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Family Spirit®

Meets DHHS criteria for an evidenced based model Meets DHHS criteria for an evidenced based model in tribal populations

Last Updated: May 2016

In Brief for Positive Parenting Practices Outcomes

Impact Studies Rated High


Barlow, A., Mullany, B., Neault, N., Compton, S., Carter, A., Hastings, R., Billy, T., CohoMescal, V., Lorenzo, S., & Walkup, J. T. (Jan 2013). Effect of a paraprofessional home-visiting intervention on American Indian teen mothers’ and infants’ behavioral risks: A randomized controlled trial. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 170(1), 83-93.
Additional Source:

Mullany, B., Barlow, A., Neault, N., Billy, T., Jones, T., Tortice, I., Lorenzo, S., Powers, J., Lake, K., Reid, R., & Walkup, J. (2012). The Family Spirit trial for American Indian teen mothers and their children: CBPR rationale, design, methods and baseline characteristics. Society of Prevention Research, 13, 504-518.

Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
HOME inventory - 12 months No Effect Family Spirit RCT, 2006-2008 sample 12 months 322 mothers Adjusted mean = 25.92 Adjusted mean = 25.41 MD = 0.51 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study reported = 0.08 Primary
HOME inventory - 6 months No Effect Family Spirit RCT, 2006-2008 sample 6 months 322 mothers Adjusted mean = 22.79 Adjusted mean = 22.75 MD = 0.04 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study reported = 0.01 Primary
Home safety attitudes Favorable Family Spirit RCT, 2006-2008 sample 12 months 322 mothers Adjusted mean = 29.54 Adjusted mean = 28.61 MD = 0.94 Statistically significant,
p = 0.03
Study reported = 0.19 Secondary
Home safety practices No Effect Family Spirit RCT, 2006-2008 sample 12 months 322 mothers Adjusted mean = 1.56 Adjusted mean = 1.30 MD = 0.26 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study reported = 0.16 Secondary
Parenting knowledge Favorable Family Spirit RCT, 2006-2008 sample 12 months 322 mothers Adjusted mean = 15.43 Adjusted mean = 14.08 MD = 1.35 Statistically significant,
p = 0.001
Study-reported = 0.33 Secondary
PLOC Parental self-efficacy - 12 months Favorable Family Spirit RCT, 2006-2008 sample 12 months 322 mothers Adjusted mean = 23.21 Adjusted mean = 24.71 MD = -1.511 Statistically significant,
p = 0.01
Study reported = -0.23 Secondary
PLOC Parental self-efficacy - 6 months No Effect Family Spirit RCT, 2006-2008 sample 6 months 322 mothers Adjusted mean = 22.98 Adjusted mean = 23.83 MD = -0.851 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
Study reported = -0.13 Secondary

1 Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
HOME Inventory - 12 months 45-item assessment of parental behavior, parent-child interaction, and home environment Researcher observation α = 0.75 Primary
HOME Inventory - 6 months 45-item assessment of parental behavior, parent-child interaction, and home environment Researcher observation α = 0.75 Primary
Home safety attitudes 8-item assessment of attitudes towards home safety for children Maternal self-report α = 0.57 for attitudinal component Secondary
Home safety practices 8-item assessment of attitudes towards home safety for children Maternal self-report α = 0.57 for attitudinal component Secondary
Parenting knowledge 30-item assessment created by the investigator team to measure knowledge gains Maternal self-report α = 0.65 Secondary
PLOC Parental self-efficacy - 12 months

Self-efficacy subscale from Parental Locus of Control assessment

Maternal self-report α = 0.67 Secondary
PLOC Parental self-efficacy - 6 months

Self-efficacy subscale from Parental Locus of Control assessment

Maternal self-report α = 0.67 Secondary

Barlow, A., Mullany, B., Neault, N., Goklish, N., Billy, T., Hastings, R., ... Walkup, J. T. (2015). Paraprofessional-delivered home-visiting intervention for American Indian teen mothers and children: 3-Year outcomes from a randomized controlled trial. American Journal of Psychiatry, 172(2), 154-162.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
HOME inventory (range 0-37) No Effect Full 2006-2008 sample, 3 years postpartum 322 mothers Adjusted mean = 31.73 Adjusted mean = 31.63 MD = 0.10 Not statistically significant, p = 0.77 Study reported = 0.02 Primary
Parenting knowledge (range 0-30) Favorable Full 2006-2008 sample, 3 years postpartum 322 mothers Adjusted mean = 15.94 Adjusted mean = 14.66 MD = 1.28 Statistically significant, p < .001 Study reported = 0.42 Secondary
Parenting locus of control (range 27-135) Favorable Full 2006-2008 sample, 3 years postpartum 322 mothers Adjusted mean = 64.34 Adjusted mean = 66.03 MD = -1.691 Statistically significant, p = 0.02 Study reported = 0.17 Secondary

