Skip Navigation

Family Check-Up® For Children

Meets DHHS criteria for an evidenced based model

Last Updated: June 2017

Effects Shown in Research & Outcome Measure Details for Child Development and School Readiness Outcomes

Impact Studies Rated High


Connell, A., Bullock, B. M., Dishion, T. J., Shaw, D., Wilson, M., & Gardner, F. (2008). Family intervention effects on co-occurring early childhood behavioral and emotional problems: A latent transition analysis approach. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36(8), 1211-1225.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Remaining in “normal” (no externalizing or internalizing), age 2 to 3 No Effect Early Steps Multisite Study Sample Age 3 Not available Not available Not available OR = 3.75 Not available Not available Primary
Remaining in “normal” (no externalizing or internalizing), age 3 to 4 No Effect Early Steps Multisite Study Sample Age 4 Not available Not available Not available OR = 1.94 Not available Not available Primary
Transition from comorbid (externalizing and internalizing) at age 2 to “normal” at age 3 No Effect Early Steps Multisite Study Sample Age 3 Not available Not available Not available OR = 60.42 Not available Not available Primary
Transition from comorbid (externalizing and internalizing) at age 3 to “normal” at age 4 No Effect Early Steps Multisite Study Sample Age 4 Not available Not available Not available OR = 167.8 Not available Not available Primary
Transition from externalizing at age 2 to “normal” at age 3 No Effect Early Steps Multisite Study Sample Age 3 Not available Not available Not available OR = .89 Not available Not available Primary
Transition from externalizing at age 3 to “normal” at age 4 No Effect Early Steps Multisite Study Sample Age 4 Not available Not available Not available OR = .89 Not available Not available Primary
Transition from internalizing at age 2 to “normal” at age 3 No Effect Early Steps Multisite Study Sample Age 3 Not available Not available Not available OR = 1.01 Not available Not available Primary
Transition from internalizing at age 3 to “normal” at age 4 No Effect Early Steps Multisite Study Sample Age 4 Not available Not available Not available OR = 9.35 Not available Not available Primary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Remaining in “normal” (no externalizing or internalizing), age 2 to 3 The CBCL  assesses behavioral and emotional problems in young children. The CBCL Internalizing scale comprises four Subscales (Emotional Reactivity, Anxiety and Depression, Somatic Problems, and Social Withdrawal) and the Externalizing scale comprises two subscales (Aggression and Attention Problems). The researchers performed Latent Class Analyses (LCA) on the CBCL ’s subscales and developed four optimal classes at ages 2, 3, and 4: normative, externalizing, internalizing, and comorbid. Latent transition analyses were then conducted to examine transitions across classes from age 2 to 3 and from age 3 to 4. Parent/caregiver report Cronbach’s α = 0.82 to 0.91 across ages 2, 3, and 4 Primary
Remaining in “normal” (no externalizing or internalizing), age 3 to 4 The CBCL  assesses behavioral and emotional problems in young children. The CBCL Internalizing scale comprises four Subscales (Emotional Reactivity, Anxiety and Depression, Somatic Problems, and Social Withdrawal) and the Externalizing scale comprises two subscales (Aggression and Attention Problems). The researchers performed Latent Class Analyses (LCA) on the CBCL ’s subscales and developed four optimal classes at ages 2, 3, and 4: normative, externalizing, internalizing, and comorbid. Latent transition analyses were then conducted to examine transitions across classes from age 2 to 3 and from age 3 to 4. Parent/caregiver report Cronbach’s α = 0.82 to 0.91 across ages 2, 3, and 4 Primary
