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Early Intervention Program for Adolescent Mothers

Meets DHHS criteria for an evidenced based model

Last Updated: July 2011

In Brief for Maternal Health Outcomes

Impact Studies Rated High


Koniak-Griffin, D., Anderson, N. L., Verzemnieks, I., & Brecht, M. L. (2000). A public health nursing early intervention program for adolescent mothers: Outcomes from pregnancy through 6 weeks postpartum. Nursing Research, 49(3), 130–138.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
External social competence1 Unfavorable San Bernardino sample 6 weeks postpartum 121 mothers Mean = 80.18 SD = 7.42 Mean = 77.11 SD = 8.76 MD = 3.07 Statistically significant, p =0.03 2 HomVEE = 0.40 Secondary
Internal social competence1 No Effect San Bernardino sample 6 weeks postpartum 121 mothers Mean = 70.68 SD = 12.99 Mean = 66.97 SD = 13.36 MD = 3.71 Not statistically significant, p > 0.05 3 HomVEE = 0.28 Secondary
Number of prenatal health problems No Effect San Bernardino sample 6 weeks postpartum 121 mothers Mean and CI = 0.64 ± 0.73 Mean and CI = 0.72 ± 0.87 MD = -0.08 Not statistically significant, p > 0.053 HomVEE = -0.03 Primary
Substance use No Effect San Bernardino sample 6 weeks postpartum 121 mothers Not available Not available Not available Not statistically significant, p > 0.053 Not available Secondary
Total number of prenatal visits No Effect San Bernardion sample 6 weeks postpartum 121 mothers Mean and CI = 9.69 ± 3.04 Mean and CI = 9.34 ± 3.11 MD = 0.35 Not statistically significant, p > 0.053 HomVEE = 0.03 Primary

1 Information on outcomes was received through communication with the authors.

2 Although the treatment group has a higher mean, the authors report that the comparison group showed a significantly greater gain on this measure.

3 Authors report whether the groups are significantly different or not, but do not report actual p-values.

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
External social competence Socialcompetence measureswerecomposites derivedfrom (1)the Rosenberg Self–Esteem Inventory,(2)Pearlin’sSenseofMastery Scale, (3)the Centerfor EpidemiologicalStudies DepressionScale,(4) thePerceived StressScale;(5)the Community Life SkillsScale(CLSS), and (6)the SocialSkills Inventory (SSI). Factor analysis was used to develop two conceptual factors representing Internal and external social competence. Composite measures were formed by first standardizing each measure to a 0–100 scale with higher numbers representing higher skills, then averaging the relevant translated scores. Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Secondary
Internal social competence Socialcompetence measureswerecomposites derivedfrom (1)the Rosenberg Self–Esteem Inventory;(2)Pearlin’sSenseofMastery Scale, (3)the Centerfor EpidemiologicalStudies DepressionScale,(4) thePerceived StressScale,(5)the Community Life SkillsScale(CLSS), and (6)the SocialSkills Inventory (SSI). Factor analysis was used to develop two conceptual factors representing Internal and external social competence. Composite measures were formed by first standardizing each measure to a 0–100 scale with higher numbers representing higher skills, then averaging the relevant translated scores. Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Secondary
Number of prenatal health problems Count of the number of prenatal health problems experienced by mothers Review of medical records Not applicable Primary
Substance use This measure of parents’ substance use include frequency–of–use categories(e.g., 0, 1 or 2, 3 to 9, 10 to 19, or 20+ times) during the past 30 days, 12 months, and lifetime for tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, hallucinogens, and heroin. Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Total number of prenatal visits Count of the number of prenatal visits completed by EIP and TPHN home visitors Review of medical records Not applicable Primary
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Impact Studies Rated Moderate


