01 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 HomVEE = .02 Secondary
Number of sex partners, past year No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 19-year follow-up 231 children Adjusted mean = 1.73 Adjusted mean = 1.55 MD = 0.18 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Not available Secondary
Number of sex partners, past year No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 19-year follow-up 219 children Adjusted mean = 1.68 Adjusted mean = 1.55 MD =0.13 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Not available Secondary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Ever been pregnant/made a girl pregnant Percentage of youth that had become or made a girl pregnant or become a parent Adolescent report Not applicable Secondary
Ever fathered a child/given birth Percentage of youth that had fathered a child or given birth Adolescent report Not applicable Secondary
Frequency of birth control use A scale indicating the frequency of birth control use ranging from 1 (never) to 7(always) Adolescent report Not applicable Secondary
Frequency of condom use A scale indicating the frequency of condom use ranging from 1 (never) to 7(always) Adolescent report Not applicable Secondary
Number of sex partners, past year Count of the study child’s number of sexual partners during the 12 month period prior to the interview. Adolescent report Not applicable Secondary

Kitzman, H., Olds, D. L., Sidora, K., Henderson, C. R., Hanks, C., Cole, R., et al. (2000). Enduring effects of nurse home visitation on maternal life course: A 3-year follow-up of a randomized trial. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 283(15), 1983–1989.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Number of subsequent low birth weight newborns (< 2500 g) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 3-year follow-up 646 mothers Mean = 0.12 Mean = 0.15 MD = -0.03 Not statistically significant,
p ≥ 0.05
1
Not available Secondary
Number of subsequent neonatal intensive care unit or special care admissions No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 3-year follow-up 646 mothers Mean = 0.14 Mean = 0.20 MD = -0.06 Not statistically significant,
p ≥ 0.05
1,2
Not available Secondary

1 Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the log-incidence difference.

2 Authors report the difference in this outcome to be statistically significant, p < 0.10, which is greater than the acceptable alpha for this review (α = 0.05).

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Number of subsequent low birth weight newborns (< 2,500 g) Number of low birth weight newborns the mother experienced after the birth of the study’s focal child Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Number of subsequent NICU or special care admissions Number of NICU or special care admissions episodes the mother experienced after the birth of the study’s focal child Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary

Kitzman, H. J., Olds, D. L., Cole, R. E., Hanks, C. A., Anson, E. A., Arcoleo, K. J., Luckey, D. W., Knudtson, M. D., Henderson, C. R., & Holmberg, J. R. (2010). Enduring effects of prenatal and infancy home visiting by nurses on children: Follow-up of a randomized trial among children at age 12 years. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine, 164(5), 412–418.
Results with nurse home visitors.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Incidence of days of substance use in the past 30 days Favorable Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 12 years 578 children 0.03 0.18 IR = 0.15 Statistically significant, p < .05 Not available Secondary
Number of substances used in the past 30 days Favorable Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 12 years 578 children 0.02 0.08 IR = 0.06 Statistically significant, p < .05 Not available Secondary
Used cigarettes, alcohol, or marijuana in the past 30 days Favorable Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 12 years 578 children 1.7%(adjusted) 5.1%(adjusted) OR = 0.31 Statistically significant, p < .05 HomVEE = -.69 Secondary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Incidence of days of substance use in the past 30 days Count of days of substance use (theoretical range, 0-90) Interview Not applicable Secondary
Number of substances used in the past 30 days Count of substances used in the past 30 days (0-3) Interview Not applicable Secondary
Used cigarettes, alcohol, or marijuana in the past 30 days Whether cigarettes, alcohol, or marijuana in the past 30 days (yes or no) Interview Not applicable Secondary

