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Family Check-Up® For Children

Meets DHHS criteria for an evidenced based model

Last Updated: July 2011

Effects Shown in Research & Outcome Measure Details for Child Development and School Readiness Outcomes

Impact Studies Rated High


Connell, A., Bullock, B. M., Dishion, T. J., Shaw, D., Wilson, M., & Gardner, F. (2008). Family intervention effects on co-occurring early childhood behavioral and emotional problems: A latent transition analysis approach. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 36, 1211-1225. doi:10.1007/s10802-008-9244-6
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Remaining in “normal” (no externalizing or internalizing), age 2 to 3 No Effect Early Steps Multisite Study Sample Age 3 Not available Not available Not available OR = 3.75 Not available Not available Primary
Remaining in “normal” (no externalizing or internalizing), age 3 to 4 No Effect Early Steps Multisite Study Sample Age 4 Not available Not available Not available OR = 1.94 Not available Not available Primary
Transition from comorbid (externalizing and internalizing) at age 2 to “normal” at age 3 No Effect Early Steps Multisite Study Sample Age 3 Not available Not available Not available OR = 60.42 Not available Not available Primary
Transition from comorbid (externalizing and internalizing) at age 3 to “normal” at age 4 No Effect Early Steps Multisite Study Sample Age 4 Not available Not available Not available OR = 167.8 Not available Not available Primary
Transition from externalizing at age 2 to “normal” at age 3 No Effect Early Steps Multisite Study Sample Age 3 Not available Not available Not available OR = .89 Not available Not available Primary
Transition from externalizing at age 3 to “normal” at age 4 No Effect Early Steps Multisite Study Sample Age 4 Not available Not available Not available OR = .89 Not available Not available Primary
Transition from internalizing at age 2 to “normal” at age 3 No Effect Early Steps Multisite Study Sample Age 3 Not available Not available Not available OR = 1.01 Not available Not available Primary
Transition from internalizing at age 3 to “normal” at age 4 No Effect Early Steps Multisite Study Sample Age 4 Not available Not available Not available OR = 9.35 Not available Not available Primary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Remaining in “normal” (no externalizing or internalizing), age 2 to 3 The CBCL  assesses behavioral and emotional problems in young children. The CBCL Internalizing scale comprises four Subscales (Emotional Reactivity, Anxiety and Depression, Somatic Problems, and Social Withdrawal) and the Externalizing scale comprises two subscales (Aggression and Attention Problems). The researchers performed Latent Class Analyses (LCA) on the CBCL ’s subscales and developed four optimal classes at ages 2, 3, and 4: normative, externalizing, internalizing, and comorbid. Latent transition analyses were then conducted to examine transitions across classes from age 2 to 3 and from age 3 to 4. Parent/caregiver report Cronbach’s α = 0.82 to 0.91 across ages 2, 3, and 4 Primary
Remaining in “normal” (no externalizing or internalizing), age 3 to 4 The CBCL  assesses behavioral and emotional problems in young children. The CBCL Internalizing scale comprises four Subscales (Emotional Reactivity, Anxiety and Depression, Somatic Problems, and Social Withdrawal) and the Externalizing scale comprises two subscales (Aggression and Attention Problems). The researchers performed Latent Class Analyses (LCA) on the CBCL ’s subscales and developed four optimal classes at ages 2, 3, and 4: normative, externalizing, internalizing, and comorbid. Latent transition analyses were then conducted to examine transitions across classes from age 2 to 3 and from age 3 to 4. Parent/caregiver report Cronbach’s α = 0.82 to 0.91 across ages 2, 3, and 4 Primary
Transition from comorbid (externalizing and internalizing) at age 2 to “normal” at age 3 The CBCL  assesses behavioral and emotional problems in young children. The CBCL Internalizing scale comprises four Subscales (Emotional Reactivity, Anxiety and Depression, Somatic Problems, and Social Withdrawal) and the Externalizing scale comprises two subscales (Aggression and Attention Problems). The researchers performed Latent Class Analyses (LCA) on the CBCL ’s subscales and developed four optimal classes at ages 2, 3, and 4: normative, externalizing, internalizing, and comorbid. Latent transition analyses were then conducted to examine transitions across classes from age 2 to 3 and from age 3 to 4. Parent/caregiver report Cronbach’s α = 0.82 to 0.91 across ages 2, 3, and 4 Primary
Transition from comorbid (externalizing and internalizing) at age 3 to “normal” at age 4 The CBCL  assesses behavioral and emotional problems in young children. The CBCL Internalizing scale comprises four Subscales (Emotional Reactivity, Anxiety and Depression, Somatic Problems, and Social Withdrawal) and the Externalizing scale comprises two subscales (Aggression and Attention Problems). The researchers performed Latent Class Analyses (LCA) on the CBCL ’s subscales and developed four optimal classes at ages 2, 3, and 4: normative, externalizing, internalizing, and comorbid. Latent transition analyses were then conducted to examine transitions across classes from age 2 to 3 and from age 3 to 4. Parent/caregiver report Cronbach’s α = 0.82 to 0.91 across ages 2, 3, and 4 Primary
Transition from externalizing at age 2 to “normal” at age 3 The CBCL  assesses behavioral and emotional problems in young children. The CBCL Internalizing scale comprises four Subscales (Emotional Reactivity, Anxiety and Depression, Somatic Problems, and Social Withdrawal) and the Externalizing scale comprises two subscales (Aggression and Attention Problems). The researchers performed Latent Class Analyses (LCA) on the CBCL ’s subscales and developed four optimal classes at ages 2, 3, and 4: normative, externalizing, internalizing, and comorbid. Latent transition analyses were then conducted to examine transitions across classes from age 2 to 3 and from age 3 to 4. Parent/caregiver report Cronbach’s α = 0.82 to 0.91 across ages 2, 3, and 4 Primary
Transition from externalizing at age 3 to “normal” at age 4 The CBCL  assesses behavioral and emotional problems in young children. The CBCL Internalizing scale comprises four Subscales (Emotional Reactivity, Anxiety and Depression, Somatic Problems, and Social Withdrawal) and the Externalizing scale comprises two subscales (Aggression and Attention Problems). The researchers performed Latent Class Analyses (LCA) on the CBCL’s subscales and developed four optimal classes at ages 2, 3, and 4: normative, externalizing, internalizing, and comorbid. Latent transition analyses were then conducted to examine transitions across classes from age 2 to 3 and from age 3 to 4. Parent/caregiver report Cronbach’s α = 0.82 to 0.91 across ages 2, 3, and 4 Primary
Transition from internalizing at age 2 to “normal” at age 3 The CBCL  assesses behavioral and emotional problems in young children. The CBCL Internalizing scale comprises four Subscales (Emotional Reactivity, Anxiety and Depression, Somatic Problems, and Social Withdrawal) and the Externalizing scale comprises two subscales (Aggression and Attention Problems). The researchers performed Latent Class Analyses (LCA) on the CBCL’s subscales and developed four optimal classes at ages 2, 3, and 4: normative, externalizing, internalizing, and comorbid. Latent transition analyses were then conducted to examine transitions across classes from age 2 to 3 and from age 3 to 4. Parent/caregiver report Cronbach’s α = 0.82 to 0.91 across ages 2, 3, and 4 Primary
Transition from internalizing at age 3 to “normal” at age 4 The CBCL  assesses behavioral and emotional problems in young children. The CBCL Internalizing scale comprises four Subscales (Emotional Reactivity, Anxiety and Depression, Somatic Problems, and Social Withdrawal) and the Externalizing scale comprises two subscales (Aggression and Attention Problems). The researchers performed Latent Class Analyses (LCA) on the CBCL’s subscales and developed four optimal classes at ages 2, 3, and 4: normative, externalizing, internalizing, and comorbid. Latent transition analyses were then conducted to examine transitions across classes from age 2 to 3 and from age 3 to 4. Parent/caregiver report Cronbach’s α = 0.82 to 0.91 across ages 2, 3, and 4 Primary