Koniak-Griffin, D., Anderson, N. L., Brecht, M. L., Verzemnieks, I., Lesser, J., & Kim, S. (2002). Public health nursing care for adolescent mothers: Impact on infant health and selected maternal outcomes at 1 year postbirth. Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine, 30(1), 44–54.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
CES-D (depression) No Effect San Bernardino sample One year postpartum 102 mothers Mean = 14.53 SD = 8.54 Mean = 15.33 SD = 9.21 MD = -0.80 Not statistically significant, p > 0.051 HomVEE = -0.09 Secondary
PSS (perceived stress) No Effect San Bernardino sample One year postpartum 102 mothers Mean = 24.40 SD = 5.60 Mean = 23.55 SD = 7.31 MD = 0.85 Not statistically significant, p > 0.051 HomVEE = 0.13 Primary
Repeat pregnancy rate No Effect San Bernardino sample One year postpartum 102 mothers Not available Not available Not available Not statistically significant, p > 0.051 Not available Secondary
RSEI (self-esteem) No Effect San Bernardino sample One year postpartum 102 mothers Mean = 32.73 SD = 4.17 Mean = 31.07 SD = 4.80 MD = 1.66 Not statistically significant, p > 0.051 HomVEE = 0.37 Secondary

1 Authors report whether the groups are significantly different or not, but do not report actual p-values.

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
CES-D (depression) The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES–D) is a 20–item assessment designed to measure depressive symptoms. The scale contains items related to feelings and conditions such as powerlessness, guilt, helplessness, sadness, anorexia, and sleep disturbances. Parent/caregiver report Cronbach’s α = 0.84 at intake and 0.83 at 12 months postpartum Secondary
PSS (perceived stress) The Perceived Stress Scale (PSSmeasures global perceived stress during the past month through 14 items on a 5–point Likert scale (0 to 4). Scores on the PSS may range from 0 to 56. Parent/caregiver report Cronbach’s α = 0.65 at intake and 0.69 at 12 months postpartum Primary
Repeat pregnancy rate Percentage of mothers that experienced a repeat pregnancy Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
RSEI (self-esteem) Rosenberg Self–Esteem Inventory (RSEI) is a10–item instrument whose total score reflects the degree of positive self–esteem. Possible scores range from 10 to 40, with higher scores indicating higher self–esteem. Parent/caregiver report Cronbach’s α = 0.84 at intake and 0.85 at 12 months postpartum Secondary

Koniak-Griffin, D., Mathenge, C., Anderson, N. L., & Verzemnieks, I. (1999). An early intervention program for adolescent mothers: A nursing demonstration project. Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, & Neonatal Nursing, 28(1), 51–59.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Anemia No Effect San Bernardino sample Ante- and intrapartum 121 mothers Percentage = 0.15 Percentage = 0.17 MD = -0.02 Statistical significance not reported HomVEE = -0.09 Primary
Cystitis No Effect San Bernardino sample Ante- and intrapartum 121 mothers Percentage = 0.23 Percentage = 0.19 MD = 0.04 Statistical significance not reported HomVEE = 0.15 Primary
Pregnancy-induced hypertension No Effect San Bernardino sample Ante- and intrapartum 121 mothers Percentage = 0.06 Percentage = 0.03 MD = 0.03 Statistical significance not reported ES = 0.44 Primary
Preterm labor No Effect San Bernardino sample Ante- and intrapartum 121 mothers Percentage = 0.11 Percentage = 0.16 MD = -0.05 Statistical significance not reported ES = -0.26 Primary
Pyelonephritis No Effect San Bernardino sample Ante- and intrapartum 121 mothers Percentage = 0.05 Percentage = 0.05 MD = 0.00 Statistical significance not reported HomVEE = 0.00 Primary
Sexually transmitted disease No Effect San Bernardino sample Ante- and intrapartum 121 mothers Percentage = 0.03 Percentage = 0.08 MD = -0.05 Statistical significance not reported ES = -0.63 Primary
Substance use No Effect San Bernardino sample 6 weeks postpartum 121 mothers Not available Not available Not available Not statistically significant, p > 0.051 Not available Secondary
Urinary tract infection No Effect San Bernardino sample Ante- and intrapartum 121 mothers Percentage = 0.28 Percentage = 0.24 MD = 0.04 Statistical significance not reported HomVEE = 0.13 Primary

