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Healthy Families America (HFA)®

Meets DHHS criteria for an evidenced based model

Last Updated: April 2017

Effects Shown in Research & Outcome Measure Details for Maternal Health Outcomes

Impact Studies Rated High


Duggan, A. K., McFarlane, E. C., Windham, A. M., Rohde, C. A., Salkever, D. S., Fuddy, L., et al. (1999). Evaluation of Hawaii’s Healthy Start program. Future of Children, 9(1), 66–90; discussion 177–178.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Confidence in adult relations No Effect Full sample, Hawaii trial Year 1 564 mothers Mean = 34.3 Mean = 33.8 MD = 0.5 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Secondary
Confidence in adult relations No Effect Full sample, Hawaii trial Year 2 567 mothers Mean = 34.4 Mean = 33.7 MD = 0.7 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Secondary
Maternal life skills (CLSS) No Effect Full sample, Hawaii trial Year 2 567 mothers Mean = 23.9 Mean = 23.9 MD = 0.0 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Secondary
Maternal life skills (CLSS) No Effect Full sample, Hawaii trial Year 1 564 mothers Mean = 24.2 Mean = 24.3 MD = -0.1 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Secondary
Maternal social support (MSSI) No Effect Full sample, Hawaii trial Year 1 564 mothers Mean = 21.5 Mean = 21.9 MD = -0.4 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Secondary
Maternal social support (MSSI) No Effect Full sample, Hawaii trial Year 2 567 mothers Mean = 21.4 Mean = 21.7 MD = -0.3 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Secondary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
CLSS: Maternal life skills The CLSS assesses a person’s transportation, budgeting, support service, support-involvement, interests-hobbies, regularity/organization routines, practices, and resources. Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Secondary
Confidence in adult relations No description provided by author Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Secondary
MSSI: Maternal social support The MSSI assesses caregiver social support with regard to the division of household tasks and responsibilities for child rearing, access to transportation, interaction with other adults, and community involvement. Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Secondary
PSOC The PSOC measures parent attitudes and self-efficacy. Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Secondary

Duggan, A., Caldera, D., Rodriguez, K., Burrell, L., Rohde, C., & Crowne, S. S. (2007). Impact of a statewide home visiting program to prevent child abuse. Child Abuse & Neglect, 31(8), 801–827.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Alcohol or drug use No Effect Biological mothers with custody of index child at interview, Alaska trial Year 2 249 mothers 28% 33% OR = 0.80 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
HomVEE = -0.14 Secondary
Any illicit drug use No Effect Biological mothers with custody of index child at interview, Alaska trial Year 2 249 mothers 21% 18% OR = 1.23 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
HomVEE = 0.12 Secondary
Problem alcohol use No Effect Biological mothers with custody of index child at interview, Alaska trial Year 2 249 mothers 13% 22% OR = 0.52 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
HomVEE = -0.39 Secondary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Alcohol or drug use Percentage of parents with a positive CAGE score and who drank in the past year or who had any illicit drug use in 2 years prior to baseline interview Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Any illicit drug use Percentage of parents who engaged in illicit drug use, defined as a report of any illegal drug use in the past 2 years Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Problem alcohol use Percentage of parents with problem alcohol use, defined as a report of alcohol use in the year prior to pregnancy and a CAGE score greater than or equal to 2 Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Secondary