Shaw, D. S., Connell, A., Dishion, T. J., Wilson, M. N., & Gardner, F. (2009). Improvements in maternal depression as a mediator of intervention effects on early childhood problem behavior. Development and Psychopathology, 21, 417–439.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
CBCL Externalizing Favorable Early Steps Multisite Study sample Age 3 and Age 4

651 children (Age 3 follow-up )

619 children (Age 4 follow-up )

Mean at age 3 = 55.83 (SD = 9.23)

Mean at age 4 = 52.68 (SD = 10.87)

 

Mean at age 3= 56.11 (SD = 9.56)

 Mean at age 4 = 54.67 (SD = 9.97)

Study-estimated program effect on the rate of change = -0.82 Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
1
Study-reported = 0.23 Primary
CBCL Internalizing Favorable Early Steps Multisite Study sample Age 3 and Age 4

651 children (Age 3 follow-up )

619 children (Age 4 follow-up )

Mean at age 3 = 54.19 (SD = 9.79)

Mean at age 4 =  52.43 (SD = 10.39)

Mean at age 3 = 54.42 (SD = 9.42)

Mean at age 4 =  54.09 (SD = 9.72)  

Study-estimated program effect on the rate of change = -0.58 Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
1
Study-reported = 0.21 Primary
Eyberg Problem Behavior Favorable Early Steps Multisite Study sample Age 3 and Age 4

642 children (Age 3 follow-up )

616 children (Age 4 follow-up )

Mean at age 3 = 59.18 (SD = 10.22)

