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Healthy Families America (HFA)®

Meets DHHS criteria for an evidenced based model

Last Updated: April 2017

In Brief for Linkages and Referrals Outcomes

Impact Studies Rated Moderate


Anisfeld, E., Sandy, J., & Guterman, N. B. (2004). Best Beginnings: A randomized controlled trial of a paraprofessional home visiting program: Technical report. Report to the Smith Richardson Foundation and New York State Office of Children and Family Services. New York: Columbia University School of Social Work.
Additional Sources:

Anisfeld, E., Sandy, J., & Guterman, N. B. (2004). Best Beginnings: A randomized controlled trial of a paraprofessional home visiting program: Executive summary. Report to the Smith Richardson Foundation and New York State Office of Children and Family Services. New York: Columbia University School of Social Work.

Anisfeld, E., Sandy, J., & Guterman, N. B. (2004). Best Beginnings: A randomized controlled trial of a paraprofessional home visiting program: Narrative summary. Report to the Smith Richardson Foundation and New York State Office of Children and Family Services. New York: Columbia University School of Social Work

Rausch, J.C., M. McCord, M. Batista, and E. Anisfeld. (2012) “Latino Immigrant Children’s Health: Effects of Sociodemographic Variables and of a Preventative Intervention Program.” International Journal of Population Research, pp. 1-8, doi: 10.1155/2012/250276.

Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Referral to adult primary care No Effect Full sample 24 months postpartum 289 families 20% 17% 3 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.10
HomVEE = 0.12 Primary
Referral to AFDC or food stamps No Effect Full sample 24 months postpartum 289 families 33% 26% 7 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.10
HomVEE = 0.20 Primary
Referral to child health plus No Effect Full sample 24 months postpartum 289 families 18% 16% 2 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.10
HomVEE = 0.09 Primary
Referral to counseling No Effect Full sample 24 months postpartum 289 families 28% 21% 7 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.10
HomVEE = 0.23 Primary
Referral to daycare/babysitting No Effect Full sample 24 months postpartum 289 families 52% 50% 2 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.10
HomVEE = 0.05 Primary
Referral to domestic violence services No Effect Full sample 24 months postpartum 289 families 10% 5% 5 Not statistically significant, p > 0.101 HomVEE = 0.45 Primary
Referral to early intervention program No Effect Full sample 24 months postpartum 289 families 28% 24% 4 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.10
HomVEE = 0.13 Primary
Referral to English as a Second Language No Effect Full sample 24 months postpartum 289 families 44% 36% 8 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.10
HomVEE = 0.20 Primary
Referral to family planning Favorable Full sample 24 months postpartum 289 families 25% 10% 15 Statistically significant,
p < 0.01
HomVEE = 0.67 Primary
Referral to food pantry No Effect Full sample 24 months postpartum 289 families 25% 19% 6 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.10
HomVEE = 0.21 Primary
Referral to GED prep No Effect Full sample 24 months postpartum 289 families 29% 26% -7 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.10
HomVEE = 0.09 Primary
Referral to housing assistance No Effect Full sample 24 months postpartum 289 families 33% 37% -4 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.10
HomVEE = -0.11 Primary
Referral to immigration services No Effect Full sample 24 months postpartum 289 families 30% 23% 7 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.10
HomVEE = 0.22 Primary
Referral to job skills/search No Effect Full sample 24 months postpartum 289 families 43% 39% 4 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.10
HomVEE = 0.10 Primary
Referral to Medicaid No Effect Full sample 24 months postpartum 289 families 30% 36% -6 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.10
HomVEE = -0.16 Primary
Referral to parenting education or training Unfavorable Full sample 24 months postpartum 289 families 14% 31% -17 Statistically significant,
p < 0.001
HomVEE = -0.62 Primary
Referral to pediatric primary care No Effect Full sample 24 months postpartum 289 families 41% 32% 9 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.10
1
HomVEE = 0.24 Primary
Referral to WIC No Effect Full sample 24 months postpartum 289 families 19% 12% 7 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.10
1
HomVEE = 0.33 Primary

1 In contrast to the study-reported results, HomVEE calculations showed this difference to be statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05). The HomVEE tests of statistical significance are based on the HomVEE calculated effect sizes, whereas authors may have used other techniques to determine statistical significance, such as regression models or analyses of variance (ANOVA).