Duggan, A., Fuddy, L., Burrell, L., Higman, S. M., McFarlane, E., Windham, A., et al. (2004). Randomized trial of a statewide home visiting program to prevent child abuse: Impact in reducing parental risk factors. Child Abuse & Neglect, 28(6), 623–643.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Illicit drug use No Effect Full sample, Hawaii trial Years 1-3 564 mothers Not available Not available OR = 1.06 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Secondary
Illicit drug use No Effect Full sample, Hawaii trial Year 2 556 mothers 10% 11% -1 Statistical significance not reported HomVEE = -0.06 Secondary
Illicit drug use No Effect Full sample, Hawaii trial Year 3 548 mothers 11% 9% 2 Statistical significance not reported HomVEE = 0.14 Secondary
Illicit drug use No Effect Full sample, Hawaii trial Year 1 564 mothers 9% 9% 0 Statistical significance not reported HomVEE = 0.00 Secondary
Mothers with depressive symptoms (CES-D) No Effect Full sample, Hawaii trial Year 2 556 mothers 16% 18% -2 Statistical significance not reported HomVEE = -0.09 Secondary
Mothers with depressive symptoms (CES-D) No Effect Full sample, Hawaii trial Year 3 548 mothers 16% 16% 0 Statistical significance not reported HomVEE = 0.00 Secondary
Mothers with depressive symptoms (CES-D) No Effect Full sample, Hawaii trial Year 1 564 mothers 23% 23% 0 Statistical significance not reported HomVEE = 0.00 Secondary
Mothers with depressive symptoms (CES-D) No Effect Full sample, Hawaii trial Years 1-3 564 mothers Not available Not available OR = 0.971 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Secondary
Poor general mental health (MHI < 67) No Effect Full sample, Hawaii trial Year 2 556 mothers 35% 38% -3 Statistical significance not reported HomVEE = -0.20 Secondary
Poor general mental health (MHI < 67) No Effect Full sample, Hawaii trial Year 1 564 mothers 36% 46% -10 Statistical significance not reported HomVEE = -0.25 Secondary
Poor general mental health (MHI < 67) No Effect Full sample, Hawaii trial Year 3 548 mothers 29% 32% -3 Statistical significance not reported HomVEE = -0.09 Secondary
Problem alcohol use (CAGE Alcohol Screening">CAGE) No Effect Full sample, Hawaii trial Year 1 564 mothers 8% 10% -2 Statistical significance not reported HomVEE = -0.15 Secondary
Problem alcohol use (CAGE Alcohol Screening">CAGE) No Effect Full sample, Hawaii trial Year 3 548 mothers 7% 10% -3 Statistical significance not reported HomVEE = -0.24 Secondary
Problem alcohol use (CAGE Alcohol Screening">CAGE) No Effect Full sample, Hawaii trial Year 2 556 mothers 8% 9% -1 Statistical significance not reported HomVEE = -0.08 Secondary
Problem alcohol use (CAGE Alcohol Screening">CAGE) No Effect Full sample, Hawaii trial Years 1-3 564 mothers Not available Not available OR = 0.76 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Secondary
Severe parenting stress (PSI) No Effect Full sample, Hawaii trial Years 1-3 564 mothers Not available Not available OR = 1.04 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Primary
Severe parenting stress (PSI) No Effect Full sample, Hawaii trial Year 3 548 mothers 8% 8% 0 Statistical significance not reported HomVEE = 0.00 Primary
Severe parenting stress (PSI) No Effect Full sample, Hawaii trial Year 1 564 mothers 11% 10% 1 Statistical significance not reported HomVEE = 0.06 Primary
Severe parenting stress (PSI) No Effect Full sample, Hawaii trial Year 2 556 mothers 8% 9% -1 Statistical significance not reported HomVEE = -0.08 Primary

1 Adjusted odds ratios are based on the average effect across all follow-up years.

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
CES-D: Depressive symptoms The CES-D is a 20-item assessment of depressive symptoms. A binary variable was formed from the total score where parents with scores greater than or equal to 24 were said to have probable cases of depression. Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Secondary
Illicit drug use Percentage of parents who engaged in illicit drug use, defined as a report of any illegal drug use in the past year Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Secondary
MHI: Poor general mental health The MHI assesses levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms. The researchers created a binary variable where those with MHI scores less than 67 were considered to have poor mental health. Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Secondary
Problem alcohol use (CAGE) Percentage of parents with problem alcohol use, defined as a report of alcohol use in the year prior to pregnancy and a CAGE score greater than or equal to 2 Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Secondary
PSI: Severe parenting stress The PSI assesses stress in the parent-child relationship arising from child temperament, parental depression, and negatively reinforcing parent-child interactions. A mother was considered positive for severe parenting stress if she scored positive for personal adjustment problems, child abuse potential, or high child abuse potential as defined by Abidin. Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Primary

