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Early Start (New Zealand)

Meets DHHS criteria for an evidenced based model

Last Updated: July 2014

In Brief for Positive Parenting Practices Outcomes

Impact Studies Rated Moderate


Fergusson, D. M., Horwood, L. J., Grant, H., & Ridder, E. M. (2005). Early start evaluation report. Christchurch, NZ: Early Start Project Ltd.
Additional Sources:

Fergusson, D. M., Grant, H., Horwood, L. J., & Ridder, E. M. (2005). Randomized trial of the Early Start program of home visitation. Pediatrics, 116(6), e803-e809.

Fergusson, D. M., Grant, H., Horwood, L. J., & Ridder, E. M. (2006). Randomized trial of the Early Start program of home visitation: Parent and family outcomes. Pediatrics, 117(3), 781-786. doi:10.1542/peds.2005-1517

Results for full sample
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Non-punitive attitudes (CRPR) Favorable Christchurch sample 36 months 391 children Unadjusted mean = 10.12 Unadjusted mean = 9.90 MD = 0.22 Statistically significant, p < 0.05 Study-reported = 0.22 Primary
Percent smoke-free home/smoke-free area No Effect Christchurch sample 36 months 388 children 80.8% 81.6% -0.8 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Study-reported = -0.02 Secondary
Positive parenting attitude (Child Rearing Practices Report [ CRPR]) Favorable Christchurch sample 36 months 391 children Unadjusted mean = 10.14 Unadjusted mean = 9.88 MD = 0.26 Statistically significant, p < 0.05 Study-reported = 0.26 Primary
Total parenting score (CRPR) Favorable Christchurch sample 36 months 391 children Unadjusted mean = 10.14 Unadjusted mean = 9.87 MD = 0.27 Statistically significant, p < 0.05 Study-reported = 0.27 Primary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Non-punitive attitudes (CRPR) Positive and punitive parenting practices were assessed using a 49-item measure that combined items from the Child Rearing Practices Report (CRPR), the Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory (AAPI) and study developed items. Parent/caregiver report Cronbach's α ranged from 0.73 to 0.89. Primary
Positive parenting attitude (Child Rearing Practices Report [ CRPR]) Positive and punitive parenting practices were assessed using a 49-item measure that combined items from the Child Rearing Practices Report (CRPR), the Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory (AAPI) and study developed items. Parent/caregiver report Cronbach's α ranged from 0.73 to 0.89. Primary
Total parenting score (CRPR) Positive and punitive parenting practices were assessed using a 49-item measure that combined items from the Child Rearing Practices Report (CRPR), the Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory (AAPI) and study developed items. Parent/caregiver report Cronbach's α ranged from 0.73 to 0.89. Primary
Results for Māori subgroup
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Non-punitiveattitudes (CRPR) No Effect Tribal/Māori sample 36 months 151 families Unadjusted mean = 10.08 Unadjusted mean = 9.76 MD = .32 Not statistically significant,
p > 0.05
HomVEE = .30 Primary
Positive parenting attitude (Child Rearing Practices Report [ CRPR]) Favorable Tribal/Māori sample 36 months 151 families Unadjusted mean = 10.04 Unadjusted mean = 9.63 MD = .41 Statistically significant,
p = 0.02
HomVEE = .37 Primary
Total parenting score (CRPR) Favorable Tribal/Māori sample 36 months 151 families Unadjusted mean = 10.07 Unadjusted mean = 9.65 MD = .42 Statistically significant,
p = 0.02
HomVEE = .38 Primary
Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Non-punitive attitudes (CRPR) Positive and punitive parenting practices were assessed using a 49-item measure that combined items from the Child Rearing Practices Report (CRPR), the Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory (AAPI) and study developed items. Parent/caregiver report Cronbach’s α ranged from 0.73 to 0.89. Primary
Positive parenting attitude (Child Rearing Practices Report [ CRPR]) Positive and punitive parenting practices were assessed using a 49-item measure that combined items from the Child Rearing Practices Report (CRPR), the Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory (AAPI) and study developed items. Parent/caregiver report Cronbach’s α ranged from 0.73 to 0.89. Primary
Total parenting score (CRPR) Positive and punitive parenting practices were assessed using a 49-item measure that combined items from the Child Rearing Practices Report (CRPR), the Adult-Adolescent Parenting Inventory (AAPI) and study developed items. Parent/caregiver report Cronbach’s α ranged from 0.73 to 0.89. Primary
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