Transition from comorbid (externalizing and internalizing) at age 2 to “normal” at age 3 The CBCL  assesses behavioral and emotional problems in young children. The CBCL Internalizing scale comprises four Subscales (Emotional Reactivity, Anxiety and Depression, Somatic Problems, and Social Withdrawal) and the Externalizing scale comprises two subscales (Aggression and Attention Problems). The researchers performed Latent Class Analyses (LCA) on the CBCL ’s subscales and developed four optimal classes at ages 2, 3, and 4: normative, externalizing, internalizing, and comorbid. Latent transition analyses were then conducted to examine transitions across classes from age 2 to 3 and from age 3 to 4. Parent/caregiver report Cronbach’s α = 0.82 to 0.91 across ages 2, 3, and 4 Primary
Transition from comorbid (externalizing and internalizing) at age 3 to “normal” at age 4 The CBCL  assesses behavioral and emotional problems in young children. The CBCL Internalizing scale comprises four Subscales (Emotional Reactivity, Anxiety and Depression, Somatic Problems, and Social Withdrawal) and the Externalizing scale comprises two subscales (Aggression and Attention Problems). The researchers performed Latent Class Analyses (LCA) on the CBCL ’s subscales and developed four optimal classes at ages 2, 3, and 4: normative, externalizing, internalizing, and comorbid. Latent transition analyses were then conducted to examine transitions across classes from age 2 to 3 and from age 3 to 4. Parent/caregiver report Cronbach’s α = 0.82 to 0.91 across ages 2, 3, and 4 Primary
Transition from externalizing at age 2 to “normal” at age 3 The CBCL  assesses behavioral and emotional problems in young children. The CBCL Internalizing scale comprises four Subscales (Emotional Reactivity, Anxiety and Depression, Somatic Problems, and Social Withdrawal) and the Externalizing scale comprises two subscales (Aggression and Attention Problems). The researchers performed Latent Class Analyses (LCA) on the CBCL ’s subscales and developed four optimal classes at ages 2, 3, and 4: normative, externalizing, internalizing, and comorbid. Latent transition analyses were then conducted to examine transitions across classes from age 2 to 3 and from age 3 to 4. Parent/caregiver report Cronbach’s α = 0.82 to 0.91 across ages 2, 3, and 4 Primary
Transition from externalizing at age 3 to “normal” at age 4 The CBCL  assesses behavioral and emotional problems in young children. The CBCL Internalizing scale comprises four Subscales (Emotional Reactivity, Anxiety and Depression, Somatic Problems, and Social Withdrawal) and the Externalizing scale comprises two subscales (Aggression and Attention Problems). The researchers performed Latent Class Analyses (LCA) on the CBCL’s subscales and developed four optimal classes at ages 2, 3, and 4: normative, externalizing, internalizing, and comorbid. Latent transition analyses were then conducted to examine transitions across classes from age 2 to 3 and from age 3 to 4. Parent/caregiver report Cronbach’s α = 0.82 to 0.91 across ages 2, 3, and 4 Primary
Transition from internalizing at age 2 to “normal” at age 3 The CBCL  assesses behavioral and emotional problems in young children. The CBCL Internalizing scale comprises four Subscales (Emotional Reactivity, Anxiety and Depression, Somatic Problems, and Social Withdrawal) and the Externalizing scale comprises two subscales (Aggression and Attention Problems). The researchers performed Latent Class Analyses (LCA) on the CBCL’s subscales and developed four optimal classes at ages 2, 3, and 4: normative, externalizing, internalizing, and comorbid. Latent transition analyses were then conducted to examine transitions across classes from age 2 to 3 and from age 3 to 4. Parent/caregiver report Cronbach’s α = 0.82 to 0.91 across ages 2, 3, and 4 Primary
Transition from internalizing at age 3 to “normal” at age 4 The CBCL  assesses behavioral and emotional problems in young children. The CBCL Internalizing scale comprises four Subscales (Emotional Reactivity, Anxiety and Depression, Somatic Problems, and Social Withdrawal) and the Externalizing scale comprises two subscales (Aggression and Attention Problems). The researchers performed Latent Class Analyses (LCA) on the CBCL’s subscales and developed four optimal classes at ages 2, 3, and 4: normative, externalizing, internalizing, and comorbid. Latent transition analyses were then conducted to examine transitions across classes from age 2 to 3 and from age 3 to 4. Parent/caregiver report Cronbach’s α = 0.82 to 0.91 across ages 2, 3, and 4 Primary