1 Authors report whether the groups are significantly different or not, but do not report actual p-values.

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Anemia Percentage of mothers experiencing anemia during the antepartum and intrapartum periods Review of medical records Not applicable Primary
Cystitis Percentage of mothers experiencing Cystitis during the prenatal period. Review of medical records Not applicable Primary
Pregnancy-induced hypertension Percentage of mothers experiencing pregnancy–induced hypertension Review of medical records Not applicable Primary
Preterm labor Percentage of mothers experiencing preterm labor Review of medical records Not applicable Primary
Pyelonephritis Percentage of mothers experiencing Pyelonephritis during the prenatal period Review of medical records Not applicable Primary
Sexually transmitted disease Percentage of mothers diagnosed with a sexually transmitted disease such as Chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis Review of medical records Not applicable Primary
Substance use Percentage of mothers reporting use of alcohol (None, 1–2 times, or 3–9 times), tobacco (any use), and marijuana (any use) during the 30 day period prior to the interview Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
Urinary tract infection Percentage of mothers experiencing urinary tract infection during the prenatal period Review of medical records Not applicable Primary

Koniak-Griffin, D., Verzemnieks, I. L., Anderson, N. L., Brecht, M. L., Lesser, J., Kim, S., et al. (2003). Nurse visitation for adolescent mothers: Two-year infant health and maternal outcomes. Nursing Research, 52(2), 127–136.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
External social competence1 No Effect San Bernardino sample Two years postpartum 101 mothers Mean = 82.96 SD = 5.64 Mean = 82.57 SD = 6.46 MD = 0.39 Not statistically significant, p > 0.053 HomVEE = 0.06 Secondary
Internal social competence1 No Effect San Bernardino sample Two years postpartum 101 mothers Mean = 71.86 SD = 11.83 Mean = 69.56 SD = 12.57 MD = 2.3 Not statistically significant, p =0.0572 HomVEE = 0.29 Secondary
Repeat pregnancy rate No Effect San Bernardino sample Two years postpartum 101 mothers Percentage = 0.32 Percentage = 0.47 MD = -0.15 Not statistically significant, p > 0.053 HomVEE = -0.38 Secondary

1 Information on outcomes was received through communication with the authors.

2 Statistical significance is based on the results of the authors’ analysis using repeated-measures ANOVA.

3 Authors report whether the groups are significantly different or not, but do not report actual p-values.

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
External social competence Socialcompetence measureswerecomposites derivedfrom (1)the Rosenberg Self–Esteem Inventory.(2)Pearlin’sSenseofMastery Scale. (3)the Centerfor EpidemiologicalStudies DepressionScale,(4) thePerceived StressScale;(5)the Community Life SkillsScale(CLSS), and (6)the SocialSkills Inventory (SSI). Factor analysis was used to develop two conceptual factors representing Internal and external social competence. Composite measures were formed by first standardizing each measure to a 0–100 scale with higher numbers representing higher skills, then averaging the relevant translated scores. Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Secondary
Internal social competence Socialcompetence measureswerecomposites derivedfrom (1)the Rosenberg Self–Esteem Inventory,(2)Pearlin’sSenseofMastery Scale, (3)the Centerfor EpidemiologicalStudies DepressionScale,(4) thePerceived StressScale,(5)the Community Life SkillsScale(CLSS), and (6)the SocialSkills Inventory (SSI). Factor analysis was used to develop two conceptual factors representing Internal and external social competence. Composite measures were formed by first standardizing each measure to a 0–100 scale with higher numbers representing higher skills, then averaging the relevant translated scores. Parent/caregiver report Not reported by author Secondary
Repeat pregnancy rate Percentage of mothers that experienced a repeat pregnancy Parent/caregiver report Not applicable Secondary
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