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Healthy Families America (HFA)®

Meets DHHS criteria for an evidenced based model

Last Updated: April 2017

In Brief for Positive Parenting Practices Outcomes

Impact Studies Rated High


Duggan, A. K., McFarlane, E. C., Windham, A. M., Rohde, C. A., Salkever, D. S., Fuddy, L., et al. (1999). Evaluation of Hawaii’s Healthy Start program. Future of Children, 9(1), 66–90; discussion 177–178.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Learning environment (HOME) No Effect Full sample, Hawaii trial Year 2 567 mothers Mean = 34.6 Mean = 34.1 MD = 0.5 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Primary
Learning environment (HOME) No Effect Full sample, Hawaii trial Year 1 564 mothers Mean = 35.2 Mean = 35.2 MD = 0.0 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Primary
Mother-child interaction, Caregiver total score (NCAST) No Effect Full sample, Hawaii trial Year 1 564 mothers Mean = 12.8 Mean = 12.7 MD = 0.1 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Primary
Mother-child interaction, Caregiver total score (NCAST) No Effect Full sample, Hawaii trial Year 2 567 mothers Mean = 15.0 Mean = 14.6 MD = 0.4 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Primary
Mother-child interaction, Child total score (NCAST) No Effect Full sample, Hawaii trial Year 2 567 mothers Mean = 7.2 Mean = 7.2 MD = 0.0 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Primary
Mother-child interaction, Child total score (NCAST) No Effect Full sample, Hawaii trial Year 1 564 mothers Mean = 6.8 Mean = 6.5 MD = 0.3 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Primary
Parenting efficacy (PSOC) No Effect Full sample, Hawaii trial Year 1 564 mothers Mean = 75.2 Mean = 74.4 MD = 0.8 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Secondary
Parenting efficacy (PSOC) Favorable Full sample, Hawaii trial Year 2 567 mothers Mean = 76.1 Mean = 74.1 Not available Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
Not available Secondary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
HOME: Learning environment The HOME assesses parenting practices and aspects of the home environment. Parent/caregiver interview and observational assessment Not reported by author Primary
NCAST: Caregiver total score
 
NCAST: Child total score
The NCAST assesses the quality of teaching interaction between caregivers and young children. The researchers examined separate composite scores for both children and parents. Observation Not reported by author Primary
PSOC The PSOC measures parent attitudes and self-efficacy. Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Secondary