El-Kamary, S. S., Higman, S. M., Fuddy, L., McFarlane, E., Sia, C., & Duggan, A. K. (2004). Hawaii’s Healthy Start home visiting program: Determinants and impact of rapid repeat birth. Pediatrics, 114(3), e317–e326.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Did not use birth control after index child’s birth No Effect Full sample, Hawaii trial One year postpartum 564 mothers 18% (adjusted) 20% (adjusted) OR = 0.85 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
HomVEE = -0.08 Secondary
Maternal desire for RRB No Effect Full sample, Hawaii trial One year postpartum 564 mothers 9% (adjusted) 11% (adjusted) OR = 0.80 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
HomVEE = -0.14 Secondary
No family planning site No Effect Full sample, Hawaii trial One year postpartum 564 mothers 15% (adjusted) 14% (adjusted) OR = 1.06 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
HomVEE = 0.05 Secondary
Rapidrepeat birth (RRB)1 No Effect Full sample, Hawaii trial One year postpartum 564 mothers 21% (adjusted) 20% (adjusted) OR = 1.05 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
HomVEE = 0.04 Secondary

1 Rapid repeat birth is defined as a birth occurring within 24 months after a previous birth or a repeat birth while still a teen for adolescent mothers (El-Kamary et al., 2004).

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Did not use birth control after index child’s birth Percentage of mothers who were not using birth control at the time of the interview and who did not use any birth control since the index birth Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Maternal desire for RRB Percentage of mothers who desired to have another child within 2 years after the index birth Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
No family-planning site Percentage of mothers who lacked access to a family-planning site Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Rapidrepeat birth (RRB) Percentage of mothers who had a repeat birth within 24 months after the index birth or, for teenagers, had a repeat birth at any time through the age of 19 years Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary

Landsverk, J., Carrilio, T., Connelly, C. D., Ganger, W., Slymen, D., Newton, R., et al. (2002). Healthy Families San Diego clinical trial: Technical report. San Diego, CA: The Stuart Foundation, California Wellness Foundation, State of California Department of Social Services: Office of Child Abuse Prevention.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Above threshold for depression (CES-D = 16) No Effect Full sample, San Diego trial Year 1 follow-up 435 mothers 39% 42% -3 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
HomVEE = -0.08 Secondary
Above threshold for depression (CES-D = 16) No Effect Full sample, San Diego trial Year 3 follow-up 412 mothers 33% 29% 4 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
HomVEE = 0.11 Secondary
Confidence in adult relationships No Effect Full sample, San Diego trial Year 3 follow-up 412 mothers Mean = 33.7
SD = 5.5
Mean = 33.8
SD = 5.0
MD = -0.1 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
HomVEE = -0.02 Secondary
Confidence in adult relationships No Effect Full sample, San Diego trial Year 1 follow-up 435 mothers Mean = 33.4
SD = 4.7
Mean = 33.8
SD = 4.7
MD = -0.4 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
HomVEE = -0.08 Secondary
Depressive symptoms (CES-D) No Effect Full sample, San Diego trial Year 1 follow-up 435 mothers Mean = 14.5
SD = 9.9
Mean = 15.5
SD = 9.8
MD = -1.0 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
HomVEE = -0.10 Secondary
Depressive symptoms (CES-D) No Effect Full sample, San Diego trial Year 3 follow-up 412 mothers Mean = 12.5
SD = 8.9
Mean = 12.9
SD = 9.0
MD = -0.4 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
HomVEE = -0.04 Secondary
Drinks per day No Effect Full sample, San Diego trial Year 3 follow-up 412 mothers Mean = 2.1
SD = 1.3
Mean = 2.4
SD = 2.5
MD = -0.3 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
HomVEE = -0.15 Secondary
Drinks per day No Effect Full sample, San Diego trial Year 1 follow-up 435 mothers Mean = 2.5
SD = 2.5
Mean = 2.3
SD = 2.4
MD = 0.2 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
HomVEE = 0.08 Secondary
Maternal social support (MHI) No Effect Full sample, San Diego trial Year 1 follow-up 435 mothers Mean = 18.6 Mean = 19.1 MD = -0.5 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
HomVEE = 0.00 Secondary
Mental Health (MHI) No Effect Full sample, San Diego trial Year 1 follow-up 435 mothers Mean = 22.9
SD = 4.8
Mean = 22.2
SD = 4.7
MD = 0.7 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
HomVEE = 0.15 Secondary
Mental Health (MHI) No Effect Full sample, San Diego trial Year 3 follow-up 412 mothers Mean = 24.0
SD = 4.5
Mean = 24.1
SD = 4.2
MD = -0.1 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
HomVEE = -0.02 Secondary
Parenting Stress (PSI) No Effect Full sample, San Diego trial Year 1 435 mothers Mean = 72.4
SD = 20.2
Mean = 71.2
SD = 21
MD = 1.2 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
HomVEE = 0.06 Primary
Parenting Stress (PSI) No Effect Full sample, San Diego trial Year 3 412 mothers Mean = 71.2
SD = 19.2
Mean = 72.8
SD = 20
MD = -1.6 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
HomVEE = -0.08 Primary
Problem substance use (CAGE Alcohol Screening">CAGE) No Effect Full sample, San Diego trial Year 3 follow-up 412 mothers 9% 10% -1 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
HomVEE = -0.07 Secondary
Problem substance use (CAGE Alcohol Screening">CAGE) No Effect Full sample, San Diego trial Year 1 follow-up 435 mothers 21% 18% 3 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
HomVEE = 0.54 Secondary
Repeat birth within 36 months of index birth No Effect Full sample, San Diego trial Year 3 follow-up 412 mothers 27% 22% 5 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
HomVEE = 0.16 Secondary
Repeat pregnancy within 36 months of index birth No Effect Full sample, San Diego trial Year 3 follow-up 412 mothers 43% 50% -7 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
HomVEE = 0.15 Secondary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
CES-D: Above threshold for depression The CES-D is a 20-item assessment of depressive symptoms. The researchers examined the total score and a binary measure indicating whether the total depression score was at or above a cutoff of 16. Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Secondary
CES-D: Depressive symptoms The CES-D is a 20-item assessment of depressive symptoms. The researchers examined the total score and a binary measure indicating whether the total depression score was at or above a cutoff of 16. Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Secondary
Confidence in adult relationships No description provided by author Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Secondary
Drinks per day Number of drinks the parent consumed per day on average Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
MHI The MHI assesses levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Parenting Stress (PSI) The PSI assesses stress in the parent-child relationship arising from child temperament, parental depression, and negatively reinforcing parent-child interactions. Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Secondary
Problem substance use (CAGE) Percentage of parents with problem alcohol use, defined as a report of alcohol use in the year prior to pregnancy and a CAGE score greater than or equal to 2 Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Secondary
Repeat pregnancy within 36 months of index birth Percentage of mothers who had a repeat birth within 36 months after the index birth Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary

LeCroy, C. W., & Krysik, J. (2011). Randomized trial of the Healthy Families Arizona home visiting program. Children and Youth Services Review, 33(10), 1761–1766.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Alcohol use Favorable Arizona sample 12 months 171 mothers Mean = 12.0% Mean = 20.5% MD = -8.5 Statistically significant, p = 0.04 HomVEE = -0.40 Secondary
Alcohol use No Effect Arizona sample 6 months 180 mothers Mean = 16.5% Mean = 35.2% MD = -18.7 Not available HomVEE = -0.59 Secondary
Using birth control No Effect Arizona sample 6 months 180 mothers Mean = 65.8% Mean = 65.1% MD = 0.7 Not statistically significant, p = 0.061 HomVEE = 0.03 Secondary
Using birth control No Effect Arizona sample 12 months 171 mothers Not available Mean = 72.2% Not available Not statistically significant, p = 0.54 Not available Secondary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Alcohol use Alcohol use was measured by a series of questions that included: Do you drink beer or alcohol? To which the mother could answer yes or no. If the mother answered yes, then another question was asked: In the past two weeks how many times did you drink beer or alcohol? Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Using birth control A measure of consistent use of birth control since last birth Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
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Impact Studies Rated Moderate


Anisfeld, E., Sandy, J., & Guterman, N. B. (2004). Best Beginnings: A randomized controlled trial of a paraprofessional home visiting program: Technical report. Report to the Smith Richardson Foundation and New York State Office of Children and Family Services. New York: Columbia University School of Social Work.
Additional Sources:

Anisfeld, E., Sandy, J., & Guterman, N. B. (2004). Best Beginnings: A randomized controlled trial of a paraprofessional home visiting program: Executive summary. Report to the Smith Richardson Foundation and New York State Office of Children and Family Services. New York: Columbia University School of Social Work.