Kitzman, H., Olds, D. L., Henderson, C. R., Hanks, C., Cole, R., Tatelbaum, R., et al. (1997). Effect of prenatal and infancy home visitation by nurses on pregnancy outcomes, childhood injuries, and repeated childbearing. A randomized controlled trial. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 278(8), 644–652.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
5-minute Apgar No Effect Full, (Memphis) Birth 1,082 children Adjusted mean = 8.6 Adjusted mean = 8.7 MD = -0.1 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Primary
Birth weight, grams No Effect Full (Memphis) Birth 1,082 children Adjusted mean = 3,032.2 Adjusted mean = 3,050.4 MD = -18.2 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Primary
Breastfeeding attempted, percentage Favorable Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 2 years postnatal 671 children 26% (adjusted) 16% (adjusted) OR = 1.901 Statistically significant,
p < 0.01
HomVEE = 0.37 Secondary
Gestational age, weeks No Effect Full, (Memphis) Birth 1,082 children Adjusted mean = 39.0 Adjusted mean = 39.0 MD = 0.0 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Primary
Immunizations up to date, percentage No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 2 years postnatal 671 children 70% (adjusted) 68% (adjusted) OR = 1.101 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
HomVEE = 0.06 Primary
Indicated preterm delivery (percentage) No Effect Full, (Memphis) Birth 1,082 children 3% (adjusted) 3% (adjusted) OR = 1.001 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
2
HomVEE = 0.00 Primary
Intrauterine growth restriction (percentage) No Effect Full, (Memphis) Birth 1,082 children 9% (adjusted) 9% (adjusted) OR = 1.001 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
2
HomVEE = 0.00 Primary
Low birth weight (percentage < 2500 g) No Effect Full, (Memphis) Birth 1,082 children 15% (adjusted) 14% (adjusted) OR = 1.11 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
2
HomVEE = 0.05 Primary
Number of well-child visits No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 2 years postnatal 671 children Adjusted mean = 4.6 Adjusted mean = 4.8 MD = -0.2, CI = -0.6–0.1 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Primary
Preterm (less than 37 weeks, percentage) No Effect Full, (Memphis) Birth 1,082 children 11% (adjusted) 13% (adjusted) OR = 0.801 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
2
HomVEE = -0.12 Primary
Spontaneous preterm delivery, percentage No Effect Full, (Memphis) Birth 1,082 children 8% (adjusted) 9% (adjusted) OR = 0.801 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
2
HomVEE = -0.08 Primary

1 The odds ratio compares the nurse-visited group to the comparison.

2 Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the odds ratio.

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Activity, pulse, grimace, appearance, and respiration (Apgar) score: 5-minute The Apgar test was administered five minutes after the child’s birth. The test evaluates the newborn along five dimensions: (1) activity and muscle tone; (2) pulse and heart rate; (3) grimace response; (4) appearance and skin coloration; and (5) respiration, breathing rate, and effort. Each dimension is scored 0 to 2, with higher scores associated with better health. Review of medical records Not applicable Primary
Birth weight The child’s recorded birth weight in grams Review of medical records Not applicable Primary
Breastfeeding attempted Percentage of mothers who had attempted breastfeeding Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Gestational age Gestational age in days was estimated from the reported last menstrual period (LMP) and ultrasound scans performed before 26 weeks’ gestation. If LMP and ultrasound converged within 14 days, then LMP was used for estimating gestational age. When LMP and ultrasound differed by more than 14 days, ultrasound was used as the estimate. In cases where ultrasound was not performed before 26 weeks’ gestation, or LMP was not known, the record was reviewed by two independent clinicians who were unaware of treatment condition to determine the most reliable estimate of gestational age. Review of medical records Not applicable Primary
Immunizations up-to-date Percentage of children whose immunizations were up-to-date at their 2nd birthday Review of medical records Not applicable Primary
Indicated preterm delivery Percentage of children who had an indicated preterm birth performed for maternal or fetal complications Review of medical records Not applicable Primary
Intrauterine growth restriction Percentage of children with a birth weight less than the 10th percentile for their gestational age Review of medical records Not applicable Primary
Low birth weight Percentage of children with a birth weight below 2,500 grams Review of medical records Not applicable Primary
Number of well-child visits Number of well-child visits the child received Review of medical records Not applicable Primary
Preterm Percentage of children who were delivered at less than 37 weeks’ gestation Review of medical records Not applicable Primary
Spontaneous preterm delivery Percentage of children who had a spontaneous preterm birth after preterm labor with or without premature rupture of the membranes Review of medical records Not applicable Primary