Duggan, A., McFarlane, E., Fuddy, L., Burrell, L., Higman, S. M., Windham, A., et al. (2004). Randomized trial of a statewide home visiting program: Impact in preventing child abuse and neglect. Child Abuse & Neglect, 28(6), 597–622.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Maternal acceptance of child’s behavior (HOME) No Effect Full sample, Hawaii trial Year 1 558 mothers Mean = 5.6 Mean = 5.7 MD = -0.1 Statistical significance not reported Not available Primary
Maternal acceptance of child’s behavior (HOME) No Effect Full sample, Hawaii trial Year 3 541 mothers Mean = 3.2 Mean = 3 MD = 0.2 Statistical significance not reported Not available Primary
Maternal acceptance of child’s behavior (HOME) No Effect Full sample, Hawaii trial Year 2 549 mothers Mean = 5.4 Mean = 5.4 MD = 0.0 Statistical significance not reported Not available Primary
Maternal responsivity to child (HOME) No Effect Full sample, Hawaii trial Year 2 549 mothers Mean = 9.3 Mean = 8.9 MD = 0.4 Statistical significance not reported Not available Primary
Maternal responsivity to child (HOME) No Effect Full sample, Hawaii trial Year 3 541 mothers Mean = 4.8 Mean = 4.5 MD = 0.3 Statistical significance not reported Not available Primary
Maternal responsivity to child (HOME) No Effect Full sample, Hawaii trial Year 1 558 mothers Mean = 9.3 Mean = 9.2 MD = 0.1 Statistical signifivance not reported Not available Primary
Maternal responsivity to child (HOME) No Effect Full sample, Hawaii trial Years 1-3 558 mothers Not available Not available MD = 0.18 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Primary
Nonviolent discipline, ever used in past year (CTS-PC) No Effect Full sample, Hawaii trial Year 1 558 mothers 98% 99% -1 Statistical significance not reported HomVEE = -0.43 Secondary
Nonviolent discipline, ever used in past year (CTS-PC) No Effect Full sample, Hawaii trial Year 3 541 mothers 100% 100% 0 Statistical significance not reported HomVEE = 0.00 Secondary
Nonviolent discipline, ever used in past year (CTS-PC) No Effect Full sample, Hawaii trial Year 2 549 mothers 100% 100% 0 Statistical significance not reported HomVEE = 0.00 Secondary
Nonviolent discipline, times used in past year (CTS-PC) No Effect Full sample, Hawaii trial Year 1 558 mothers Mean = 33 Mean = 30.9 MD = 2.1 Statistical significance not reported Not available Secondary
Nonviolent discipline, times used in past year (CTS-PC) No Effect Full sample, Hawaii trial Year 2 549 mothers Mean = 45.7 Mean = 42.4 MD = 3.3 Statistical significance not reported Not available Secondary
Nonviolent discipline, times used in past year (CTS-PC) No Effect Full sample, Hawaii trial Year 3 541 mothers Mean = 47 Mean = 46.1 MD = 0.9 Statistical significance not reported Not available Secondary
Nonviolent discipline, times used in past year (CTS-PC) No Effect Full sample, Hawaii trial Years 1-3 558 mothers Not available Not available MD = 1.8 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Secondary
Timeouts, ever used in past week (CTS-PC) No Effect Full sample, Hawaii trial Years 1-3 558 mothers Not available Not available OR = 1.01 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Secondary
Timeouts, ever used in past week (CTS-PC) No Effect Full sample, Hawaii trial Year 3 541 mothers 71% 67% 4 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
HomVEE = 0.11 Secondary
Timeouts, ever used in past week (CTS-PC) No Effect Full sample, Hawaii trial Year 2 549 mothers 62% 62% 0 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
HomVEE = 0.00 Secondary
Timeouts, ever used in past week (CTS-PC) No Effect Full sample, Hawaii trial Year 1 558 mothers 35% 36% -1 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
HomVEE = -0.03 Secondary
Timeouts, times used in past year (CTS-PC) No Effect Full sample, Hawaii trial Year 2 549 mothers Mean = 2.9 Mean = 3 MD = -0.1 Statistical significance not reported Not available Secondary
Timeouts, times used in past year (CTS-PC) No Effect Full sample, Hawaii trial Year 1 558 mothers Mean = 1.5 Mean = 1.1 MD = 0.4 Statistical significance not reported Not available Secondary
Timeouts, times used in past year (CTS-PC) No Effect Full sample, Hawaii trial Year 3 541 mothers Mean = 5.2 Mean = 5.4 MD = -0.2 Statistical significance not reported Not available Secondary
Timeouts, times used in past year (CTS-PC) No Effect Full sample, Hawaii trial Years 1-3 558 mothers Not available Not available MD = 0.1 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Secondary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
CTS-PC: Nonviolent discipline The CTS-PC assesses neglectful, psychologically aggressive, and abusive parenting behaviors and acts. The assessment is divided into six subscales, including a scale of nonviolent discipline Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Secondary
CTS-PC: Timeouts The CTS-PC assesses neglectful, psychologically aggressive, and abusive parenting behaviors and acts. The assessment is divided into six subscales, including a scale of nonviolent discipline. The assessment also asks how often parents used specific parenting behaviors, such as timeouts, in the recent past. The researchers examined both the prevalence and frequency (times used in the past week or past year) of timeouts and nonviolent discipline. Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Secondary
HOME: Acceptance of child’s behavior
 
HOME: Responsivity
The HOME assesses parenting practices and aspects of the home environment. The HOME includes several subscales, including scales that describe the extent to which parents respond to their child’s behavior and parental acceptance of challenging child behaviors. Parent/caregiver interview and observational assessment Not reported by author Primary

