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Early Start (New Zealand)

Meets DHHS criteria for an evidenced based model

Last Updated: July 2014

In Brief for Maternal Health Outcomes

Impact Studies Rated Moderate


Fergusson, D. M., Horwood, L. J., Grant, H., & Ridder, E. M. (2005). Early start evaluation report. Christchurch, NZ: Early Start Project Ltd.
Additional Sources:

Fergusson, D. M., Grant, H., Horwood, L. J., & Ridder, E. M. (2005). Randomized trial of the Early Start program of home visitation. Pediatrics, 116(6), e803-e809.

Fergusson, D. M., Grant, H., Horwood, L. J., & Ridder, E. M. (2006). Randomized trial of the Early Start program of home visitation: Parent and family outcomes. Pediatrics, 117(3), 781-786. doi:10.1542/peds.2005-1517

Results for full sample
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Percent any family/social relationship problem No Effect Christchurch sample 36 months 388 families 81.3% 82.9% -1.61 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Study-reported = 0.04 Secondary
Percent ever pregnant to 36 months No Effect Christchurch sample 36 months 388 mothers 42.9% 47.6% -4.71 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Study-reported = 0.09 Secondary
Percent major depression No Effect Christchurch sample 36 months 388 mothers 36.0% 37.1% -1.11 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Study-reported = 0.02 Primary
Percent mother smoked cigarettes No Effect Christchurch sample 36 months 388 mothers 73.1% 68.9% 4.21 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Study-reported = -0.09 Secondary
Percent substance use problems No Effect Christchurch sample 36 months 388 mothers 38.5% 33.0% 5.51 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Study-reported = -0.11 Primary

1 High score equals unfavorable.

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Percent any family/social relationship problem The percentage of families who experienced any family or social relationship problems within the past 36 months Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Percent ever pregnant to 36 months The percentage of mothers who had become pregnant within the past 36 months Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Percent major depression The authors used items from the Composite International DiagnosticInterview (CIDI) to assess whether parents ever met the DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for major depression within the past 36 months. Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author. Primary
Percent mother assaulted by any partner The ConflictTactics Scale (CTS2) was used to assess partner violence. The percentage of parents who reported any incident of psychological or physical assault by any partner within the past 36 months. Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author. Primary
Percent mother smoked cigarettes Percentage of mothers who smoked cigarettes within the past 36 months Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Percent substance use problems Items from the CompositeInternational DiagnosticInterview (CIDI) was used to assess alcohol and drug abuse and dependence. The percentage of parents with substance use problems within the past 36 months. Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author. Primary
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