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Referral to adult primary care Percentage of families with one or more service referrals for adult primary care Review of Service Referral Forms completed by home visitors at the time of referral Not applicable Primary
Referral to AFDC or food stamps Percentage of families with one or more service referrals for AFDC or food stamps Review of Service Referral Forms completed by home visitors at the time of referral Not applicable Primary
Referral to child health plus Percentage of families with one or more service referrals for child health plus Review of Service Referral Forms completed by home visitors at the time of referral Not applicable Primary
Referral to counseling Percentage of families with one or more service referrals for counseling Review of Service Referral Forms completed by home visitors at the time of referral Not applicable Primary
Referral to daycare/babysitting Percentage of families with one or more service referrals for daycare/babysitting Review of Service Referral Forms completed by home visitors at the time of referral Not applicable Primary
Referral to domestic violence services Percentage of families with one or more service referrals for domestic violence services Review of Service Referral Forms completed by home visitors at the time of referral Not applicable Primary
Referral to early intervention program Percentage of families with one or more service referrals for early intervention program Review of Service Referral Forms completed by home visitors at the time of referral Not applicable Primary
Referral to English as a Second Language Percentage of families with one or more service referrals for English as a Second Language Review of Service Referral Forms completed by home visitors at the time of referral Not applicable Primary
Referral to family planning Percentage of families with one or more service referrals for family planning Review of Service Referral Forms completed by home visitors at the time of referral Not applicable Primary
Referral to food pantry Percentage of families with one or more service referrals for food pantry Review of Service Referral Forms completed by home visitors at the time of referral Not applicable Primary
Referral to GED prep Percentage of families with one or more service referrals for GED prep Review of Service Referral Forms completed by home visitors at the time of referral Not applicable Primary
Referral to housing assistance Percentage of families with one or more service referrals for housing assistance Review of Service Referral Forms completed by home visitors at the time of referral Not applicable Primary
Referral to immigration services Percentage of families with one or more service referrals for immigration services Review of Service Referral Forms completed by home visitors at the time of referral Not applicable Primary
Referral to job skills/search Percentage of families with one or more service referrals for job skills/search Review of Service Referral Forms completed by home visitors at the time of referral Not applicable Primary
Referral to Medicaid Percentage of families with one or more service referrals for Medicaid Review of Service Referral Forms completed by home visitors at the time of referral Not applicable Primary
Referral to parenting education or training Percentage of families with one or more service referrals for parenting education or training Review of Service Referral Forms completed by home visitors at the time of referral Not applicable Primary
Referral to pediatric primary care Percentage of families with one or more service referrals for pediatric primary care Review of Service Referral Forms completed by home visitors at the time of referral Not applicable Primary
Referral to WIC Percentage of families with one or more service referrals for WIC Review of Service Referral Forms completed by home visitors at the time of referral Not applicable Primary

Jacobs, F., Easterbrooks, A., & Mistry, J. (2015). The Massachusetts Healthy Families evaluation-2 (MHFE-2): A randomized, controlled trial of a statewide home visiting program for young parents: Final report to the Children's Trust of Massachusetts. Report to the Children’s Trust of Massachusetts. Medford, MA: Tufts Interdisciplinary Evaluation Research.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Mother received mental health services after pregnancy (self report), time 3 No Effect MA sample 2 years post enrollment 611 mothers Not reported Not reported OR = 1.23 Not statistically significant, p = 0.26 HomVEE = 0.13 Secondary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Mother received mental health services after pregnancy (self report), time 3 Phone interview question on whether the mother received mental health services since becoming pregnant Mother self-report Not reported Secondary

LeCroy, C. W., & Krysik, J. (2011). Randomized trial of the Healthy Families Arizona home visiting program. Children and Youth Services Review, 33(10), 1761–1766.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Use of resources Favorable Arizona sample 6 months 180 mothers Mean = 2.71(SD = 0.15) Mean = 2.06(SD = 0.15) MD = 0.65 Statistically significant, p =0.007 HomVEE = 4.32 Secondary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
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