Duggan, A., Caldera, D., Rodriguez, K., Burrell, L., Rohde, C., & Crowne, S. S. (2007). Impact of a statewide home visiting program to prevent child abuse. Child Abuse & Neglect, 31(8), 801–827.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Mother relinquished role (child lived separately from mother for one month or more) No Effect Full sample, Alaska trial Years 1 and 2 322 families 18% 16% OR = 1.19 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
HomVEE = 0.09 Secondary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Mother relinquished role Percentage of families in which the child lived separately from the mother for one month or more. Research staff determined whether separation cases were a relinquishment of parenting responsibilities, or a necessary separation to meet professional or family responsibilities. Parent/caregiver report and review of records Not applicable Secondary

Landsverk, J., Carrilio, T., Connelly, C. D., Ganger, W., Slymen, D., Newton, R., et al. (2002). Healthy Families San Diego clinical trial: Technical report. San Diego, CA: The Stuart Foundation, California Wellness Foundation, State of California Department of Social Services: Office of Child Abuse Prevention.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Mother-child interaction, Caregiver total score (NCAST) No Effect Full sample, San Diego trial Year 1 435 mothers Mean = 37.1
SD = 7.3
Mean = 35.9
SD = 8.1
MD = 1.2 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
HomVEE = 0.16 Primary
Mother-child interaction, Caregiver total score (NCAST) No Effect Full sample, San Diego trial Year 3 412 mothers Mean = 40.3
SD = 5.5
Mean = 39.8
SD = 5.3
MD = 0.5 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
HomVEE = 0.09 Primary
Mother-child interaction, Child total score (NCAST) No Effect Full sample, San Diego trial Year 3 412 mothers Mean = 16.6
SD = 3.8
Mean = 16.4
SD = 3.6
MD = 0.2 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
HomVEE = 0.05 Primary
Mother-child interaction, Child total score (NCAST) No Effect Full sample, San Diego trial Year 1 435 mothers Mean = 17.3
SD = 3.1
Mean = 16.8
SD = 3.5
MD = 0.5 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
HomVEE = 0.15 Primary
Nonviolent discipline (CTS-PC) No Effect Full sample, San Diego trial Year 1 435 mothers 100% 99.5% 0.5 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
HomVEE = 0.00 Secondary
Nonviolent discipline (CTS-PC) No Effect Full sample, San Diego trial Year 3 412 mothers 95.5% 95.5% 0 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
HomVEE = 0.00 Secondary
Quality of home environment (HOME) No Effect Full sample, San Diego trial Year 3 412 mothers Mean = 40.1
SD = 6.4
Mean = 40.1
SD = 6.6
MD = 0.0 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
HomVEE = 0.00 Primary
Quality of home environment (HOME) No Effect Full sample, San Diego trial Year 1 435 mothers Mean = 35.6
SD = 6.35
Mean = 35.2
SD = 6.35
MD = 0.4 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
HomVEE = 0.06 Primary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
CTS-PC: Nonviolent discipline The CTS-PC assesses neglectful, psychologically aggressive, and abusive parenting behaviors and acts. The assessment includes several subscales, including nonviolent discipline, which the researchers used to examine the prevalence of nonviolent discipline in the sample. Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Secondary
HOME: Total score The HOME assesses parenting practices and aspects of the home environment. Parent/caregiver interview and observational assessment Not reported by author Primary
NCAST: Caregiver total score
 
NCAST: Child total score
The NCAST assesses the quality of teaching interaction between caregivers and young children. The researchers examined separate composite scores for both children and parents. Observation Not reported by author Primary