Olds, D. L., Henderson Jr., C. R., Chamberlin, R., & Tatelbaum, R. (1986). Preventing child abuse and neglect: A randomized trial of nurse home visitation. Pediatrics, 78, 65–78.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Crying (mother-reported number of episodes last 2 weeks) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 6 months 164 children Adjusted mean = 4.05 Adjusted mean = 3.93 MD = 0.12 Statistical significance not reported Not available Secondary
Crying (mother-reported number of episodes last 2 weeks) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 6 months 163 children Adjusted mean = 3.44 Adjusted mean = 3.93 MD = -0.49 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Secondary
Mother- reported positive mood No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 6 months 199 children Adjusted mean = 2.34 Adjusted mean = 2.29 MD = 0.05 Statistical significance not reported Not available Secondary
Mother-reported positive mood Favorable Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 6 months 209 children Adjusted mean = 2.40 Adjusted mean = 2.29 MD = 0.11 Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
Not available Secondary
Night awake (mother-reported number of episodes last 2 weeks No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 6 months 164 children Adjusted mean = 3.25 Adjusted mean = 2.83 MD = 0.42 Statistical significance not reported Not available Secondary
Night awake (mother-reported number of episodes last 2 weeks No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 6 months 163 children Adjusted mean = 2.69 Adjusted mean = 2.83 MD = - 0.14 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Secondary
Number of emergency room visits (first year of life) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 1-year follow-up 205 children Adjusted mean = 1.12 Adjusted mean = 1.02 MD = 0.10 Statistical significance not reported Not available Primary
Number of emergency room visits (first year of life) Favorable Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 1-year follow-up 223 children Adjusted mean = 0.74 Adjusted mean = 1.02 MD = -0.28 Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
Not available Primary
Number of emergency room visits (second year of life) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 2-year follow-up 185 children Adjusted mean = 1.04 Adjusted mean = 1.09 MD = -0.05 Statistical significance not reported Not available Primary
Number of emergency room visits (second year of life) Favorable Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 2-year follow-up 196 children Adjusted mean = 0.74 Adjusted mean = 1.09 MD = -0.35 Statistically significant,
p < 0.01
Not available Primary
Resist eating (mother-reported number of episodes last 2 weeks) Unfavorable Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 6 months 163 children Adjusted mean = 2.29 Adjusted mean = 1.72 MD = 0.57 Statistically significant,
p < 0.01
Not available Secondary
Resist eating (mother-reported number of episodes last 2 weeks) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 6 months 164 children Adjusted mean = 2.01 Adjusted mean = 1.72 MD = 0.29 Statistical significance not reported Not available Secondary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Crying Number of infant crying episodes in the last 2 weeks Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Mother-reported positive mood A measure of the extent to which the child had a happy, positive, and content disposition Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Night awake Number of times that most of the night was spent awake in the last 2 weeks Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Number of emergency room visits Total number of times the infant was seen in the emergency room Review of medical records Not applicable Primary
Resist eating Number of times the infant resisted eating in the last 2 weeks Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary

Olds, D. L., Henderson Jr., C. R., Tatelbaum, R., & Chamberlin, R. (1986). Improving the delivery of prenatal care and outcomes of pregnancy: A randomized trial of nurse home visitation. Pediatrics, 77(1), 16.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Child birth weight (grams) No Effect Full (Elmira) Birth 308 children Adjusted mean = 3,285 Adjusted mean = 3,262 MD = 23 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Primary
Length of gestation No Effect Full (Elmira) Birth 308 children Adjusted mean = 39.57 Adjusted mean = 39.71 MD = -0.14 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Primary
Percentage low birth rate, (≤ 2,500 grams) No Effect Full (Elmira) Birth 308 children 5.78% (adjusted) 2.61% (adjusted) MD = 3.17 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
HomVEE = 0.50 Primary
Percentage preterm delivery (< 37 weeks) No Effect Full (Elmira) Birth 308 children 6.90% (adjusted) 7.27% (adjusted) MD = -0.37 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
HomVEE = -0.03 Primary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Child birth weight The child’s recorded birth weight in grams Review of medical records Not applicable Primary
Length of gestation The length of gestation in weeks was estimated using newborn physical and neurologic examinations, (based on the Dubowitz procedure) and ultrasound readings taken before the 28th week of pregnancy. In the absence of examination and ultrasound data, reported last menstrual periods and measurements of uterine size made before 20 weeks were used. For low birth weight infants, gestational age was estimated using the newborn physical examination. Review of medical records Not applicable Primary
Percentage low birth weight Percentage of children with birth weight less than or equal to 2,500 grams Review of medical records Not applicable Primary
Percentage preterm delivery Percentage of children who were delivered at less than 37 weeks’ gestation Review of medical records Not applicable Primary

