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Child First

Meets DHHS criteria for an evidenced based model

Last Updated: July 2011

In Brief for Maternal Health Outcomes

Impact Studies Rated High


Lowell, D. I., Carter, A. S., Godoy, L., Paulicin, B., & Briggs-Gowan, M. J. (2011). A randomized controlled trial of Child First: A comprehensive home-based intervention translating research into early childhood practice. Child Development, 82(1), 193-208.
Show Study Effects Details
Outcome Effect Sample Timing of Follow-Up Sample Size Program Group Comparison Group Mean Difference or Odds Ratio
Statistical Significance
Effect Size
Outcome Type
Any PSI scale (proportion with clinically concerning problems) Favorable Bridgeport, CT 6 months 117 families 38.1% (Adjusted) 57.6% (Adjusted Diff = -19.5 p < 0.05 HomVEE = -0.48 Primary
Any PSI scale (proportion with clinically concerning problems)a1 Favorable Bridgeport, CT 12 months 117 families 32.7% (Adjusted) 44.1% (Adjusted) Diff = -11.4 p < 0.05 HomVEE = -0.29 Primary
BSI Favorable Bridgeport, CT 12 months 117 families Mean = 21.0
(SD = 22.1)
Mean = 35.1
(SD = 32.4)
MD = -14.1 p < 0.01 HomVEE = 0.56 Primary
BSI No Effect Bridgeport, CT 6 months 117 families Mean = 32.7
(SD = 34.7)
Mean = 33.0
(SD = 30.8)
MD = -0.3 p > 0.05 HomVEE = 0.00 Primary
BSI (proportion with clinically concerning problems) Favorable Bridgeport, CT 12 months 117 families 14.0% (Adjusted) 39.0% (Adjusted) Diff = -25.0 p < 0.05 HomVEE = -0.83 Primary
BSI (proportion with clinically concerning problems) No Effect Bridgeport, CT 6 months 117 families 25.8% (Adjusted) 31.8% (Adjusted) Diff = -6.0 p > 0.05 HomVEE = -0.18 Primary
CES-D Favorable Bridgeport, CT 12 months 117 families Mean = 13.5
(SD = 10.9)
Mean = 17.4
(SD = 10.9)
MD = -3.9 p < 0.05 HomVEE = 0.45 Secondary
CES-D No Effect Bridgeport, CT 6 months 117 families Mean = 16.9
(SD = 11.6)
Mean = 18.5
(SD = 10.6)
MD = -1.6 p > 0.05 HomVEE = 0.20 Secondary
CES-D (proportion with clinically concerning problems) No Effect Bridgeport, CT 6 months 117 families 46.0% (Adjusted) 40.8% (Adjusted) Diff = 5.2 p > 0.05 HomVEE = 0.13 Secondary
CES-D (proportion with clinically concerning problems) No Effect Bridgeport, CT 12 months 117 families 33.3% (Adjusted) 37.9% (Adjusted) Diff = -4.6 p > 0.05 HomVEE = -0.12 Secondary
PSI difficult child No Effect Bridgeport, CT 12 months 117 families Mean = 24.9
(SD = 6.6)
Mean = 25.9
(SD = 7.8)
MD = -1.0 p > 0.05 HomVEE = 0.28 Primary
PSI difficult child Favorable Bridgeport, CT 6 months 117 families Mean = 23.5
(SD = 7.7)
Mean = 26.5
(SD = 8.7)
MD = -3.0 p < 0.05 HomVEE = 0.47 Primary
PSI difficult child (proportion with clinically concerning problems) No Effect Bridgeport, CT 12 months 117 families 7.1% (Adjusted) 11.9% (Adjusted) Diff = -4.8 p > 0.05 HomVEE = -0.35 Primary
PSI difficult child (proportion with clinically concerning problems) Favorable Bridgeport, CT 6 months 117 families 4.8% (Adjusted) 19.7% (Adjusted) Diff = -14.9 p < 0.05 HomVEE = -0.96 Primary
PSI parent distress No Effect Bridgeport, CT 12 months 117 families Mean = 29.7
(SD = 9.6)
Mean = 30.4
(SD = 9.1)
MD = -0.7 p > 0.05 HomVEE = 0.23 Primary
PSI parent distress Favorable Bridgeport, CT 6 months 117 families Mean = 30.3
(SD = 9.8)
Mean = 33.6
(SD = 9.1)
MD = -3.3 p < 0.05 HomVEE = 0.47 Primary
PSI parent distress (proportion with clinically concerning problems)1 Favorable Bridgeport, CT 6 months 117 families 31.8% (Adjusted) 45.5% (Adjusted) Diff = -13.7 p < 0.05 HomVEE = -0.35 Primary
PSI parent distress (proportion with clinically concerning problems) No Effect Bridgeport, CT 12 months 117 families 21.4% (Adjusted) 28.8% (Adjusted) Diff = -7.4 p > 0.05 HomVEE = -0.24 Primary
PSI parent-child dysfunction No Effect Bridgeport, CT 6 months 117 families Mean = 20.4
(SD = 8.0)
Mean = 21.9
(SD = 8.1)
MD = -1.5 p > 0.05 HomVEE = 0.27 Primary
PSI parent-child dysfunction No Effect Bridgeport, CT 12 months 117 families Mean = 21.6
(SD = 7.5)
Mean = 20.6
(SD = 6.7)
MD = 1.0 p > 0.05 HomVEE = 0.00 Primary
PSI parent-child dysfunction (proportion with clinically concerning problems) No Effect Bridgeport, CT 12 months 117 families 21.4% (Adjusted) 17.4% (Adjusted) Diff = 4.4 p > 0.05 HomVEE = 0.17 Primary
PSI parent-child dysfunction (proportion with clinically concerning problems) No Effect Bridgeport, CT 6 months 117 families 19.1% (Adjusted) 22.7% (Adjusted) Diff = -3.6 p > 0.05 HomVEE = -0.13 Primary
PSI total score No Effect Bridgeport, CT 12 months 117 families Mean = 76.3
(SD = 20.3)
Mean = 76.9
(SD = 18.0)
MD = -0.6 p > 0.05 HomVEE = 0.20 Primary
PSI total score Favorable Bridgeport, CT 6 months 117 families Mean = 74.2
(SD = 19.5)
Mean = 81.9
(SD = 21.2)
MD = -7.7 p < 0.05 HomVEE = 0.49 Primary
PSI total score (proportion with clinically concerning problems) No Effect Bridgeport, CT 12 months 117 families 19.6% (Adjusted) 22.0% (Adjusted) Diff = -2.4 p > 0.05 HomVEE = -0.09 Primary
PSI total score (proportion with clinically concerning problems) Favorable Bridgeport, CT 6 months 117 families 20.6% (Adjusted) 34.9% (Adjusted) Diff = -14.3 p < 0.05 HomVEE = -0.44 Primary