Lunkenheimer, E. S., Dishion, T. J., Shaw, D. S., Connell, A. M., Gardner, F., Wilson, M. N., & Skuban, E. M. (2008). Collateral benefits of the family check-up on early childhood school readiness: Indirect effects of parents’ positive behavior support. Developmental Psychology, 44(6), 1737–1752.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Inhibitory control, Age 3, SEM No Effect WIC sites in Pittsburgh, PA, Eugene, OR, and Charlottesville, VA Age 3 731 children Not reported Not reported Not reported Not statistically significant, p >0.051 Not reported Secondary
Language skills, Age 3, SEM No Effect WIC sites in Pittsburgh, PA, Eugene, OR, and Charlottesville, VA Age 3 731 children Not reported Not reported Not reported Not statistically significant, p>0.051 Not reported Primary

1 Authors used structural equation models to estimate the impact, and reported an estimate, coefficient, standard error, and p-value.

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Inhibitory control, Age 3, SEM A 13-item subscale of the Child Behavior Questionnaire that measures child inhibitory control. Each item is a description of a child behavior. Mothers rate each item on a scale of 1 (extremely untrue of child) to 7 (extremely true of child). The scores for all items are averaged together. Questionnaire completed by caregiver Cronbach's alpha = 0.687 (internal consistence reliability for the sample at age 3) Secondary
Language skills, Age 3, SEM An assessment of language ability for children ages 2-6 measured by the Fluharty-2 Preschool Speech and Language. Screening Test Child interview Cronbach's alpha = 0.899 (internal consistency reliability for the sample at age 3) Secondary

Shaw, D. S., Connell, A., Dishion, T. J., Wilson, M. N., & Gardner, F. (2009). Improvements in maternal depression as a mediator of intervention effects on early childhood problem behavior. Development and Psychopathology, 21, 417–439.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) Externalizing, Age 3, Correlation No Effect WIC sites in Pittsburgh, PA, Eugene, OR, and Charlottesville, VA Age 3 651 children Not reported Not reported Not reported Not statistically significant, p>0.05 Not reported Secondary
Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) Externalizing, Age 4, Correlation Favorable WIC sites in Pittsburgh, PA, Eugene, OR, and Charlottesville, VA Age 4 619 children Not reported Not reported Not reported Statistically significant, p<0.05 Not reported Secondary
Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) Internalizing, Age 3, Correlation No Effect WIC sites in Pittsburgh, PA, Eugene, OR, and Charlottesville, VA Age 3 651 children Not reported Not reported Not reported Not statistically significant, p>0.05 Not reported Secondary
Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) Internalizing, Age 4, Correlation Favorable WIC sites in Pittsburgh, PA, Eugene, OR, and Charlottesville, VA Age 4 619 children Not reported Not reported Not reported Statistically significant, p<0.05 Not reported Secondary
Eyeberg Child Behavior Inventory Problem Score, Age 3, Correlation No Effect WIC sites in Pittsburgh, PA, Eugene, OR, and Charlottesville, VA Age 3 642 children Not reported Not reported Not reported Not statistically significant, p>0.05 Not reported Secondary
Eyeberg Child Behavior Inventory Problem Score, Age 4, Correlation Favorable WIC sites in Pittsburgh, PA, Eugene, OR, and Charlottesville, VA Age 4 616 children Not reported Not reported Not reported Statistically significant, p<0.05 Not reported Secondary
Growth in Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) Externalizing from ages 2 to 4, Latent growth model Favorable WIC sites in Pittsburgh, PA, Eugene, OR, and Charlottesville, VA Ages 3 and 4 731 children Not reported Not reported Not reported Statistically significant, p<0.051 Study reported = 0.231 Secondary
Growth in Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) Internalizing from ages 2 to 4, Latent growth model Favorable WIC sites in Pittsburgh, PA, Eugene, OR, and Charlottesville, VA Ages 3 and 4 731 children Not reported Not reported Not reported Statistically significant, p<0.051 Study reported = 0.211 Secondary
Growth in Eyeberg Child Behavior Inventory Problem Score from ages 2 to 4, Latent growth model Favorable WIC sites in Pittsburgh, PA, Eugene, OR, and Charlottesville, VA Ages 3 and 4 731 mothers Not reported Not reported Not reported Statistically significant, p<0.051 Study reported = 0.231 Secondary