Olds, D. L., Henderson, C. R., & Kitzman, H. (1994). Does prenatal and infancy nurse home visitation have enduring effects on qualities of parental caregiving and child health at 25 to 50 months of life? Pediatrics, 93(1), 89–98.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Number of child behavioral/parental coping problems in physician record (25 to 50 months) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 50 months 209 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.43 Adjusted mean = 0.71 MD = -0.28 Statistical significance not reported Not available Primary
Number of child behavioral/parental coping problems in physician record (25 to 50 months) Favorable Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 50 months 221 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.39 Adjusted mean = 0.71 MD = -0.32 Statistically significant,
p ≤ .01
1
Not available Primary
Number of days hospitalized (25 to 50 months) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 50 months 209 children Adjusted mean = 0.43 Adjusted mean = 0.31 MD = 0.12 Statistical significance not reported Not available Primary
Number of days hospitalized (25 to 50 months) Unfavorable Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 50 months 221 children Adjusted mean = 0.49 Adjusted mean = 0.31 MD = 0.18 Statistically significant,
p ≤ 0.05
1
Not available Primary
Number of emergency department visits (25 to 50 months) Favorable Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 50 months 221 children Adjusted mean = 1.00 Adjusted mean = 1.53 MD = -0.53 Statistically significant,
p ≤ .01
1
Not available Primary
Number of emergency department visits (25 to 50 months) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 50 months 209 children Adjusted mean = 1.24 Adjusted mean = 1.53 MD = -0.29 Statistical significance not reported Not available Primary
Number of hospital admissions (25 to 50 months) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 50 months 209 children Adjusted mean = 0.11 Adjusted mean = 0.11 MD = 0.00 Statistical significance not reported Not available Primary
Number of hospital admissions (25 to 50 months) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 50 months 221 children Adjusted mean = 0.14 Adjusted mean = 0.11 MD = 0.03 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
1
Not available Primary
Number of scheduled health supervision visits (25 to 50 months) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 50 months 221 children Adjusted mean = 1.26 Adjusted mean = 1.56 MD = -0.3 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Primary
Number of scheduled health supervision visits (25 to 50 months) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 50 months 209 children Adjusted mean = 1.27 Adjusted mean = 1.56 MD = -0.29 Statistical significance not reported Not available Primary
Number of scheduled health supervision visits with problems (25 to 50 months) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 50 months 209 children Adjusted mean = 5.18 Adjusted mean = 6.72 MD = -1.54 Statistical significance not reported Not available Primary
Number of scheduled health supervision visits with problems (25 to 50 months) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 50 months 221 children Adjusted mean = 6.24 Adjusted mean = 6.72 MD = -0.48 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Primary

1 Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the log-incidence difference.