1 HomVEE-calculated p-value is greater than 0.05, indicating that this result is not significant.

Show Study Outcome Measure Summary
Outcome Description of Measure Data Collection Method Properties of the Outcome Measure Outcome Type
Any PSI scale (proportion with clinically concerning problems) Parenting Stress Index (PSI) Short Form is designed to identify parent-child systems that are under stress and are at risk for dysfunction parenting practices. The PSI includes three domains (Parent Distress, Difficult Child, and Parent–Child Dysfunctional) and items are rated on a 5-point scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree Parent/caregiver report Not reported by the author Primary
BSI The Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) is designed to assess global psychiatric symptoms. Items are rated on a 5-point scale from not at all to extremely. Parent/caregiver report Not reported by the author Primary
BSI (proportion with clinically concerning problems) The Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) is designed to assess global psychiatric symptoms. Items are rated on a 5-point scale from not at all to extremely. Parent/caregiver report Not reported by the author Primary
CES-D Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES–D; Radloff, 1977). Items are rated on a 4-point scale from rarely or none of the time to most or all of the time. Parent/caregiver report Not reported by the author Secondary
CES-D (proportion with clinically concerning problems) Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES–D; Radloff, 1977). Items are rated on a 4-point scale from rarely or none of the time to most or all of the time. Parent/caregiver report Not reported by the author Secondary
PSI difficult child Parenting Stress Index (PSI) Short Form is designed to identify parent-child systems that are under stress and are at risk for dysfunction parenting practices. The PSI includes three domains (Parent Distress, Difficult Child, and Parent–Child Dysfunctional) and items are rated on a 5-point scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree Parent/caregiver report Not reported by the author Primary
PSI difficult child (proportion with clinically concerning problems) Parenting Stress Index (PSI) Short Form is designed to identify parent-child systems that are under stress and are at risk for dysfunction parenting practices. The PSI includes three domains (Parent Distress, Difficult Child, and Parent–Child Dysfunctional) and items are rated on a 5-point scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree Parent/caregiver report Not reported by the author Primary
PSI parent distress Parenting Stress Index (PSI) Short Form is designed to identify parent-child systems that are under stress and are at risk for dysfunction parenting practices. The PSI includes three domains (Parent Distress, Difficult Child, and Parent–Child Dysfunctional) and items are rated on a 5-point scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree Parent/caregiver report Not reported by the author Primary
PSI parent distress (proportion with clinically concerning problems) Parenting Stress Index (PSI) Short Form is designed to identify parent-child systems that are under stress and are at risk for dysfunction parenting practices. The PSI includes three domains (Parent Distress, Difficult Child, and Parent–Child Dysfunctional) and items are rated on a 5-point scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree Parent/caregiver report Not reported by the author Primary
PSI parent-child dysfunction Parenting Stress Index (PSI) Short Form is designed to identify parent-child systems that are under stress and are at risk for dysfunction parenting practices. The PSI includes three domains (Parent Distress, Difficult Child, and Parent–Child Dysfunctional) and items are rated on a 5-point scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree Parent/caregiver report Not reported by the author Primary
PSI parent-child dysfunction (proportion with clinically concerning problems) Parenting Stress Index (PSI) Short Form is designed to identify parent-child systems that are under stress and are at risk for dysfunction parenting practices. The PSI includes three domains (Parent Distress, Difficult Child, and Parent–Child Dysfunctional) and items are rated on a 5-point scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree Parent/caregiver report Not reported by the author Primary
PSI total score Parenting Stress Index (PSI) Short Form is designed to identify parent-child systems that are under stress and are at risk for dysfunction parenting practices. The PSI includes three domains (Parent Distress, Difficult Child, and Parent–Child Dysfunctional) and items are rated on a 5-point scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree Parent/caregiver report Not reported by the author Primary
PSI total score (proportion with clinically concerning problems) Parenting Stress Index (PSI) Short Form is designed to identify parent-child systems that are under stress and are at risk for dysfunction parenting practices. The PSI includes three domains (Parent Distress, Difficult Child, and Parent–Child Dysfunctional) and items are rated on a 5-point scale from strongly disagree to strongly agree Parent/caregiver report Not reported by the author Primary
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