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Early Start (New Zealand)

Meets DHHS criteria for an evidenced based model

Last Updated: July 2014

Effects Shown in Research & Outcome Measure Details for Family Economic Self-Sufficiency Outcomes

Impact Studies Rated Moderate


Fergusson, D. M., Horwood, L. J., Grant, H., & Ridder, E. M. (2005). Early start evaluation report. Christchurch, NZ: Early Start Project Ltd.
Additional Sources:

Fergusson, D. M., Grant, H., Horwood, L. J., & Ridder, E. M. (2005). Randomized trial of the Early Start program of home visitation. Pediatrics, 116(6), e803-e809.

Fergusson, D. M., Grant, H., Horwood, L. J., & Ridder, E. M. (2006). Randomized trial of the Early Start program of home visitation: Parent and family outcomes. Pediatrics, 117(3), 781-786. doi:10.1542/peds.2005-1517

Results for full sample
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Mean amount of debt No Effect Christchurch sample 36 months 388 families Unadjusted mean = $3,582 Unadjusted mean = $3,380 MD = $2021 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Study-reported = -0.04 Secondary
Mean family income per week No Effect Christchurch sample 36 months 388 families Unadjusted mean = 454.00 Unadjusted mean = 443.00 MD = 11.00 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Study-reported = 0.08 Secondary
Mean number of family changes No Effect Christchurch sample 36 months 388 families Unadjusted mean = 1.00 Unadjusted mean = 1.10 MD = -0.101 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Study-reported = 0.05 Secondary
Percent income inadequate/very inadequate No Effect Christchurch sample 36 months 388 families 41.8% 37.4% 4.41 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Study-reported = -0.09 Secondary
Percent separated from partner No Effect Christchurch sample 36 months 388 families 31.1% 26.3% 4.81 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Study-reported = -0.10 Secondary
Percent single-parent family No Effect Christchurch sample 36 months 388 families 85.9% 82.0% 3.91 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Study-reported = -0.11 Secondary
Percent welfare dependent No Effect Christchurch sample 36 months 388 families 89.6% 86.4% 3.21 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 Study-reported = -0.10 Secondary

1 High score equals unfavorable.

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Mean amount of debt The average amount of debt families owed over the past 36 months Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Mean family income per week The average of families' income per week over the past 36 months Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Mean number of family changes The mean number of family changes such as reconciliation, remarriage, and placement with foster parents within the past 36 months. Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Percent income inadequate/very inadequate The percentage of families who reported that the adequacy of their income to meet their basic family needs was inadequate/very inadequate within the past 36 months. Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Percent separated from partner The percentage of families that experienced a parental separation with the past 36 months Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Percent single-parent family The percentage of families that were single-parent families at some point within the past 36 months Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Percent welfare dependent The percentage of families that were ever dependent on welfare within the past six months Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
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