LeCroy, C. W., & Krysik, J. (2011). Randomized trial of the Healthy Families Arizona home visiting program. Children and Youth Services Review, 33(10), 1761–1766.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Aggressive discipline No Effect Arizona sample 12 months 168 mothers Mean = 1.44(SD = 0.16) Mean = 1.83(SD = 0.16) MD = -0.39 Not statistically significant, p =0.10 HomVEE = -2.43 Secondary
Belief in corporal punishment No Effect Arizona sample 6 months 180 mothers Mean = 2.25(SD = 0.71) Mean = 2.15(SD = 0.64) MD = 0.10 Not statistically significant, p =0.12 HomVEE = 0.15 Primary
Belief in corporal punishment (AAPI-2) No Effect Arizona sample 12 months 168 mothers Mean = 2.21(SD = 0.73) Mean = 2.23(SD = 0.62) MD = -0.02 Not statistically significant, p =0.63 HomVEE = -0.03 Primary
Inappropriate expectations No Effect Arizona sample 6 months 180 mothers Mean = 3.05(SD = 0.78) Mean = 2.88(SD = 0.75) MD = 0.17 Not statistically significant, p =0.10 HomVEE = 0.22 Primary
Inappropriate expectations (AAPI-2) No Effect Arizona sample 12 months 168 mothers Mean = 2.77(SD = 0.76) Mean = 2.77(SD = 0.69) MD = 0.00 Not statistically significant, p =0.91 HomVEE = 0.00 Primary
Lack of empathy No Effect Arizona sample 6 months 180 mothers Mean = 1.95(SD = 0.55) Mean = 1.94(SD = 0.53) MD = 0.01 Not statistically significant, p = 0.54 HomVEE = 0.02 Primary
Lack of empathy (AAPI-2) No Effect Arizona sample 12 months 168 mothers Mean = 1.80(SD = 0.51) Mean = 1.78(SD = 0.48) MD = 0.02 Not statistically significant, p =0.91 HomVEE = 0.04 Primary
Mother's reading No Effect Arizona sample 12 months 168 mothers Mean = 2.26(SD = 0.15) Mean = 2.22(SD = 0.15) MD = 0.04 Not statistically significant, p =0.85 HomVEE = 0.27 Primary
Mother's reading No Effect Arizona sample 6 months 180 mothers Mean = 2.46(SD = 0.16) Mean = 2.72(SD = 0.16) MD = -0.26 Not statistically significant, p =0.28 HomVEE = -1.62 Primary
Never called name, cursed No Effect Arizona sample 12 months 168 mothers Mean = 96.4% Mean = 94.1% MD = 2.3 Not statistically significant, p =0.33 HomVEE = 0.26 Secondary
Never hit elsewhere No Effect Arizona sample 12 months 168 mothers Mean = 98.8% Mean = 96.5% MD = 2.3 Not statistically significant, p =0.28 HomVEE = 0.68 Secondary
Never pinched child No Effect Arizona sample 12 months 168 mothers Mean = 98.8% Mean = 94.1% MD = 4.7 Not statistically significant, p =0.15 HomVEE = 1.12 Secondary
Never shouted, yelled at child Favorable Arizona sample 12 months 168 mothers Mean = 50.6% Mean = 34.1% MD = 16.5 Statistically significant, p =0.02 HomVEE = 0.43 Secondary
Never slapped hand Favorable Arizona sample 12 months 168 mothers Mean = 56.6% Mean = 38.8% MD = 17.8 Statistically significant, p =0.03 HomVEE = 0.42 Secondary
Never slapped on face No Effect Arizona sample 12 months 168 mothers Mean = 100% Mean = 97.6% MD = 2.4 Not statistically significant, p =0.99 Not available Secondary
Never smacked/threatened, hit No Effect Arizona sample 12 months 168 mothers Mean = 69.5% Mean = 63.5% MD = 6.0 Not statistically significant, p =0.30 HomVEE = 0.16 Secondary
Never spanked No Effect Arizona sample 12 months 168 mothers Mean = 71.1% Mean = 65.8% MD = 5.3 Not statistically significant, p =0.19 HomVEE = 0.14 Secondary
Never threw object at child No Effect Arizona sample 12 months 168 mothers Mean = 100% Mean = 98.8% MD = 1.2 Not statistically significant, p =0.32 Not available Secondary
Oppressing child's independence No Effect Arizona sample 12 months 168 mothers Not available Mean = 3.32(SD = 0.37) Not available Not statistically significant, p =0.68 Not available Primary
Oppressing child's independence (AAPI-2) No Effect Arizona sample 6 months 180 mothers Mean = 3.62(SD = 0.44) Mean = 3.58(SD = 0.39) MD = 0.04 Not statistically significant, p =0.06 HomVEE = 0.10 Primary
Reversing roles No Effect Arizona sample 6 months 180 mothers Mean = 2.60(SD = 0.82) Mean = 2.47(SD = 0.66) MD = 0.13 Not statistically significant, p =0.32 HomVEE = 0.17 Primary
Reversing roles (AAPI-2) No Effect Arizona sample 12 months 168 mothers Not available Mean = 2.25(SD = 0.63) Not available Not statistically significant, p =0.33 Not available Primary
Safety practices No Effect Arizona sample 12 months 168 mothers Mean = 17.96(SD = 0.76) Mean = 17.07(SD = 0.76) MD = 0.89 Not statistically significant, p =0.42 HomVEE = 1.17 Primary
Safety practices Favorable Arizona sample 6 months 180 mothers Mean = 17.95(SD = 0.63) Mean = 16.05(SD = 0.63) MD = 1.9 Statistically significant, p = 0.04 HomVEE = 3.00 Primary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Aggressive discipline The authors developed a modified version of the Revised Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale that used the most serious indicators of abusive and neglectful behavior. Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Primary
Beliefin corporal punishment (AAPI-2) The Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory-2 (AAPI-2)was used to assess the child rearing attitudes of parents. The AAPI-2 includes five subscales: inappropriate expectations, parental lack of empathy, parental belief in corporal punishment, reversing parent-child family roles, and oppressing children’s power and independence. Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Primary
Inappropriate expectations (AAPI-2) The Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory-2 (AAPI-2)was used to assess the child rearing attitudes of parents. The AAPI-2 includes five subscales: inappropriate expectations, parental lack of empathy, parental belief in corporal punishment, reversing parent-child family roles, and oppressing children’s power and independence. Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Primary
Lack of empathy (AAPI-2) The Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory-2 (AAPI-2)was used to assess the child rearing attitudes of parents. The AAPI-2 includes five subscales: inappropriate expectations, parental lack of empathy, parental belief in corporal punishment, reversing parent-child family roles, and oppressing children’s power and independence. Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Primary
Mother's reading An estimate of the time spent reading to the child on a weekly basis Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Primary
Never called name, cursed The authors developed a modified version of the Revised Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale that used the most serious indicators of abusive and neglectful behavior. Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Secondary
Never hit elsewhere The authors developed a modified version of the Revised Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale that used the most serious indicators of abusive and neglectful behavior. Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Secondary
Never pinched child The authors developed a modified version of the Revised Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale that used the most serious indicators of abusive and neglectful behavior. Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Secondary
Never shouted, yelled at child The authors developed a modified version of the Revised Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale that used the most serious indicators of abusive and neglectful behavior. Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Secondary
Never slapped hand The authors developed a modified version of the Revised Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale that used the most serious indicators of abusive and neglectful behavior. Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Secondary
Never slapped on face The authors developed a modified version of the Revised Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale that used the most serious indicators of abusive and neglectful behavior. Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Secondary
Never smacked/threatened, hit The authors developed a modified version of the Revised Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale that used the most serious indicators of abusive and neglectful behavior. Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Secondary
Never spanked The authors developed a modified version of the Revised Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale that used the most serious indicators of abusive and neglectful behavior. Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Secondary
Never threw object at child The authors developed a modified version of the Revised Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scale that used the most serious indicators of abusive and neglectful behavior. Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Secondary
Oppressing child's independence (AAPI-2) The Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory-2 (AAPI-2)was used to assess the child rearing attitudes of parents. The AAPI-2 includes five subscales: inappropriate expectations, parental lack of empathy, parental belief in corporal punishment, reversing parent-child family roles, and oppressing children’s power and independence. Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Primary
Reversing roles (AAPI-2) The Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory-2 (AAPI-2)was used to assess the child rearing attitudes of parents. The AAPI-2 includes five subscales: inappropriate expectations, parental lack of empathy, parental belief in corporal punishment, reversing parent-child family roles, and oppressing children’s power and independence. Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Primary
Safety practices A safety practices index included a list of items that were validated as true or false such as parent has a car seat, poisons are not within child’s reach, and similar indicators.  Observation Not reported by author Primary
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Impact Studies Rated Moderate