1 Authors used a latent growth model to estimate the impact, and reported a coefficient, standard error, and effect size.

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) Externalizing, Age 3, Correlation The CBCL for ages 1.5–5 is a 99-item assessment of behavioral problems in young children. The CBCL includes two broadband factors—internalizing and externalizing—that were used to evaluate the frequency of problem behavior during the study period. Parent/caregiver report Cronbach’s a = 0.86 at age 2, Cronbach’s a = 0.89 at age 3, Cronbach’s a = 0.86 at age 4 Secondary
Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) Externalizing, Age 4, Correlation The CBCL for ages 1.5–5 is a 99-item assessment of behavioral problems in young children. The CBCL includes two broadband factors—internalizing and externalizing—that were used to evaluate the frequency of problem behavior during the study period. Parent/caregiver report Cronbach’s a = 0.86 at age 2, Cronbach’s a = 0.89 at age 3, Cronbach’s a = 0.86 at age 4 Secondary
Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) Internalizing, Age 3, Correlation The CBCL for ages 1.5–5 is a 99-item assessment of behavioral problems in young children. The CBCL includes two broadband factors—internalizing and externalizing—that were used to evaluate the frequency of problem behavior during the study period. Parent/caregiver report Cronbach’s a = 0.82 at age 2, Cronbach’s a = 0.86 at age 3, Cronbach’s a = 0.91 at age 4 Secondary
Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) Internalizing, Age 4, Correlation The CBCL for ages 1.5–5 is a 99-item assessment of behavioral problems in young children. The CBCL includes two broadband factors—internalizing and externalizing—that were used to evaluate the frequency of problem behavior during the study period. Parent/caregiver report Cronbach’s a = 0.82 at age 2, Cronbach’s a = 0.86 at age 3, Cronbach’s a = 0.91 at age 4 Secondary
Eyeberg Child Behavior Inventory Problem Score, Age 3, Correlation The Eyeberg Child Behavior Inventory is a 36-item behavior checklist that assesses two factors: (1) the perceived intensity, and (2) degree a behavior is a problem for caregivers. The researchers focused on the problem factor, which asks caregivers to report on the extent the behavior is a problem for the parent using a 7-point scale. Parent/caregiver report Internal consistency = 0.84 at age 2, 0.90 at age 3, and 0.94 at age 4 Secondary
Eyeberg Child Behavior Inventory Problem Score, Age 4, Correlation The Eyeberg Child Behavior Inventory is a 36-item behavior checklist that assesses two factors: (1) the perceived intensity, and (2) degree a behavior is a problem for caregivers. The researchers focused on the problem factor, which asks caregivers to report on the extent the behavior is a problem for the parent using a 7-point scale. Parent/caregiver report Internal consistency = 0.84 at age 2, 0.90 at age 3, and 0.94 at age 4 Secondary
Growth in Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) Externalizing from ages 2 to 4, Latent growth model The CBCL for ages 1.5–5 is a 99-item assessment of behavioral problems in young children. The CBCL includes two broadband factors—internalizing and externalizing—that were used to evaluate the frequency of problem behavior during the study period. Parent/caregiver report Cronbach’s a = 0.86 at age 2, Cronbach’s a = 0.89 at age 3, Cronbach’s a = 0.86 at age 4 Secondary
Growth in Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) Internalizing from ages 2 to 4, Latent growth model The CBCL for ages 1.5–5 is a 99-item assessment of behavioral problems in young children. The CBCL includes two broadband factors—internalizing and externalizing—that were used to evaluate the frequency of problem behavior during the study period. Parent/caregiver report Cronbach’s a = 0.82 at age 2, Cronbach’s a = 0.86 at age 3, Cronbach’s a = 0.91 at age 4 Secondary
Growth in Eyeberg Child Behavior Inventory Problem Score from ages 2 to 4, Latent growth model The Eyeberg Child Behavior Inventory is a 36-item behavior checklist that assesses two factors: (1) the perceived intensity, and (2) degree a behavior is a problem for caregivers. The researchers focused on the problem factor, which asks caregivers to report on the extent the behavior is a problem for the parent using a 7-point scale. Parent/caregiver report Internal consistency = 0.84 at age 2, 0.90 at age 3, and 0.94 at age 4 Secondary