Anisfeld, E., Sandy, J., & Guterman, N. B. (2004). Best Beginnings: A randomized controlled trial of a paraprofessional home visiting program: Narrative summary. Report to the Smith Richardson Foundation and New York State Office of Children and Family Services. New York: Columbia University School of Social Work

Rausch, J.C., M. McCord, M. Batista, and E. Anisfeld. (2012) “Latino Immigrant Children’s Health: Effects of Sociodemographic Variables and of a Preventative Intervention Program.” International Journal of Population Research, pp. 1-8, doi: 10.1155/2012/250276.

Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Perceived social support (MSSI) No Effect Program group members not affected by substance abuse,
NY Best Beginnings trial
6 months 354 mothers Mean = 6.2
SD = 3.2
Mean = 7.2
SD = 3.2
MD = -1.0 Statistical significance not reported HomVEE = -0.31 Secondary
Perceived social support (MSSI) No Effect Program group members not affected by substance abuse,
NY Best Beginnings trial
12 months 325 mothers Mean = 6.5
SD = 3.0
Mean = 6.6
SD = 3.0
MD = -0.1 Statistical significance not reported HomVEE = -0.03 Secondary
Perceived social support (MSSI) No Effect Program group members not affected by substance abuse,
NY Best Beginnings trial
24 months 274 mothers Mean = 6.2
SD = 3.3
Mean = 6.6
SD = 3.1
MD = -0.4 Statistical significance not reported HomVEE = -0.12 Secondary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
MSSI: Perceived Social Support The MSSI assesses caregiver social support with regard to the division of household tasks and responsibilities for child rearing, access to transportation, interaction with other adults, and community involvement. The researchers analyzed the 3-item Perceived Social Support subscale, with possible scores ranging from 0 to 13. Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Secondary

Green, B. L., Tarte, J. M., Harrison, P. M., Nygren, M., & Sanders, M. B. (2014). Results from a randomized trial of the Healthy Families Oregon accredited statewide program: Early program impacts on parenting. Children and Youth Services Review, 44, 288-298.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
CDC Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) measure of maternal depression- full sample No Effect HF Oregon 2010-2012 Child's 1st birthday 764 mothers Adjusted mean = 2.17 Adjusted mean = 2.22 MD = -0.051 Not statistically significant, p>0.05 HomVEE = -0.06 Secondary
Parenting Stress Index - Short Form (PSI) - General Distress subscale score - full sample No Effect HF Oregon 2010-2012 Child's 1st birthday 764 mothers Adjusted mean = 1.78 Adjusted mean = 1.86 MD = -0.081 Not statistically significant, p>0.05 HomVEE = -0.11 Primary
Parenting Stress Index - Short Form (PSI) - Parenting Stress subscale score - full sample No Effect HF Oregon 2010-2012 Child's 1st birthday 764 mothers Adjusted mean = 2.02 Adjusted mean = 2.14 MD = -0.121 Not statistically significant, p = 0.07 HomVEE = -0.14 Primary
Parenting Stress Index - Short Form (PSI) Total Score No Effect HF Oregon 2010-2012 Child's 1st birthday 764 mothers Adjusted mean = 1.90 Adjusted mean = 2.00 MD = -0.101 Not statistically significant, p = 0.06 HomVEE = -0.14 Primary
Protective Factors Survey (PFS) - Family Functioning Subscale - full sample No Effect HF Oregon 2010-2012 Child's 1st birthday 764 mothers Adjusted mean = 4.16 Adjusted mean = 4.15 MD = 0.01 Not statistically significant, p>0.05 HomVEE = 0.01 Secondary

1 Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
CDC Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) measure of maternal depression- full sample CDC Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) is a 3-item measure of maternal depression. Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Secondary
Parenting Stress Index - Short Form (PSI) - General Distress subscale score - full sample The Parenting Stress Index-Short Form General Distress subscale. Parent/caregiver report Crohnbach's alpha = .715 Primary
Parenting Stress Index - Short Form (PSI) - Parenting Stress subscale score - full sample The Parenting Stress Index-Short Form Parental Distress subscale measures the level of distress parents feel in their role because of personal factors. Parent/caregiver report Crohnbach's alpha = .638 Primary
Parenting Stress Index - Short Form (PSI) Total Score The Parenting Stress Index-Short Form assesses stress in the parent-child relationship arising from child temperament, parental depression, and negatively reinforcing parent-child interactions. Parent/caregiver report Crohnbach's alpha = .794 Primary
Protective Factors Survey (PFS) - Family Functioning Subscale - full sample The Protective Factors Survey (PFS) - Family Functioning Subscale assesses whether a family has adaptive skills and strategies to persevere in times of crisis. Parent/caregiver report Crohnbach's alpha = .845 Secondary