Caldera, D., Burrell, L., Rodriguez, K., Crowne, S. S., Rohde, C., & Duggan, A. (2007). Impact of a statewide home visiting program on parenting and on child health and development. Child Abuse & Neglect, 31(8), 829–852. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2007.02.008
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Caregiver contingency score (NCAST) No Effect Biological mothers with custody of index child at interview, Alaska trial Year 2 249 mothers Adjusted mean = 15.4 Adjusted mean = 15 MD = 0.4 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Primary
Cognitive growth fostering (NCAST) No Effect Biological mothers with custody of index child at interview, Alaska trial Year 2 249 mothers Adjusted mean = 11.8 Adjusted mean = 11.9 MD = -0.1 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Primary
Infant caregiving (AAPI) No Effect Biological mothers with custody of index child at interview, Alaska trial Year 2 249 mothers Adjusted mean = 112.1 Adjusted mean = 109.5 MD = 2.6 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Primary
Maternal self-efficacy (Teti scale) Favorable Biological mothers with custody of index child at interview, Alaska trial Year 2 249 mothers Adjusted mean = 35.1 Adjusted mean = 34.6 MD = 0.5 Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
Not available Secondary
Parenting attitudes (AAPI) No Effect Biological mothers with custody of index child at interview, Alaska trial Year 2 249 mothers Adjusted mean = 130 Adjusted mean = 125.6 MD = 4.5 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Primary
Parenting knowledge (KIDI) No Effect Biological mothers with custody of index child at interview, Alaska trial Year 2 249 mothers Adjusted mean = 73.5 Adjusted mean = 70.7 MD = 2.8 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Secondary
Quality of home environment (HOME) No Effect Biological mothers with custody of index child at interview, Alaska trial Year 2 249 mothers Adjusted mean = 36.7 Adjusted mean = 35.9 MD = 0.8 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Primary
Recognition of child developmental delay No Effect Biological mothers with custody of index child at interview, Alaska trial Year 2 249 mothers 20% 24% Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
HomVEE = -0.14 Secondary
Response to distress (NCAST) No Effect Biological mothers with custody of index child at interview, Alaska trial Year 2 249 mothers Adjusted mean = 9.2 Adjusted mean = 8.9 MD = 0.3 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Primary
Sensitivity to cues (NCAST) No Effect Biological mothers with custody of index child at interview, Alaska trial Year 2 249 mothers Adjusted mean = 9.4 Adjusted mean = 9.2 MD = 0.2 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Primary
Social-emotional growth fostering (NCAST) No Effect Biological mothers with custody of index child at interview, Alaska trial Year 2 249 mothers Adjusted mean = 9 Adjusted mean = 8.8 MD = 0.2 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Primary
Use of mild physical strategies, frequency (CTS-PC) No Effect Biological mothers with custody of index child at interview, Alaska trial Year 2 249 mothers Adjusted mean = 4 Adjusted mean = 4.6 MD = -0.5 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Secondary
Use of nonviolent disciplinary strategies, frequency (CTS-PC) No Effect Biological mothers with custody of index child at interview, Alaska trial Year 2 249 mothers Adjusted mean = 50.4 Adjusted mean = 50.5 MD = -0.05 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Secondary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
AAPI: Infant Caregiving Inventory The AAPI assesses parenting and childrearing attitudes. In addition to the total score, the Infant Caregiving Inventory was used to examine caregiver beliefs and understanding of the influences of infant, caregiving practices on child and parental well-being. Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Primary
AAPI: Parenting attitudes The AAPI assesses parenting and childrearing attitudes. Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Primary
CTS-PC: Use of nonviolent disciplinary strategies
 