Shaw, D. S., Dishion, T. J., Supplee, L., Gardner, F., & Arnds, K. (2006). Randomized trial of a family-centered approach to the prevention of early conduct problems: 2-year effects of the family check-up in early childhood. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74(1), 1–9.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
CBCL Aggression Scale (Revised version for age 4 follow-up) No Effect Pittsburgh sample Age 3 and Age 4 92 boys

Mean at age 3 = 9.85 (SD = 4.04)

Mean at age 4 = 6.96, (SD = 4.76)

Mean at age 3 = 8.93 (SD = 4.41)

Mean at age 4 = 7.20 (SD = 4.90)

Difference in growth rates =
-1.16
1
Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
2

HomVEE effect size at age 3= 0.22

HomVEE effect size at age 4 = -0.05

Primary
CBCL Destructive Scale (Revised version for age 4 follow-up) No Effect Pittsburgh sample Age 3 and Age 4 92 boys

Mean at age 3 = 2.66 (SD = 1.82)

Mean at age 4 = 1.87 (SD = 1.87)

Mean at age 3 = 3.21 (SD = 1.92)

Mean at age 4 = 2.27 SD = 2.44

Difference in growth rates = 0.15 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
2

HomVEE effect size at age 3 = -0.29

HomVEE effect size at age 4 = -0.18

Primary
CBCL Physical Aggression No Effect Pittsburgh sample Age 3 and Age 4 92 boys

Mean at age 3 = 0.96 (SD = 1.07)

Mean at age 4 = 0.65, (SD = 0.95)

Mean at age 3 = 0.67 (SD = 1.05)

Mean at age 4 = 0.78 (SD = 1.11)

Difference in growth rates =
-0.42
1
Statistical significance not reported

HomVEE effect size at age 3 = 0.27

HomVEE effect size at age 4 = -0.12

Primary

1 HomVEE calculated the difference in growth rates as the change over time (mean at age 4 minus mean at age 3) for the program group minus the change over time for the comparison group.

2 Statistical significance is based on the results of the authors’ analysis using a two-way repeated measures analysis of variance.

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
CBCL:
  • Aggression, Scale
  • Physical Aggression
  • Destructive Scale
The CBCL is a questionnaire that assesses behavioral problems in young children. The two versions of the questionnaire, ages 2–3 and ages 4–18, have two broadband scales—(1) Internalizing, and (2) Externalizing—and narrow-band scales, which include destructive and aggressive behavior for the ages 2–3 version. The researchers focused on the two narrow-band scales from the 2–3 version: Destructive and Aggression. To approximate the use of the same constructs at age 4, the researchers revised the 4–18 version and only included items that were also on the ages 2–3 versions of the Destructive and Aggression Scales. Parent/caregiver report
  • aggression Scale: Cronbach’s α = 0.82 at age 2, Cronbach’s α = 0.84 at age 3, Cronbach’s α = 0.86 at age 4
  • Physical aggression: Not reported by author
  • Destructive Scale: Cronbach’s α = 0.60 at age 2, Cronbach’s α = 0.71 at age 3, Cronbach’s α = 0.73 at age 4
Primary