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Number of child behavioral/parental coping problems in physician record Number of child behavioral and parental coping problems noted in the physician’s record Review of medical records Inter-rater agreement for the abstraction of diagnostic codes in the medical records was 90%. Primary
Number of days hospitalized Number of days the child was hospitalized Review of medical records Inter-rater agreement for the abstraction of diagnostic codes in the medical records was 90%. Primary
Number of emergency department visits Total number of emergency department encounters Review of medical records Inter-rater agreement for the abstraction of diagnostic codes in the medical records was 90%. Primary
Number of hospital admissions Number of child hospitalizations Review of medical records Inter-rater agreement for the abstraction of diagnostic codes in the medical records was 90%. Primary
Number of scheduled health supervision visits Number of scheduled health supervision visits for the child Review of medical records Inter-rater agreement for the abstraction of diagnostic codes in the medical records was 90%. Primary
Number of scheduled health supervision visits with problems Number of health supervision visits at which separate illnesses were detected in the child. This included initial sick visits for an illness, as well as well-child visits at which health problems were identified. Review of medical records Inter-rater agreement for the abstraction of diagnostic codes in the medical records was 90%. Primary

Olds, D. L., Henderson, C. R., Cole, R., Eckenrode, J., Kitzman, H., Luckey, D., et al. (1998). Long-term effects of nurse home visitation on children’s criminal and antisocial behavior: 15-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 280(14), 1238–1244.
Additional Source:

Olds, D. L. (1999). "Long-term effects of nurse home visitation on children's criminal and antisocial behavior: 15-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial": Reply. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association, 281(15), 1377.

Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Alcohol and drug impairment (mother report) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 15-year follow-up 277 adolescent youth Adjusted mean = 0.20 Adjusted mean = 0.18 MD = 0.02 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.96
Not available Secondary
Alcohol and drug impairment (mother report) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 15 year follow-up 245 adolescent youth Adjusted mean = 0.28 Adjusted mean = 0.18 MD = -0.10 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.68
Not available Secondary
Alcohol impairment (self-report) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 15-year follow-up 245 adolescent youth Adjusted mean = 0.47 Adjusted mean = 0.52 MD = -0.05 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.35
Not available Secondary
Alcohol impairment (self-report) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 15-year follow-up 227 adolescent youth Adjusted mean = 0.50 Adjusted mean = 0.52 MD = -0.02 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.95
Not available Secondary
Ever had sexual intercourse No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 15-year follow-up 227 adolescent youth 35% (adjusted) 35% (adjusted) MD = 0 Not statistically significant,
p = 1.00
1
HomVEE = 0.00 Secondary
Ever pregnant or made someone pregnant No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 15-year follow-up 227 adolescent youth 2% (adjusted) 3% (adjusted) MD = -1.0 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.97
1
HomVEE = -0.25 Secondary
Ever pregnant or made someone pregnant No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 15-year follow-up 245 adolescent youth 4% (adjusted) 3% (adjusted) MD = 1.0 Not statistically significant,
p = 1.00
1
HomVEE = 0.18 Secondary
Incidence of sex partners (number) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 15-year follow-up 245 adolescent youth Adjusted mean = 1.16 Adjusted mean = 1.56 MD = -0.40 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.90
2
Not available Secondary
Incidence of sex partners (number) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 15-year follow-up 227 adolescent youth Adjusted mean = 1.10 Adjusted mean = 1.56 MD = -0.46 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.48
2
Not available Secondary
Incidence–cigarettes smoked per day No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 15-year follow-up 227 adolescent youth Adjusted mean = 0.91 Adjusted mean = 1.30 MD = -0.39 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.49
2
Not available Secondary
Incidence–cigarettes smoked per day No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 15-year follow-up 245 adolescent youth Adjusted mean = 1.28 Adjusted mean = 1.30 MD = -0.02 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.76
2
Not available Secondary
Incidence–days drank alcohol No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 15-year follow-up 245 adolescent youth Adjusted mean = 1.87 Adjusted mean = 1.57 MD = -0.30 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.96
2
Not available Secondary
Incidence–days drank alcohol No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 15-year follow-up 227 adolescent youth Adjusted mean = 1.81 Adjusted mean = 1.57 MD = 0.24 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.97
2
Not available Secondary
Incidence–days used drugs No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy and comparison (Elmira) 15-year follow-up 227 adolescent youth Adjusted mean = 3.55 Adjusted mean = 2.28 MD = 1.27 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.49
2
Not available Secondary
Incidence–days used drugs No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and comparison (Elmira) 15-year follow-up 245 adolescent youth Adjusted mean = 2.04 Adjusted mean = 2.28 MD = -0.24 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.54
2
Not available Secondary

1 Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the odds ratio.