CTS-PC: Use of mild physical strategies
The CTS-PC assesses neglectful, psychologically aggressive, and abusive parenting behaviors and acts. The researchers analyzed the frequency with which nonviolent discipline strategies and mild physical strategies were used. Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Secondary
HOME: Total score The HOME assesses parenting practices and aspects of the home environment. Parent/caregiver interview and observational assessment Not reported by author Primary
KIDI The KIDI measures the parent’s knowledge of childrearing practices and developmental processes. Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Secondary
NCAST:
  • Caregiver total score
  • Sensitivity to cues
  • Response to distress
  • Social-emotional growth fostering
  • Cognitive growth fostering
The NCAST assesses the quality of teaching interaction between caregivers and young children. The researchers used the composite caregiver score and caregiver subscales related to sensitivity to cues from the child, response to the child’s distress, and fostering of social-emotional and cognitive development. The caregiver subscales and total scores were analyzed as continuous. The researchers also used a binary measure where those with total scores less than or equal to 35 were defined as having poor interaction. Observation Not reported by author Primary
Recognition of child developmental delay A measure comparing the child’s development with that of most other children. For children assessed as developmentally delayed, recognition of delay occurred if the parent responded that their child, was developing slower than other children. Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Secondary
Teti Maternal Self-efficacy Scale The Teti Maternal Self-efficacy Scale assesses self-evaluated parenting competence and effectiveness. Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Secondary