Sitnick, S. L., Shaw, D. S., Gill, A., Dishion, T., Winter, C., Waller, R., Gardner, F., & Wilson, M. (2015). Parenting and the family check-up: Changes in observed parent-child interaction following early childhood intervention. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 44(6), 970–984.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) Oppositional/Aggressive, Age 5, Correlation No Effect WIC sites in Pittsburgh, PA, Eugene, OR, and Charlottesville, VA Age 5 614 families Not reported Not reported Not reported Not statistically significant, p>0.05 Not reported Primary
Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) Oppositional/Aggressive, Age 5, T-test No Effect WIC sites in Pittsburgh, PA, Eugene, OR, and Charlottesville, VA Age 5 614 families Unadjusted mean = 0.43 Unadjusted mean = 0.47 MD = -0.041 Not statistically significant, p>0.05 HomVEE = 0.111 Primary

1 Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) Oppositional/Aggressive, Age 5, Correlation This measure was created from 8 oppositional and aggressive items from the CBCL. The CBCL for ages 1.5–5 is a 99-item assessment of behavioral problems in young children. Parent/caregiver report alpha=0.80 Primary
Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) Oppositional/Aggressive, Age 5, T-test This measure was created from 8 oppositional and aggressive items from the CBCL. The CBCL for ages 1.5–5 is a 99-item assessment of behavioral problems in young children. Parent/caregiver report alpha=0.80 Primary
Top

Impact Studies Rated Moderate


Gardner, F., Connell, A., Trentacosta, C. J., Shaw, D. S., Dishion, T. J., & Wilson, M. N. (2009). Moderators of outcome in a brief family-centered intervention for preventing early problem behavior. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77(3), 543–553.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) Externalizing, Age 3, Mean and SD No Effect WIC sites in Pittsburgh, PA, Eugene, OR, and Charlottesville, VA Age 3 651 children Unadjusted mean = 55.83 Unadjusted mean = 56.11 MD = -0.281 Not statistically significant, p=0.70 HomVEE = -0.031 Primary
Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) Externalizing, Age 4, Mean and SD Favorable WIC sites in Pittsburgh, PA, Eugene, OR, and Charlottesville, VA Age 4 619 children Unadjusted mean = 52.68 Unadjusted mean = 54.67 MD = -1.991 Statistically significant, p=0.02 HomVEE = -0.191 Primary
Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) Externalizing, Ages 3 and 4, Latent growth model Favorable WIC sites in Pittsburgh, PA, Eugene, OR, and Charlottesville, VA Ages 3 and 4 723 children Not reported Not reported Not reported Statistically significant, p<0.052 Not reported Primary
Eyeberg Child Behavior Inventory Problem Score, Age 3, Mean and SD No Effect WIC sites in Pittsburgh, PA, Eugene, OR, and Charlottesville, VA Age 3 642 children Unadjusted mean = 59.18 Unadjusted mean = 60.06 MD = -0.881 Not statistically significant, p=0.28 HomVEE = -0.081 Primary
Eyeberg Child Behavior Inventory Problem Score, Age 4, Mean and SD Favorable WIC sites in Pittsburgh, PA, Eugene, OR, and Charlottesville, VA Age 4 616 children Unadjusted mean = 58.64 Unadjusted mean = 60.63 MD = -1.991 Statistically significant, p=0.03 HomVEE = -0.181 Primary
Eyeberg Child Behavior Inventory Problem Score, Ages 3 and 4, Latent growth model Favorable WIC sites in Pittsburgh, PA, Eugene, OR, and Charlottesville, VA Ages 3 and 4 723 children Not reported Not reported Not reported Statistically significant, p<0.052 Not reported Primary