2 Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the log-incidence difference.

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Ever had sexual intercourse Percentage of youth reporting that they had experienced sexual intercourse Youth report Not applicable Secondary
Ever pregnant or made someone pregnant Percentage of youth reporting that they had ever been pregnant or made a sexual partner pregnant Youth report Not applicable Secondary
Incidence of sex partners Number of sexual partners the youth had during the youth’s lifetime Youth report Not applicable Secondary
Incidence—cigarettes smoked per day A variable constructed to characterize the total number of cigarettes the youth currently smoked per day Youth report Not applicable Secondary
Incidence—days drank alcohol A variable constructed to characterize the number of days the youth drank alcohol during the previous 6 months Youth report Not applicable Secondary
Incidence—days used drugs A variable constructed to characterize the number of days the youth used illegal drugs during the previous 6 months Youth report Not applicable Secondary
Incidence—long-term school suspensions Number of long-term school suspensions the youth had received Review of school records Not applicable Primary
Incidence—short-term school suspensions Number of short-term school suspensions the youth had received Review of school records Not applicable Primary

Olds, D. L., Kitzman, H., Cole, R., Robinson, J., Sidora, K., Luckey, D. W., et al. (2004). Effects of nurse home-visiting on maternal life course and child development: Age 6 follow-up results of a randomized trial. Pediatrics, 114(6), 1550–1559
Results with nurse home visitors.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Subsequent low birth weight newborn (rate per subsequent birth) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 6-year follow-up 641 mothers 11% (adjusted) 16% (adjusted) OR = -0.69 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.16
1
HomVEE = -0.22 Secondary
Subsequent NICU/special care admission (rate per subsequent birth) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 6-year follow-up 641 mothers 18% (adjusted) 23% (adjusted) OR = -0.72 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.14
1
HomVEE = -0.20 Secondary

1 Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the odds ratio.

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Subsequent low birth weight newborn Rate of subsequent low birth weight newborns per subsequent births after completion of the program Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Subsequent NICU or special care admission Rate of subsequent NICU or special care admissions per subsequent pregnancy after completion of the program Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary

Olds, D. L., Kitzman, H., Hanks, C., Cole, R., Anson, E., Sidora-Arcoleo, K., et al. (2007). Effects of nurse home visiting on maternal and child functioning: Age-9 follow-up of a randomized trial. Pediatrics, 120(4), e832–e845.
Results with nurse home visitors.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Number of infant and childhood deaths among firstborn children (birth–9 years) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 9-year follow-up 627 mothers 4.50 per 1,000 20.08 per 1,000 OR = 0.22 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.80
1
Not available Secondary
Number of subsequent low birth weight newborns (0–9 years postpartum) No Effect Nurse visited during pregnancy + infancy and developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 9-year follow-up 627 mothers Adjusted mean = 0.18 Adjusted mean = 0.27 MD = -0.09 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.07
2
Not available Secondary

1 Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculations of the odds ratio.

2 Statistical significance reported on authors’ calculation of incidence ratio.

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Number of infant and childhood deaths among firstborn children Number of deaths that occurred among firstborn children over the period birth to age 9 Parent/caregiver report and review of National Death Index (NDI) records for parents/caregivers that were not interviewed. Not applicable Secondary
Number of subsequent low birth weight newborns Number of low birth weight newborns the mother experienced since the birth of the study’s focal child Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary

Olds, D. L., Robinson, J., Pettitt, L., Luckey, D. W., Holmberg, J., Ng, R. K., et al. (2004). Effects of home visits by paraprofessionals and by nurses: Age 4 follow-up results of a randomized trial. Pediatrics, 114(6), 1560-1568.
Results with nurse home visitors.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Subsequent low birth weight newborns No Effect Nurse home visitor and comparison (Denver) 4-year follow-up 424 mothers 0.06 0.08 OR = 0.75 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.45
HomVEE = -0.17 Secondary
Subsequent special care admissions No Effect Nurse home visitor and comparison (Denver) 4-year follow-up 424 mothers 0.06 0.08 OR = 0.66 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.27
HomVEE = -0.26 Secondary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Subsequent low birth weight newborns Rate of subsequent low birth weight newborns per subsequent births since the birth of the study’s focal child Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Subsequent NICU or special care admissions Rate of subsequent NICU or special care admissions per subsequent pregnancy since the birth of the study’s focal child Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
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Impact Studies Rated Moderate


Nguyen, J. D., Carson, M. L., Parris, K. M., & Place, P. (2003). A comparison pilot study of public health field nursing home visitation program interventions for pregnant Hispanic adolescents. Public Health Nursing, 20(5), 412. doi:10.1046/j.1525-1446.2003.20509.x
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Birth weight (grams) No Effect NFP-trained nurse visitors and comparison nurse visitors Birth 156 children Mean = 3,294.32
SD = 567.56
Mean = 3,130.06
SD = 570.78
MD = 164.26 Not reported HomVEE = 0.29 Secondary
Gestational age (months) No Effect NFP-trained nurse visitors and comparison nurse visitors Birth 154 children Mean = 38.88
SD = 2.23
Mean = 38.92
SD = 2.70
MD = -0.04 Not reported HomVEE = -0.02 Secondary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Birth weight The child’s birth weight in grams Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Gestational age The child’s gestational age at birth in weeks Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary

Olds, D. L., Kitzman, H., Knudtson, M. D., Anson, E., Smith, J. A., & Cole, R. (2014). Effect of home visiting by nurses on maternal and child mortality: Results of a 2-decade follow-up of a randomized clinical trial. JAMA Pediatrics, 168(9), 800-806.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
20 year child mortality rate - all causes (Nurse home visits during pregnancy and infancy vs. developmental screening comparison) No Effect Nurse home visits during pregnancy and infancy vs. developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 20 years 708 mother-child dyads Unadjusted mean = 0.01 Unadjusted mean = 0.03 MD = -0.021 Not statistically significant, p = 0.11 HomVEE = -0.68 Primary
20 year child mortality rate - preventable cause (Nurse home visits during pregnancy and infancy vs. developmental screening comparison) Favorable Nurse home visits during pregnancy and infancy vs. developmental screening comparison (Memphis) 20 years 708 mother-child dyads Unadjusted mean = 0.00 Unadjusted mean = 0.02 MD = -0.021 Statistically significant, p = 0.04 Not available Primary

1 Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
20 year child mortality rate - all causes (Nurse home visits during pregnancy and infancy vs. developmental screening comparison) Percentage of children dying from any cause Administrative records (National Death Index) Not applicable Primary
20 year child mortality rate - preventable cause (Nurse home visits during pregnancy and infancy vs. developmental screening comparison) Percentage of children dying from preventable causes (SIDS, unintentional injury, homicide) Administrative records (National Death Index) Not applicable Primary

Olds, D. L., Robinson, J., Pettitt, L., Luckey, D. W., Holmberg, J., Ng, R. K., et al. (2004). Effects of home visits by paraprofessionals and by nurses: Age 4 follow-up results of a randomized trial. Pediatrics, 114(6), 1560-1568.
Results with paraprofessional home visitors.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Subsequent low birth weight newborns Favorable Paraprofessional. home visitor and comparison (Denver) 4-year follow-up 431 mothers 0.03 0.08 OR = 0.34 Statistically significant,
p = 0.03
HomVEE = -0.64 Secondary
Subsequent special care admissions No Effect Paraprofessional home visitor and comparison (Denver) 4-year follow-up 431 mothers 0.05 0.08 OR = 0.54 Not statistically significant,
p = 0.13
HomVEE = -0.38 Secondary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Subsequent low birth weight newborns Rate of subsequent low birth weight newborns per subsequent births after completion of the program Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Subsequent NICU or special care admissions Rate of subsequent NICU or special care admissions per subsequent pregnancy after completion of the program Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
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