Mean at age 4 = 58.64 (SD = 11.15)

 

Mean at age 3 = 60.06 (SD = 10.51 )

Mean at age 4 = 60.63 (SD = 10.80)

Study-estimated program effect on the rate of change = -0.71 Statistically significant,
p < 0.05
1
Study-reported = 0.23 Primary

1 Statistical significance is based on the results of the authors’ analysis using latent growth models.

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
CBCL Externalizing The CBCL for ages 1.5–5 is a 99-item assessment of behavioral problems in young children. The CBCL includes two broadband factors—internalizing and externalizing—that were used to evaluate the frequency of problem behavior during the study period. Parent/caregiver report Cronbach’s α = 0.86 at age 2, Cronbach’s α = 0.89 at age 3, Cronbach’s α = 0.86 at age 4 Primary
CBCL Internalizing The CBCL for ages 1.5–5 is a 99-item assessment of behavioral problems in young children. The CBCL includes two broadband factors—internalizing and externalizing—that were used to evaluate the frequency of problem behavior during the study period. Parent/caregiver report Cronbach’s α = 0.82 at age 2, Cronbach’s α = 0.86 at age 3, Cronbach’s α = 0.91 at age 4 Primary
Eyberg Problem Behavior The Eyberg is a 36-item behavior checklist that assesses two factors: (1) the perceived intensity, and (2) degree a behavior is a problem for caregivers. The researchers focused on the problem factor, which asks caregivers to report on the extent the behavior is a problem for the parent using a 7-point scale. Parent/caregiver report Cronbach’s α = 0.84 at age 2, Cronbach’s α = 0.90 at age 3, Cronbach’s α = 0.94 at age 4 Primary

Shaw, D. S., Dishion, T. J., Supplee, L., Gardner, F., & Arnds, K. (2006). Randomized trial of a family-centered approach to the prevention of early conduct problems: 2-year effects of the family check-up in early childhood. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 74(1), 1–9.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
CBCL Aggression Scale (Revised version for age 4 follow-up) No Effect Pittsburgh sample Age 3 and Age 4 92 boys

Mean at age 3 = 9.85 (SD = 4.04)

Mean at age 4 = 6.96, (SD = 4.76)

Mean at age 3 = 8.93 (SD = 4.41)

Mean at age 4 = 7.20 (SD = 4.90)

Difference in growth rates =
-1.16
1
Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
2

HomVEE effect size at age 3= 0.22

HomVEE effect size at age 4 = -0.05

Primary
CBCL Destructive Scale (Revised version for age 4 follow-up) No Effect Pittsburgh sample Age 3 and Age 4 92 boys

Mean at age 3 = 2.66 (SD = 1.82)

Mean at age 4 = 1.87 (SD = 1.87)

Mean at age 3 = 3.21 (SD = 1.92)

Mean at age 4 = 2.27 SD = 2.44

Difference in growth rates = 0.15 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
2

HomVEE effect size at age 3 = -0.29

HomVEE effect size at age 4 = -0.18

Primary
CBCL Physical Aggression No Effect Pittsburgh sample Age 3 and Age 4 92 boys

Mean at age 3 = 0.96 (SD = 1.07)

Mean at age 4 = 0.65, (SD = 0.95)

Mean at age 3 = 0.67 (SD = 1.05)

Mean at age 4 = 0.78 (SD = 1.11)

Difference in growth rates =
-0.42
1
Statistical significance not reported

HomVEE effect size at age 3 = 0.27

HomVEE effect size at age 4 = -0.12

Primary

1 HomVEE calculated the difference in growth rates as the change over time (mean at age 4 minus mean at age 3) for the program group minus the change over time for the comparison group.

2 Statistical significance is based on the results of the authors’ analysis using a two-way repeated measures analysis of variance.

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
CBCL:
  • Aggression, Scale
  • Physical Aggression
  • Destructive Scale
The CBCL is a questionnaire that assesses behavioral problems in young children. The two versions of the questionnaire, ages 2–3 and ages 4–18, have two broadband scales—(1) Internalizing, and (2) Externalizing—and narrow-band scales, which include destructive and aggressive behavior for the ages 2–3 version. The researchers focused on the two narrow-band scales from the 2–3 version: Destructive and Aggression. To approximate the use of the same constructs at age 4, the researchers revised the 4–18 version and only included items that were also on the ages 2–3 versions of the Destructive and Aggression Scales. Parent/caregiver report
  • aggression Scale: Cronbach’s α = 0.82 at age 2, Cronbach’s α = 0.84 at age 3, Cronbach’s α = 0.86 at age 4
  • Physical aggression: Not reported by author
  • Destructive Scale: Cronbach’s α = 0.60 at age 2, Cronbach’s α = 0.71 at age 3, Cronbach’s α = 0.73 at age 4
Primary
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