1 Negative value is favorable to the intervention.

2 Authors used a latent growth model to estimate the impact.

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) Externalizing, Age 3, Mean and SD The Eyeberg Child Behavior Inventory is a 36-item behavior checklist that assesses two factors: (1) the perceived intensity, and (2) degree a behavior is a problem for caregivers. The researchers focused on the problem factor, which asks caregivers to report on the extent the behavior is a problem for the parent using a 7-point scale. Parent/caregiver report Internal consistencies were 0.84 at age 2, 0.90 at age 3, and 0.94 at age 4. Primary
Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) Externalizing, Age 4, Mean and SD The CBCL for ages 1.5–5 is a 99-item assessment of behavioral problems in young children. The CBCL includes two broadband factors—internalizing and externalizing—that were used to evaluate the frequency of problem behavior during the study period. Parent/caregiver report Internal consistencies were 0.86 at age 2, 0.89 at age 3, and 0.86 at age 4. Primary
Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) Externalizing, Ages 3 and 4, Latent growth model The CBCL for ages 1.5–5 is a 99-item assessment of behavioral problems in young children. The CBCL includes two broadband factors—internalizing and externalizing—that were used to evaluate the frequency of problem behavior during the study period. Parent/caregiver report Internal consistencies were 0.86 at age 2, 0.89 at age 3, and 0.86 at age 4. Primary
Eyeberg Child Behavior Inventory Problem Score, Age 3, Mean and SD The Eyeberg Child Behavior Inventory is a 36-item behavior checklist that assesses two factors: (1) the perceived intensity, and (2) degree a behavior is a problem for caregivers. The researchers focused on the problem factor, which asks caregivers to report on the extent the behavior is a problem for the parent using a 7-point scale. Parent/caregiver report Internal consistencies were 0.84 at age 2, 0.90 at age 3, and 0.94 at age 4. Primary
Eyeberg Child Behavior Inventory Problem Score, Age 4, Mean and SD The Eyeberg Child Behavior Inventory is a 36-item behavior checklist that assesses two factors: (1) the perceived intensity, and (2) degree a behavior is a problem for caregivers. The researchers focused on the problem factor, which asks caregivers to report on the extent the behavior is a problem for the parent using a 7-point scale. Parent/caregiver report Internal consistencies were 0.84 at age 2, 0.90 at age 3, and 0.94 at age 4. Primary
Eyeberg Child Behavior Inventory Problem Score, Ages 3 and 4, Latent growth model The Eyeberg Child Behavior Inventory is a 36-item behavior checklist that assesses two factors: (1) the perceived intensity, and (2) degree a behavior is a problem for caregivers. The researchers focused on the problem factor, which asks caregivers to report on the extent the behavior is a problem for the parent using a 7-point scale. Parent/caregiver report Internal consistencies were 0.84 at age 2, 0.90 at age 3, and 0.94 at age 4. Primary

Moilanen, K. L., Shaw, D. S., Dishion, T. J., Gardner, F., & Wilson, M. (2010). Predictors of longitudinal growth in inhibitory control in early childhood. Social Development, 19(2), 326–347.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Inhibitory control intercept, Ages 2-4, Preliminary conditional growth model No Effect WIC sites in Pittsburgh, PA, Eugene, OR, and Charlottesville, VA Ages 2-4 720 children Not reported Not reported Not reported Not statistically significant, p>0.051 Not reported Secondary
Inhibitory control slope, Ages 2-4, Preliminary conditional growth model No Effect WIC sites in Pittsburgh, PA, Eugene, OR, and Charlottesville, VA Ages 2-4 720 children Not reported Not reported Not reported Not statistically significant, p>0.051 Not reported Secondary
Inhibitory control, Age 3, Correlation No Effect WIC sites in Pittsburgh, PA, Eugene, OR, and Charlottesville, VA Age 3 645 children Not reported Not reported Not reported Not statistically significant, p>0.05 Not reported Secondary
Inhibitory control, Age 4, Correlation No Effect WIC sites in Pittsburgh, PA, Eugene, OR, and Charlottesville, VA Age 4 622 children Not reported Not reported Not reported Not statistically significant, p>0.05 Not reported Secondary