Jacobs, F., Easterbrooks, A., & Mistry, J. (2015). The Massachusetts Healthy Families evaluation-2 (MHFE-2): A randomized, controlled trial of a statewide home visiting program for young parents: Final report to the Children's Trust of Massachusetts. Report to the Children’s Trust of Massachusetts. Medford, MA: Tufts Interdisciplinary Evaluation Research.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Repeat pregnancy (self report), time 3 No Effect MA sample 2 years post enrollment 612 mothers Not reported Not reported OR = 0.94 Not statistically significant, p = 0.72 HomVEE = -0.041 Secondary

1 Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Repeat pregnancy (self report), time 3 Interview question on whether the mother had become pregnant again since the birth of the target child Mother self-report Not reported Secondary

Jacobs, F., Easterbrooks, M. A., Goldberg, J., Mistry, J., Bumgarner, E., Raskin, M., Fosse, N., & Fauth, R. (2015). Improving adolescent parenting: Results from a randomized controlled trial of a home visiting program for young families. American Journal of Public Health, published online ahead of print, e1-e7.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Repeated birth No Effect MA sample 2 years post enrollment 612 mothers Not reported Not reported OR = 0.73 Not statistically significant, p = 0.161 HomVEE = -0.19 Secondary

1 The HomVEE-calculated p-value of the effect size is statistically significant (p=0.02)

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Repeated birth Percentage of mothers who gave birth subsequent to the target child Mother self-report Not reported Secondary

Johns Hopkins University. (2005). Evaluation of the Healthy Families Alaska program. Report to Alaska State Department of Health and Social Services, Alaska Mental Health Trust Authority. Baltimore, MD: Author.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Rapid repeat birth1 No Effect Full sample, Alaska trial Child age 2 325 mothers 16% 17% OR = 0.96 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
HomVEE = -0.04 Secondary

1 Rapid repeat birth is defined as a birth occurring within 24 months after a previous birth or a repeat birth while still a teen for adolescent mothers (El-Kamary et al., 2004).

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Rapid repeat birth Percentage of mothers who had a repeat birth within 24 months after the index birth Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Secondary

LeCroy, C. W., & Krysik, J. (2011). Randomized trial of the Healthy Families Arizona home visiting program. Children and Youth Services Review, 33(10), 1761–1766.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Emotional loneliness No Effect Arizona sample 6 months 180 mothers Mean = 1.75(SD = 0.68) Mean = 1.74(SD = 0.71) MD = 0.01 Not statistically significant, p = 0.034 HomVEE = 0.01 Secondary
Pathways to goal No Effect Arizona sample 6 months 180 mothers Mean = 13.0(SD = 0.19) Mean = 13.17(SD = 0.21) MD = -0.17 Not statistically significant, p =0.12 HomVEE = -0.89 Secondary
Pathways to goal No Effect Arizona sample 12 months 171 mothers Mean = 12.96(SD = 0.19) Mean = 12.69(SD = 0.12) MD = 0.27 Not statistically significant, p =0.87 HomVEE = 1.69 Primary
Use of resources Favorable Arizona sample 12 months 171 mothers Mean = 2.53(SD = 0.5) Mean = 1.95(SD = 0.14) MD = 0.58 Statistically significant, p =0.001 HomVEE = 1.58 Secondary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Emotional loneliness The Emotional/Social Loneliness Inventory was used to examine coping and the sense of isolation. Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Primary
Pathways to goal The authors used the Adult Hope Scale subscale that measures the ability to plan for personal goal achievement and referred to it as pathway to goals. Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Secondary
Use of resources A scale representing the number of resources the family reported using such as mental health counseling, financial counseling, center-based family assistance, and so forth Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary

Lee, E., Mitchell-Herzfeld, S., Lowenfels, A. A., Greene, R., Dorabawila, V., & DuMont, K. A. (2009). Reducing low birth weight through home visitation: A randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 36(2), 154–160.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Frequency of prenatal care visits during third trimester Favorable Full sample At birth 456 Not reported Not reported Not available Statistically significant, p<0.051 Not reported Secondary
Mother has primary care provider Favorable Full sample At birth 461 Unadjusted proportion = 0.94 Unadjusted proportion = 0.88 Not reported Statistically significant, p<0.05 Not reported Secondary

1 HomVEE reported p value.

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Frequency of prenatal care visits during third trimester Mother was asked about the frequency of prenatal care visits during third trimester. Maternal interview Not reported Secondary
Mother has primary care provider Mother was asked if had primary care provider. Maternal interview Not reported Secondary

Mitchell-Herzfeld, S., Izzo, C., Greene, R., Lee, E., & Lowenfels, A. (2005). Evaluation of Healthy Families New York (HFNY): First year program impacts. Albany, NY: University at Albany, Center for Human Services Research.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Above alcohol abuse cutoff (AUDIT) No Effect Full sample, NY Trial Year 1 1,061 mothers 2.0% (adjusted) 3.8% (adjusted) -1.8 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Secondary
Above depression threshold (CES-D) No Effect Full sample, NY Trial Year 1 1,061 mothers 29.0% (adjusted) 31.2% (adjusted) -2.2 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Secondary
Alcohol abuse (AUDIT) No Effect Full sample, NY Trial Year 1 1,061 mothers Adjusted mean = 1.14 Adjusted mean = 1.28 MD = -0.14 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Secondary
Depressive symptoms (CES-D) No Effect Full sample, NY Trial Year 1 1,061 mothers Adjusted mean = 11.45 Adjusted mean = 11.61 MD = -0.16 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Secondary
Drug use No Effect Full sample, NY Trial Year 1 1,061 mothers 9.8% (adjusted) 10.6% (adjusted) -0.8 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Secondary
Mother has health insurance No Effect Full sample, NY Trial Year 1 1,061 mothers 80.1% (adjusted) 78.4% (adjusted) 1.7 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Secondary
Mother has primary care physician No Effect Full sample, NY Trial Year 1 1,061 mothers 86.9% (adjusted) 85.0% (adjusted) 1.9 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Secondary
Sense of personal mastery (PSM) No Effect Full sample, NY Trial Year 1 1,061 mothers Adjusted mean = 23.80 Adjusted mean = 23.55 MD = 0.25 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Secondary
Smoking No Effect Full sample, NY Trial Year 1 1,061 mothers 41.3% (adjusted) 43.8% (adjusted) -2.5 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Secondary
Smoking frequency No Effect Full sample, NY Trial Year 1 1,061 mothers Adjusted mean = 3.42 Adjusted mean = 3.93 MD = -0.51 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Not available Secondary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
AUDIT: Alcohol abuse The AUDIT assesses the degree to which a person’s alcohol use is harmful. Respondents reported the frequency with which they experienced eight, different symptoms of alcohol abuse, with possible scores ranging from 0 to 32. A score of 8 or more indicated a strong likelihood of alcohol abuse. The researchers examined the total score and a binary variable representing whether a respondent was above or below the cutoff of 8. Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Secondary

CES-D: Depressive symptoms

CES-D: Above depression threshold

The CES-D is a 20-item assessment of depressive symptoms. The researchers examined the total score (range 0–60) and a binary measure indicating whether the total depression score was at or above a cutoff of 16, which defined cases of probable depression. Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Secondary
DAST: Drug use The DAST assesses the degree to which a person’s use of illegal or legal drugs is harmful. The researchers used the instrument to examine the percentage of parents who reported using illegal drugs. Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Secondary
Mastery ofPsychological CopingResources Scale(PSM): Sense of personal mastery The PSM assesses the extent to which respondents believe that their life chances are under their own control. The assessment measures the degree of agreement with eight statements related to the respondents’ capacity to affect events and circumstances in their lives. Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Secondary
Mother has health insurance Percentage of mothers who had health insurance coverage Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Mother has primary care physician Percentage of mothers who had a primary care physician Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Smoking Percentage of parents who reported smoking cigarettes Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Smoking frequency Average number of cigarettes smoked per day Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
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