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Early Intervention Program for Adolescent Mothers

Meets DHHS criteria for an evidenced based model

Last Updated: July 2011

In Brief for Child Health Outcomes

Impact Studies Rated High


Koniak-Griffin, D., Anderson, N. L., Verzemnieks, I., & Brecht, M. L. (2000). A public health nursing early intervention program for adolescent mothers: Outcomes from pregnancy through 6 weeks postpartum. Nursing Research, 49(3), 130–138.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Additional days of rehospitalization Favorable San Bernardino sample 6 weeks postpartum 121 mothers Number of days = 23 Number of days = 36 Difference = -13 Statistically significant, p = 0.0461 Not available Primary
Birth weight No Effect San Bernardin o sample 6 weeks postpartum 121 mothers Mean and CI = 3280 ± 434 Mean and CI = 3206 ± 427 MD = 74 Statistical significance not reported HomVEE = 0.04 Primary
Percentage premature No Effect San Bernardino sample Intrapartum 121 mothers Percentage = 0.03 Percentage = 0.08 MD = -0.05 Statistical significance not reported HomVEE = -0.62 Primary
Total number of days for birth-related infant hospitalization No Effect San Bernardino sample 6 weeks postpartum 121 mothers Number of days = 91 Number of days = 110 Difference = -19 Not statistically significant, p = 0.071 Not available Primary
Total number of days for infant re-hospitalization during the first 6 weeks of life Favorable San Bernardino sample 6 weeks postpartum 121 mothers Number of days = 114 Number of days = 146 Difference = -32 Statistically significant, p = 0.011 Not available Primary

1 Statistical significance is based on the results of the authors’ analysis using a chi-square test.

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Additional days of rehospitalization The number of additional days an infant was hospitalized beyond birth related hospitalization. Reasons for infant rehospitalization included respiratory difficulties, fever, dehydration, and jaundice. Review of medical records Not applicable Primary
Additional days of rehospitalization Additional days of newborn rehospitalization Review of medical records Not applicable Primary
Birth weight Weight of the infant at birth Review of medical records Not applicable Primary
Birth weight The child’s recorded birth weight in grams Review of delivery room or nursery records Not applicable Primary
Percentage premature Percentage of children that were born at less than 36 weeks gestation Review of medical records Not applicable Primary
Percentage premature Percentage of infants born earlier than 36 weeks gestation Review of medical records Not applicable Primary
Total number of days for birth-related infant hospitalization Total number of days an infant was hospitalization for birth–related issues. This does not include later re–hospitalizations Review of medical records Not applicable Primary
Total number of days for birth-related infant hospitalization Total number of days of birth-related newborn hospitalization Review of medical records Not applicable Primary
Total number of days for infant re-hospitalization during the first 6 weeks of life Total number of days for birth–related infant hospitalization plus additional days of rehospitalization during the first six weeks of life Review of medical records Not applicable Primary
Total number of days for infant re-hospitalization during the first 6 weeks of life Total number of days infants were re-hospitalized during their first six weeks of life Review of medical records Not applicable Primary
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Impact Studies Rated Moderate


Koniak-Griffin, D., Anderson, N. L., Brecht, M. L., Verzemnieks, I., Lesser, J., & Kim, S. (2002). Public health nursing care for adolescent mothers: Impact on infant health and selected maternal outcomes at 1 year postbirth. Journal of Adolescent Health: Official Publication of the Society for Adolescent Medicine, 30(1), 44–54.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Number of episodes of hospitalizations Favorable San Bernardino sample One year postpartum 102 mothers Number of episodes = 14 Number of episodes = 24 Difference = -10 Statistically significant, p =0.032 Not available Primary
Number of infant ER visits No Effect San Bernardino sample One year postpartum 102 mothers Number of visits = 90 Number of visits = 80 Difference = 10 Not statistically significant, p > 0.051 Not available Primary
Percentage of children adequately immunized Favorable San Bernardino sample One year postpartum 102 mothers Percentage = 0.96 Percentage = 0.86 MD = 0.10 Statistically significant, p < 0.052 HomVEE = 0.83 Primary
Percentage of children hospitalized No Effect San Bernardino sample One year postpartum 102 mothers Percentage = 0.22 Percentage = 0.28 MD = -0.06 Statistical significance not reported HomVEE = -0.19 Primary
Total number of days of nonbirth-related infant hospitalization Favorable San Bernardino sample One year postpartum 102 mothers Number of days = 74 Number of days = 154 Difference = -80 Statistically significant, p < 0.0012 Not available Primary

1 Authors report whether the groups are significantly different or not, but do not report actual p-values.

2 Statistical significance is based on the results of the authors’ analysis using a chi-square test.

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Number of episodes of hospitalizations The total number of child hospitalization episodes during the first year of life. Parent/caregiver report confirmed by review of medical records for 87% of hospitalizations and 68% of ER episodes. Not applicable Primary
Number of infant ER visits The total number of child ER visits during the first year of life. Common reasons for ER visits included illnesses, injuries, or accidents Parent/caregiver report confirmed by review of medical records for 87% of hospitalizations and 68% of ER episodes. Not applicable Primary
Percentage of children adequately immunized Percentage of children that received three doses of diptheriatetanus–pertussis vaccine and two doses of oral polio vaccine by 12 months of age as recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Review of immunization cards Not applicable Primary
Percentage of children hospitalized Percentage of children that were hospitalized during the first year of life Parent/caregiver report confirmed by review of medical records for 87% of hospitalizations and 68% of ER episodes. Not applicable Primary
Total number of days of nonbirth-related infant hospitalization Count of the total number of days of nonbirth–related infant hospitalization during the first year of life. Common reasons for hospitalization included respiratory problems, gastrointestinal problems, and fever. Parent/caregiver report confirmed by review of medical records for 87% of hospitalizations and 68% of ER episodes. Not applicable Primary