1 Authors used a preliminary conditional growth model and reported a coefficient, standard error, and p-value.

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Inhibitory control intercept, Ages 2-4, Preliminary conditional growth model A 13-item subscale of the Child Behavior Questionnaire that measures child inhibitory control. Each item is a description of a child behavior. Mothers rate each item on a scale of 1 (extremely untrue of child) to 7 (extremely true of child). The scores for all items are averaged together. Questionnaire completed by caregiver Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) ranges from 0.65 to 0.74. Secondary
Inhibitory control slope, Ages 2-4, Preliminary conditional growth model A 13-item subscale of the Child Behavior Questionnaire that measures child inhibitory control. Each item is a description of a child behavior. Mothers rate each item on a scale of 1 (extremely untrue of child) to 7 (extremely true of child). The scores for all items are averaged together. Questionnaire completed by caregiver Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) ranges from 0.65 to 0.74. Secondary
Inhibitory control, Age 3, Correlation A 13-item subscale of the Child Behavior Questionnaire that measures child inhibitory control. Each item is a description of a child behavior. Mothers rate each item on a scale of 1 (extremely untrue of child) to 7 (extremely true of child). The scores for all items are averaged together. Questionnaire completed by caregiver Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) ranges from 0.65 to 0.74. Secondary
Inhibitory control, Age 4, Correlation A 13-item subscale of the Child Behavior Questionnaire that measures child inhibitory control. Each item is a description of a child behavior. Mothers rate each item on a scale of 1 (extremely untrue of child) to 7 (extremely true of child). The scores for all items are averaged together. Questionnaire completed by caregiver Internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) ranges from 0.65 to 0.74. Secondary

Smith, J. D., Dishion, T. J., Shaw, D. S., Wilson, M. N., Winter, C. C., & Patterson, G. R. (2014). Coercive family process and early-onset conduct problems from age 2 to school entry. Development and Psychopathology, 26(4 Pt. 1), 917.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) Oppositional/Aggressive, Age 3, Correlation No Effect WIC sites in Pittsburgh, PA, Eugene, OR, and Charlottesville, VA Age 3 657 children Not reported Not reported Not reported Not statistically significant, p>0.05 Not reported Primary
Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) Oppositional/Aggressive, Age 4, Correlation No Effect WIC sites in Pittsburgh, PA, Eugene, OR, and Charlottesville, VA Age 4 627 children Not reported Not reported Not reported Not statistically significant, p>0.05 Not reported Primary
Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) Oppositional/Aggressive, Age 5, Correlation No Effect WIC sites in Pittsburgh, PA, Eugene, OR, and Charlottesville, VA Age 5 612 children Not reported Not reported Not reported Not statistically significant, p>0.05 Not reported Primary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) Oppositional/Aggressive, Age 3, Correlation This measure was created from 8 oppositional and aggressive items from the CBCL. The CBCL for ages 1.5–5 is a 99-item assessment of behavioral problems in young children. Parent/caregiver report Cronbach's alpha for the oppositional/aggressive scale was 0.71 at age 2, 0.75 at age 3, 0.83 at age 4 and 0.80 at age 5. Primary
Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) Oppositional/Aggressive, Age 4, Correlation This measure was created from 8 oppositional and aggressive items from the CBCL. The CBCL for ages 1.5–5 is a 99-item assessment of behavioral problems in young children. Parent/caregiver report Cronbach's alpha for the oppositional/aggressive scale was 0.71 at age 2, 0.75 at age 3, 0.83 at age 4 and 0.80 at age 5. Primary
Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) Oppositional/Aggressive, Age 5, Correlation This measure was created from 8 oppositional and aggressive items from the CBCL. The CBCL for ages 1.5–5 is a 99-item assessment of behavioral problems in young children. Parent/caregiver report Cronbach's alpha for the oppositional/aggressive scale was 0.71 at age 2, 0.75 at age 3, 0.83 at age 4 and 0.80 at age 5. Primary
Top