1 Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
HOME inventory (range 0-37) 37-item assessment of parental behavior, parent-child interaction, and home environment (maternal acceptance subscale was omitted) Researcher observation a = 0.73 Primary
Parenting knowledge (range 0-30) 30-item assessment created by the investigator team to measure knowledge gains Maternal self-report a = 0.58 Secondary
Parenting locus of control (range 27-135) 27-item assessment of parent self-efficacy, parent control, and child control Maternal self-report a = 0.84 Secondary
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Impact Studies Rated Moderate


Walkup, J. T., Barlow, A., Mullany, B. C., Pan, W., Goklish, N., Hasting, R., Cowboy, B., Fields, P., Baker, E. V., Speakman, K., Ginsburg, G., Reid, R. (2009). Randomized controlled trial of a paraprofessional-delivered in-home intervention for young reservation-based American Indian mothers. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 48(6), 591-601.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Change in maternal involvement - 2 months No Effect Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 2 months postpartum 125 mothers Adjusted mean = 1.10 Adjusted mean = 1.20 Coeff. = -0.60 Not statistically significant,
p = >=.10
HomVEE = -0.04 Secondary
Change in maternal involvement - 12 months No Effect Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 12 months postpartum 82 mothers Adjusted mean = 1.00 Adjusted mean = 0.60 Coeff. = 0.22 Not statistically significant,
p = >=.10
HomVEE = 0.15 Secondary
Change in maternal involvement - 6 months No Effect Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 6 months postpartum 115 mothers Adjusted mean = 1.30 Adjusted mean = 1.20 Coeff. = -0.15 Not statistically significant,
p = >=.10
HomVEE = 0.03 Secondary
Change in parenting knowledge - 12 months Favorable Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 12 months postpartum 82 mothers Adjusted mean = 26.60 Adjusted mean = 15.20 Coeff. = 13.92 Statistically significant, p<.01 HomVEE = 0.86 Secondary
Change in parenting knowledge - 2 months No Effect Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 2 months postpartum 125 mothers Adjusted mean = 3.20 Adjusted mean = 2.60 Coeff. = 3.10 Not statistically significant,
p = >=.05
HomVEE = 0.06 Secondary
Change in parenting knowledge - 6 months Favorable Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 6 months postpartum 115 mothers Adjusted mean = 23.80 Adjusted mean = 12.80 Coeff. = 13.46 Statistically significant, p<.01 HomVEE = 0.81 Secondary
Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment - 12 months No Effect Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 12 months postpartum 82 mothers Adjusted mean = 37.10 Adjusted mean = 37.40 Coeff. = -0.04 Not statistically significant,
p = >=.10
HomVEE = -0.04 Primary
Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment - 6 months No Effect Mothers enrolled 2002-2004 6 months postpartum 115 mothers Adjusted mean = 32.50 Adjusted mean = 33.40 Coeff. = -1.27 Not statistically significant,
p = >=.10
HomVEE = -0.14 Primary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Change in maternal involvement - 2 months 5-item assessment scored on a 4-point scale adapted from Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration measures Maternal self-report α = 0.65 Secondary
Change in maternal involvement - 12 months 5-item assessment scored on a 4-point scale adapted from Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration measures Maternal self-report α = 0.65 Secondary
Change in maternal involvement - 6 months 5-item assessment scored on a 4-point scale adapted from Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration measures Maternal self-report α = 0.65 Secondary
Change in parenting knowledge - 12 months 76-item assessment created by the investigator team to measure knowledge gains Maternal self-report α = 0.95 Secondary
Change in parenting knowledge - 2 months 76-item assessment created by the investigator team to measure knowledge gains Maternal self-report α = 0.95 Secondary
Change in parenting knowledge - 6 months 76-item assessment created by the investigator team to measure knowledge gains Maternal self-report α = 0.95 Secondary
Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment - 12 months 45-item assessment of parental behavior, parent-child interaction, and home environment Researcher observation α = 0.89 Primary
Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment - 6 months 45-item assessment of parental behavior, parent-child interaction, and home environment Researcher observation α = 0.89 Primary
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