Koniak-Griffin, D., Verzemnieks, I. L., Anderson, N. L., Brecht, M. L., Lesser, J., Kim, S., et al. (2003). Nurse visitation for adolescent mothers: Two-year infant health and maternal outcomes. Nursing Research, 52(2), 127–136.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Number of episodes of hospitalization per hospitalized child No Effect San Bernardino sample, hospitalized children Two years postpartum 28 children Mean and CI = 1.58 ± 1.44 Mean and CI = 2.19 ± 2.46 MD = -0.61 Statistical significance not reported HomVEE = -0.14 Primary
Number of episodes of hospitalizations Favorable San Bernardino sample Two years postpartum 101 mothers Number of episodes = 19 Number of episodes = 36 Difference = -17 Statistically significant, p =0.0022 Not available Primary
Percentage never using the ER for child’s health problems Favorable San Bernardino sample Two years postpartum 101 mothers Percentage = 0.36 Percentage = 0.11 MD = 0.25 Statistically significant, p =0.0042 HomVEE = 0.92 Primary
Percentage of children adequately immunized No Effect San Bernardion sample Two years postpartum 101 mothers Percentage = 0.77 Percentage = 0.87 MD = -0.10 Not statistically significant, p > 0.51 HomVEE = -0.42 Primary
Percentage of children hospitalized No Effect San Bernardino sample Two years postpartum 101 mothers Percentage = 0.21 Percentage = 0.36 MD = -0.15 Statistical significance not reported HomVEE = -0.45 Primary
Percentage using both ER and hospital No Effect San Bernardino sample Two years postpartum 101 mothers Percentage = 0.21 Percentage = 0.36 MD = -0.15 Statistical significance not reported HomVEE = -0.45 Primary
Total number of days for nonbirth-related infant hospitalizations Favorable San Bernardino sample Two years postpartum 101 mothers Number of days = 143 Number of days = 211 Difference = -68 Statistically significant, p < 0.0012 Not available Primary
Total number of ER visits No Effect San Bernardino sample Two years postpartum 101 mothers Not available Not available Not available Not statistically significant, p > 0.053 Not available Primary

1 In contrast to the study-reported results, HomVEE calculations showed this difference to be statistically significant (p = 0.05). The HomVEE tests of statistical significance are based on the HomVEE calculated effect sizes, whereas authors may have used other techniques, such as regression models or analyses of variance (ANOVA), to determine statistical significance.

2 Statistical significance is based on the results of the authors’ analysis using a chi-square test.

3 Authors report whether the groups are significantly different or not, but do not report actual p-values.

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Number of episodes of hospitalization per hospitalized child Count of the number of episodes of hospitalization per hospitalized child during the first 24 months of the child’s life Parent/caregiver report confirmed by review of medical records for 80% of hospitalizations and 61% of ER episodes. Not applicable Primary
Number of episodes of hospitalizations Count of the number of episodes of hospitalization during the first 24 months of the child’s life Parent/caregiver report confirmed by review of medical records for 80% of hospitalizations and 61% of ER episodes. Not applicable Primary
Percentage never using the ER for child’s health problems Percentage of mothers that had not used emergency room services for their child’s health during the first 24 months of the child’s life Parent/caregiver report confirmed by review of medical records for 80% of hospitalizations and 61% of ER episodes. Not applicable Primary
Percentage of children adequately immunized Percentage of children that had received four or more doses of diphtheria–tetanus–pertussis vaccine, three or more doses of poliovirus vaccine, and one or more doses of measles–containing vaccine were received by 24 months of age, as recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Review of medical records orimmunization cards Not applicable Primary
Percentage of children hospitalized Percentage of children that had been hospitalized during the first 24 months of the child’s life Parent/caregiver report confirmed by review of medical records for 80% of hospitalizations and 61% of ER episodes. Not applicable Primary
Percentage using both ER and hospital Percentage of mothers that had had used both emergency room and hospital services for their child’s health during the first 24 months of the child’s life Parent/caregiver report confirmed by review of medical records for 80% of hospitalizations and 61% of ER episodes. Not applicable Primary
Total number of days for nonbirth-related infant hospitalizations Count of the total number of days of nonbirth–related child hospitalization during the first 24 months of life Parent/caregiver report confirmed by review of medical records for 80% of hospitalizations and 61% of ER episodes. Not applicable Primary
Total number of ER visits The total number of child ER visits during the first 24 months of life Parent/caregiver report confirmed by review of medical records for 80% of hospitalizations and 61% of ER episodes. Not applicable Primary
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