Duggan, A., Caldera, D., Rodriguez, K., Burrell, L., Rohde, C., & Crowne, S. S. (2007). Impact of a statewide home visiting program to prevent child abuse. Child Abuse & Neglect, 31(8), 801–827.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Attitudes toward corporal punishment (AAPI) No Effect Biological mothers with custody of index child at follow-up, Alaska trial Year 2 246 mothers Adjusted mean = 20.5 Adjusted mean = 10.1 MD = 0.38 Not Statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Primary
Poor caregiver interaction, (NCAST score = 35) No Effect Biological mothers with custody of index child at follow-up, Alaska trial Year 2 246 mothers 17% 21% OR = 0.79 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
HomVEE = -0.16 Primary
Poor quality home environment (HOME score = 33) Favorable Biological mothers with custody of index child at follow-up, Alaska trial Year 2 246 mothers 20% 31% OR 0.51 Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
HomVEE = -0.36 Primary
Total AAPI score No Effect Biological mothers with custody of index child at follow-up, Alaska trial Year 2 246 mothers Adjusted mean = 130.0 Adjusted mean = 125.6 MD = 4.47 Not Statistically significant,
p >: 0.05
Not available Primary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
AAPI: Attitudes toward corporal punishment
 
AAPI: Total score
The AAPI assesses parenting and childrearing attitudes. The researchers examined both the AAPI total score and a subscale of the Discipline Questionnaire that measured attitudes about the effectiveness of physical punishment. Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Primary
HOME: Poor-quality HOME environment (HOME score = 33) The HOME assesses parenting practices and aspects of the home environment. The researchers defined poor-quality home environment as a HOME total score below or equal to 33. Parent/caregiver interview and observational assessment Not reported by author Primary
NCAST: Poor caregiver interaction The NCAST assesses the quality of teaching interaction between caregivers and young children. The researchers define poor caregiver interaction as a composite NCAST caregiver score below or equal to 35. Observation Not reported by author Primary

Duggan, A., Fuddy, L., McFarlane, E., Burrell, L., Windham, A., Higman, S., et al. (2004). Evaluating a statewide home visiting program to prevent child abuse in at-risk families of newborns: Fathers’ participation and outcomes. Child Maltreatment, 9(1), 3–17. doi:10.1177/1077559503261336
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Change in father’s engagement score No Effect Full sample, Hawaii trial Years 1-3 600 families Not available Not available MD = 0.2 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Secondary
Change in father’s responsibility score No Effect Full sample, Hawaii trial Years 1-3 600 families Not available Not available MD = 0.0 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Secondary
Father has daily contact with child No Effect Full sample, Hawaii trial Years 1-3 600 families Not available Not available OR = 1.12 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Secondary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Change in father’s engagement score A measure based upon mother report of how often the father performed five tasks: (1) changing diapers/toilet training, (2) feeding the child, (3) comforting the child, (4) playing with the child, and (5) teaching the child new things. Scores for each item ranged from, from 0 to 4, with 4 representing the greatest engagement. Parent/caregiver report Cronbach’s α = 0.86 Secondary
Change in father’s responsibility score A measure of the share of responsibility that the father took for the child’s welfare. Mothers reported how the parents shared responsibility in assuring that (1) the child had an appropriate diet, (2) the child was learning and, developing appropriately, (3) the child always had a, trustworthy caregiver, and (4) the house was safe to, prevent injury to the child. Scores for each item ranged from 0 to 4, with 4 representing the greatest level of father responsibility. Parent/caregiver report Cronbach’s α = 0.89 Secondary
Father has daily contact with child Percentage of fathers who had daily contact with the child as reported by mothers Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary

Green, B. L., Tarte, J. M., Harrison, P. M., Nygren, M., & Sanders, M. B. (2014). Results from a randomized trial of the Healthy Families Oregon accredited statewide program: Early program impacts on parenting. Children and Youth Services Review, 44, 288-298.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Adult Adolescent Parenting Inventory Corporal Punishment Subscale (AAPI-CP) Score - full sample No Effect HF Oregon 2010-2012 Child's 1st birthday 763 mothers Adjusted mean = 1.89 Adjusted mean = 1.97 MD = -0.081 Not statistically significant, p>0.05 HomVEE = -0.10 Primary
Number of times in last month parent read to child - full sample Favorable HF Oregon 2010-2012 Child's 1st birthday 764 mothers Adjusted mean = 4.74 Adjusted mean = 4.43 MD = 0.31 Statistically significant, p = 0.00 HomVEE = 0.26 Secondary
Parent-Child Activities Scale (PCAS) score - full sample Favorable HF Oregon 2010-2012 Child's 1st birthday 764 mothers Adjusted mean = 4.84 Adjusted mean = 4.73 MD = 0.11 Statistically significant, p = 0.02 HomVEE = 0.15 Primary

1 Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Adult Adolescent Parenting Inventory Corporal Punishment Subscale (AAPI-CP) Score - full sample The Adult Adolescent Parenting Inventory-Corporal Punishment Subscale assesses parenting and childrearing attitudes on discipline. Parent/caregiver report Crohnbach's alpha = .77 Primary
Number of times in last month parent read to child - full sample This survey item asks for the number of times in the last month that the parent read to child. Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Secondary
Parent-Child Activities Scale (PCAS) score - full sample The Parent-Child Activities Scale assesses the frequency with which the parent engaged in several activities with the child that can stimulate cognitive and language development, including reading or telling stories, dancing, singing, and playing outside together. Parent/caregiver report Crohnbach's alpha = .678 Primary

Mitchell-Herzfeld, S., Izzo, C., Greene, R., Lee, E., & Lowenfels, A. (2005). Evaluation of Healthy Families New York (HFNY): First year program impacts. Albany, NY: University at Albany, Center for Human Services Research.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Attitudes: Empathy (AAPI-2) No Effect Full sample, NY trial Year 1 1,060 mothers Adjusted mean = 37.12 Adjusted mean = 36.64 MD = 0.48 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Primary
Attitudes: Inappropriate expectations (AAPI-2) No Effect Full sample, NY trial Year 1 1,060 mothers Adjusted mean = 19.11 Adjusted mean = 18.83 MD = 0.28 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Primary
Attitudes: Physical punishment (AAPI-2) No Effect Full sample, NY trial Year 1 1,060 mothers Adjusted mean = 38.43 Adjusted mean = 38.01 MD = 0.42 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Primary
Attitudes: Power/independence (AAPI-2) No Effect Full sample, NY trial Year 1 1,060 mothers Adjusted mean = 19.39 Adjusted mean = 19.4 MD = -0.01 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Primary
Attitudes: Role reversal (AAPI-2) No Effect Full sample, NY trial Year 1 1,060 mothers Adjusted mean = 23.59 Adjusted mean = 23.24 MD = 0.35 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Primary
Child safety checklist No Effect Full sample, NY trial Year 1 1,060 mothers 86.1% 85.9% Not available Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Secondary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
AAPI-2: Physical punishment, Inappropriate expectations, Empathy, Role reversal, Power and independence The AAPI-2 assesses parenting and childrearing attitudes. The researchers examined five subscales: inappropriate expectations, empathy, corporal punishment, role reversal, power, and independence Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Primary
Child Safety Checklist (CSC) The CSC assesses parental safety practices. Parents were asked how regularly they engaged in 23 child safety behaviors in the past year. Response choices included some of the time, none of the time, or all of the time. The authors analyzed the percentage of practices that parents reported doing all of the time. Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Secondary
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